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character and of uncommon mental endowments ; and
to her advice and assistance many of the successes of
John II. are to be attributed. Died in 1468.

Joanes, Hn-a'nes, or Juane8, Hoo-a'nes, (VlNCENTE,)
an eminent Spanish painter, born in Valencia in 1523,
studied at Rome, and was regarded as the greatest artist
of the Valencian school. Died in 1579. Among his
most important works may be mentioned Christ after
death borne by the angels, the Saviour with the two
prophets, and a Saint Francis.

Joannes. See JOHN.

Joannes Comnenus. See CALO-JOANNES.

Joannes Massiliensis. See CASSIAN, (JoHN.)

Joannet, zho'f'ni', (CLAUDE,) a French litttrateur,
born at Pole in 1716; died in 1789.

Joanny, zho't'ne', the assumed name of JEAN BAP-
TISTE BERNARD BRISSEBARRE, a famous French tragic
actor, born at Dijon in 1775, and who is said to have
been nearly equal to Talma. Died in 1849.

Joao (or Joam) OF PORTUGAL. See JOHN.

Joao or Juan, surnamed DE Dios or DE DIEU. See

Jo'ash [Heb. BW] O r Je-ho'ash, King of Judah,
nd son of Ahaziah. He ascended the throne when
seven years of age, and reigned virtuously forty years.
He was assassinated by his servants in 838 B.C.

See II. Chronicles xxiii. and xriv. ; II. Kings xi. and xii.

Joash or jelioash, King of Israel, succeeded his
father, Jehoahaz, 839 or 840 B.C., and reigned sixteen years.

See 11. Kings xiii. : II. Chronicles xxv. 17.

Job, [Heb. 2VX; Gr. 'Iu/3; Arabic, AIYOOR, (AlYOUB
or AlYUB,) I'yoob'; Ger. HIOB, hee'op ; It. GIOBBE,
job'ba, | a patriarch of Uz, (a country which is believed
by many to be the same as Idumaea,) who is supposed to
have lived in a very remote antiquity. One of the most
sublime books of the Old Testament bears his name and

gives an account of his life and virtues. By many it has
been thought that Job was an allegorical character ; but
there appears to be little reason for this supposition.
He is mentioned by the prophet Ezekiel, (xv. 16,) and
by Saint James, (v. n,) as a real person. Much con-
troversy has arisen about the age in which he lived, and
the author of the book ; but both these points remain
unsettled. This work was written in Hebrew, with a
mixture of Arabic.

Job or Aiyoob, I'yoob', (SOLOMON,) an African
prince, son of a king of Bondoo, in Senegambia. In
1730 he was sold to the English, who carried him to
Maryland, where he became a slave. His story interested
General Oglethorpe and others, who ransomed him and
sent him to England in 1733. He was presented at
court, and attracted much attention. He produced an
interesting geographical account of his native country,
and wrote from memory, it is said, three copies of the
Koran. He returned to Bondoo about 1735.

Jobard, zru/baV, (J. B. A. M.,) a writer on social
economy, born in Haute-Marne, France, in 1792. He

lived in Belgium.

Died in 1861.
zho'ba' du'vaT


Ftux,) a French painter, born at Carhaix, July 16, 1821.
He went to Paris in 1829, and was a pupil of Paul De
laroche. He is best known by his refined and delicate
religious pictures and his portraits. Died April 2, 1889.
Jobert, zho'baiR', (Louis,) a French Jesuit and anti-
quary, born at Paris in 1637. For some time he was
a professor of rhetoric in his native city, and afterwards
became celebrated as a preacher. He was the author
of several treatises on medals. Died in 1719.

Jobert de Lamballe, zho'baiR' deh IftN'bil', (AN-
TOINE JOSEPH,) an eminent French surgeon, born at
Lamballe in 1799. He lectured in Paris, and published,
besides other works, a "Treatise on Plastic Surgery,"
("Traite de Chirurgie plastique," 2 vols., 1849.) He
became surgeon to the emperor in 1854. Died in 1867.
Jo-cas'ta or Jo-cas'te, |Gr. 'loKuori) .- Fr. JOCASTE.
zho'ktst',] sometimes called Epicaste, the wife of Laius,
and the mother of CEdipus. According to tradition, she
was married to CEdipus without knowing who he was,
and hung herself after she discovered the relationship
between them.

Jo9'e-lyn, (ADA MARIA,) an English novelist,
born at Aldershot in 1860. She has written "A Big
Stake," (1892,) "A Regular Fraud," (1896,) " Miss
Rayburn's Diamonds," (1897,) etc.

Jo9'e-lyn, (ROBERT,) LORD, M.P., an English poli-
tician, born in 1816, visited China about 1840, and pub-
lished "Six Months in China." Died in 1854.

Jo-cha'nan or Jo-ha'nan Ben !B-lI-e'zer, a Jewish
rabbi, born in Palestine about 184 A.D. He compiled
the "Jerusalem Gemara," a part of the Talmud. He is
said to have died in 279 A.D.

Jocher or Joecher, yb'Ker, (CHRISTIAN GOTTLIEB,)
an eminent German scholar and writer, born at Leipsic
in 1694. He became professor of philosophy and his-
toiyat Leipsic about 1730. His most important work
is a " Universal Dictionary of Learned Men," ("Allge-
meines Gelehrten-Lexikon," 4 vols., 1750-51,) which is
highh esteemed. Supplements have been published by
Adehing and others. Died in 1758.

Jochmus, yoK'mus, (ALBRECHT,) a German general,
born at Hamburg in 1808. About 1838 he was sent by
Lord Palmerston to Constantinople to plan a campaign
in Syria. He became general-in-chief of the allied
armies of England and Turkey in December, 1840. He
was appointed minister of foreign affairs by the Archduke
fnhn, Vicar of the German empire, i" May, 1849, and
resigned in December of that year. Died in 1881.
Jode, de, deh yo'deh, (ARNOLD,) son of Pieter, Jr.,
noticed below, was born about 1636. He is said to
have been inferior to his grandfather and father as an
engraver. While in London, in 1667, he engraved for
Charles I. "Mercury Instructing Cupid," by Correggio.
Among his other works is "The Infant Jesus embracing
Saint John."

Sec BASAN, " Dictionnaire des Graveurs."

as k; c as s ; g hard: g as/; G, H, K, S uUural; N, nasal; R, trilled: s as z; th as in this. ( J=See Explanations, p. 23.)




Jode, de, (PIETER.) a Flemish engraver, born in 1570 ;
died in 1634. Among the most important of his pro-
ductions may be mentioned "The Last Judgment," by
Cousin, and "Jesus Christ giving the Keys to Saint
Peter," by Rubens.

Jode, de, (PIETER or PETRUS,) Jr., son of the pre-
ceding, was born at Antwerp about 1606. He engraved
numerous pictures from Rubens, Van Dyck, Titian, and
other artists. Among his best works is "The Visita-
tion of the Virgin," after Rubens. Died after 1660.

Jodelle, zho'del', (ETIENNE,) Lord of Lymodin, born
at Paris in 1532. He was one of the seven French poets
termed the " Pleiades." He is said to have been the first
to write plays in the French language and to introduce
choruses after the Greek manner. It is said that his
fluency of composition was so great that on a wager he
composed in one night five hundred Latin v rses on a
given subject. He died poor in 1573. His principal
production was the tragedy of "Cleopatra," (1552.)

See LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe ;" BAVLE, " His
torical and Critical Dictionary;" NICERON, "Memoires;" SAINTP
BBUVE, " Poe"sie Francaise au seizieme Siecle."

Jo-do'cus (or Jus'tus) OF GHENT, known also by
the Italian name of GIUSTO DA GUANTO, a Flemish
painter, who about 1465-74 painted "The Communion
of the Apostles" at Urbino. Very little is known about

Jo'drelL, (RICHARD PAUL,) an English dramatic
writer, born in 1745. He produced "A Widow and no
Widow," a farce, "The Persian Heroine," a tragedy,
(1786,) and " Philology of the English Language," (1820.)
Died in 1831.

Joecher. See JOCHER.

Jo'eL, [Meb. *7Wj Gr. 'Iuri\] one of the twelve minor
Hebrew prophets, is supposed to have lived in the reign
of Uzziah, about 800-750 B.C. A passage of his prophecy
is quoted in Acts ii. 17.

Joerdens. See JORDENS.

Joffredus. See JOUKFROI.

Jof frid, an English abbot of Lincolnshire, lived in
the twelfth century. Peter de Blois, a writer of the time
of Henry II., states that Joffrid was the founder of the
University of Cambridge.

Jogues, zhog, (ISAAC,) a French Jesuit, born at Or-
Wans in 1607, spent many years in Canada as a missionary.
He was killed by the Mohawks in 1646.

Johann, (princes of Germany.) See JOHN.

Johanneau, zho'S'no', (LOI,) a French antiquary,
born near lilois in 1770. He was one of the founders
of the Academic Celtique. In i8'l he became imperial
censor of books. He wrote on botany, Celtic monuments,
and other subjects. Died in 1851.

Johannaeus, (FINNUS.) See JONSSON, (FiNN.)

Johannes, the Latin for JOHN, which see.

Johannes Antiochenus. See JOHN OK ANTIOCH.

Johannes Cliniacus. See CLIMACUS.

Johannes Secundus. See EVERARD, (JOHANNES.)

Johannot, zho'S'no', (CHARLES,) eldest son of Fran-
cois, noticed below, was born at Frankfort about 1790.
He was a skilful engraver, and produced illustrations of
the life of Saint Genevieve of Brabant. Died in 1825.

Johannot, (CHARLES HENRI ALFRED,) an engraver
and painter, second son of Francois, noticed below,
was born at Offenbach in 1801. He acquired a high
reputation for his vignette-designs illustrating the French
translations of Byron, Scott, and Cooper. Among his
best paintings are "The Entrance of Mademoiselle
Montpensier into Orleans during the Fronde.'' and " Marv
Stuart leaving Scotland." Died in 1837.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge"ne"rale."

Johannot, (FRANCOIS,) a German designer and en-
graver, of French extraction, was born in Hesse-Darm-
stadt, and lived about 1790. He settled at Paris with
his partner, Charles Andre.

Johannot, (ToNY,) a painter and wood-engraver, a
son of the preceding, was born at Offenbach in 1803.
He gained a wide reputation as a designer and engraver
of vignettes for books. Among the works which he
illustrated are " Werther," the plays of Moliere, " Manon
Lescaut," " Jerome Paturot," and " The Vicar of Wake-
field." Died in Paris in 1852.

John |Gr. 'ludwrif ; Lat. JOHAN'NES ; Fr. JEAN, zhflN ;
It GIOVANNI, jo-vin'nee] THE DIVINE, commonly called
SAINT JOHN THE EVANGELIST, with his brother James,
was among the first to become a disciple of our Saviour
when He commenced his ministry. John was made
one of the twelve apostles ; and his gentle, loving spirit
appears to have especially endeared him to his divine
Master. He spoke of himself as "the disciple whom
Jesus loved." He was with his Master in the garden of
Gethsemane. When our Saviour was nailed to the cross,
He commended his mother to the care of the beloved
disciple. After the resurrection and ascension of Jesus,
Saint John became one of the most prominent of the
propagators of the Christian religion. Syria and Asia
Minor were the principal scenes of his labours. We
are told by Tertullian and Saint Jerome that under the
reign of Domitian, by the order of a Roman proconsul,
he was immersed in a caldron of boiling oil, and that in
this terrible ordeal he was miraculously preserved, so
that he sustained not the slightest injury. After this
he was banished to the isle of Patmos, where he wrote
the Apocalypse, or Revelation. He also wrote three
Epistles, and the Gospel according to Saint John. He
is supposed to have died at Ephesus in 99 A.D., at the
age of ninety-tour.

In recent years there has been a sharp discussion as to
the authorship of Saint John's Gospel. Orthodox theolo-
gians in general, with many Unitarians, like Ezra Abbot
and E. H. Sears, assert that Saint John was its author.

Among all the disciples of Christ, John appears to
have most fully comprehended the character and spirit
of his divine Master. He first announced in clear and
concise terms the 'gr fiat central truth of Christianity,
that "God is love," a truth which, in his view, finds
its fullest proof in the great fact that God gave His
Son for the salvation of the world. (See John iii. 16,
17 ; and I. Epistle iv. 8, 9, 10.) The soul of "the be-
loved disciple" seems ever filled with the one theme.
Love, not fear, is to be the motive of obedience : " If ye
love me, keep my commandments." The love to which
he refers is not a mere sentiment, but a living power:
" This is the love of God, that we keep his command-
ments." (See John xiv. 15, 21, 23; I. Epistle iv.)

See F. A. THOLUCK, " Commentary on the Gospel of John," the
;th edition of which was translated into English by DR. C. P.
KRAUTH, Philadelphia, 1859: WEGSCHHIDER, Introduction to the
Gospel of Saint John," Gouingcn, i3oo ; ABBOT, " The Authorship
of the Fourth Gospel ;" E. H. SEARS, "The Fourth Gospel the
Heart of Christ," 1872.

John I., surnamed ZIMIS'CES, |Gr. T(i/uaKf/(,] became
Emperor of the East in 969 A.D. He carried on a suc-
cessful war against the Rossi, or Russians, and quelled
serious disturbances in his eastern provinces. He died
of poison, as he was returning to Constantinople, in 975.
He is said to have been a man of superior talents.

John IH., of the family of Ducas, surnamed VATAT'-
ZES, born in Thrace in 1 193, succeeded his father-in-law,
Theodore Lascaris, in 1222, as Emperor of the East.
Constantinople being then in possession of the Latins,
John fixed his capital at Nicaea, in Bithynia. In 1235 he
besieged Constantinople, but was repulsed. He, how-
ever, reconquered all the other possessions belonging to
the Greek Empire which had been taken by the Latins.
John was a liberal patron of the useful arts, and did much
to promote the welfare of his subjects. Died in 1255-

John IV. (Las'caris) succeeded his father Theodore
as Emperor of the East in 1259, when he was aged but
six years. He was deprived of the crown in 1261 by
Michael Palaeologus, who put out his eyes and im-
prisoned him during the remainder of his life.


John VI., (Palaeol'ogus,) born in 1332, was a son ot
Andronicus, whom he succeeded on the imperial throne
of Constantinople in 1341. He was afterwards impris-
oned by one of his sons. During these intestine troubles
the Turks attacked the capital, and forced John to con-
clude a disgraceful treaty. He left the throne to his son
Manuel. Died in 1391.

John VII. (Palaeologus) succeeded his father Man
uel on the throne of Constantinople in 1425. Being
unable to oppose the Turkish invaders, he sought the
Assistance of the Latins ; and, in order to cement the

S, e, i, 6, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, fi, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; not; good; in6"5n;




He succeeded his father Henry (Henrique) II.
He subsequently invaded Portugal, but met

union, he formed a reconciliation between the Eastern
and Western Churches, which, however, lasted but a
short period. Died in 1448. He was succeeded by his
brother, Constantine XIII.

See Ls BBAU, " Histoire du Gas- Empire."

John [Sp. JUAN, Hoo-an'] I., son of Peter (Pedro) IV.,
was born in 1350, and ascended the throne of Aragon in
1387. Died in 1395.

John (Juan) II., King of Aragon and Navarre, born
in 1397, was one of the bravest and most enterprising
of the Spanish sovereigns. In 1425 he ascended the
throne of Navarre, as the husband of Queen Blanche,
and three years later was appointed by his brother Al-
fonso V. to the government of Aragon. Blanche died
soon after, and in 1447 he married Joan Henriquez, of
the blood-royal of Castile, who became the mother of
Ferdinand the Catholic. He became King of Aragon in
1458. He carried on long and successful wars against
Henry IV. of Castile and Louis XI. of France. He also
suppressed a formidable rebellion of the Catalans. Died
in 1479.

See PRESCOTT, " Ferdinand and Isabella," chap. ii. ; ERSCH und
GRUBEK, "Allgemeine Encyklopaedie."

John (Juau) I., King of Castile and Leon, was bom
in 1358.
in 1379.

with a total defeat at Aljubarota in August, 1385. Died
in 1390.

John II., King of Castile and Leon, son of Henry
(Henrique) III., born in 1404, was proclaimed sovereign
two years later. He carried on successful wars against
the Kings of Aragon and Navarre and the Moors of
Granada. By his first wife, Maria of Aragon, he left
three children, one of whom succeeded him as Henry
(Henrique) IV. By his second queen, Isabella, he had a
daughter, afterwards illustrious as Isabella the Catholic.
Though a feeble sovereign, he was a liberal patron of
learning, and his reign was distinguished for the revival
of literature in Castile. Died in 1454.

See PRSSCOTT, "Ferdinand and Isabella," chap. i. ; ERSCH und
GRUBER, "Allgemeine Encyklopaedie."

John (Hans, bans) I. OF DENMARK and II. OF
SWEDEN, son of Christian I., of the house of Oldenburg,
born in 1455, ascended the throne in 1481. About the
year 1500 the Swedes rebelled against him because he
had garrisoned the fortresses with Danish and German
troops. He was finally obliged to resign all claims to the
Swedish crown. Died in 1513.

John, King of England, surnamedSANSTERRE,(" Lack-
land,") the youngest son of Henry II. by his queen, Elea-
nor of Guienne, was born at Oxford in 1166. The king
at first created him Earl of Montague, in Normandy, and
in 1178 made him Lord of Ireland, In 1189 he married
the daughter and sole heiress of William, Earl of Glou-
cester. The same year he was a confederate in the
rebellion of his brother Richard. On the accession of
the latter to the throne he gave John several earldoms,
including about one-third of the kingdom. Soon after
Richard's departure on the crusade for the Holy Land,
John formed plans to obtain the crown on the event of
the king's death, in opposition to the rights of his nephew
Arthur, Duke of Bretagne, whom Richard had recognized
as his heir. When John was informed of his brother's
imprisonment in Germany, he immediately attempted to
usurp the throne, but was kept in check by the loyalty
of the nobles. On the king's return to England, in
1194, he deprived John of all his estates and compelled
him to make a humble submission. Richard died in
France in 1199, leaving his kingdom to John, who was
then with him. That prince hastened to establish his
authority in Normandy and his other dominions, and
was crowned at Westminster in May, 1199. In 1201 he
obtained a divorce from his wife, and married Isabella
of Angouleme. Philip Augustus of France espoused
.he cause of Arthur, who commenced hostilities against
John and gained several victories, but was subsequently
taken prisoner by his uncle and conveyed to Rouen.
Nothing further was heard from him ; but the probability
is that he was murdered. The war afterwards went
entirely against the King of England, who in the course
of two years lost the greater part of his continenta)

possessions. During this period he drew upon himself
the hostility of the Roman pontiff by insisting on his
right to appoint the Archbishop of Canterbury, that see
being then vacant. The pope excommunicated him and
laid the kingdom under an interdict, (1208.) John, how-
ever, paid no attention to the thunders of the Vatican,
but imprisoned or banished the bishops and clergy who
obeyed the pope's orders. Meanwhile he reduced Lle-
wellyn, a Welsh prince, to subjection, and suppressed a
rebellion in Ireland. Finally the pope, having formally
deposed him and absolved his subjects from their oaths
of allegiance, instigated the French king to invade Eng-
land. John, perceiving his danger, made an abject sub-
mission to the papal legate, and resigned to him the

kingdoms of England and Ireland, (1213.!
then forbidden to prosecute his enterprise.

Philip was
For a long

time John's tyranny had excited the hatred of his barons.
This was increased by Langton, Archbishop of Canter-
bury, who, presenting them with the charter of Henry I.,
exhorted them to obtain the' liberties therein granted. A
numerous body of barons solemnly swore to regain their
rights or to levy an unceasing war on the king. King
John, being supported by the pope, scornfully refused *o
make any concessions to the barons, who raised a power-
ful force and marched to London, where the citizens
gladly received them. On the I5th of June, 1215, John
consented to grant all that they required, and signed at
Runnymede the famous Magna Charta. Scarcely had
he done this before he induced the pope to absolve him
from these obligations and to excommunicate several
of his opponents. He also brought into England large
bodies of foreign troops, and gained several victories
over the barons. The latter then chose Louis, Dauphin
of France, as their king. This prince landed at Sand-
wich in May, 1216. John would probably have been
successful, (for dissensions were already breaking out in
the camp of Louis,) had he not been carried off by a
fever in October of that year. John has left one of the
darkest names in the history of the English kings. He
was extremely cruel, fickle, and licentious, without a
redeeming virtue. He had, by his queen Isabella, five
children, the eldest of whom succeeded him as Henry
III. The second, Richard, was elected King of the
Romans in 1257.

See HUMS, "History of England;" HALLAM, "Constitutional
History of England ;" JOSEPH BERINGTON, " H istory of Henry II.
and of Richard I. and John, his Sons," 1790; LINGARD, "History
of England."

John [Fr. JEAN, zhftN] I., a posthumous son of Louis
X., King of France, was born in 1316. Though he lived
but eight days, he is recorded among the French mon-

See N. DE MoNMERQuri, "Dissertation historique sur Jean I.
Roi de France," 1844-

John (Jean) H., surnamed LE BON, ascended the
throne of France upon the death of his father, Philip
of Valois, in 1350. Charles, King of Navarre, having ac-
cepted an invitation to meet John at Rouen, was there
imprisoned, and several of his lords put to death. The
people of Navarre applied to England for assistance, and
Edward the Black Prince invaded France at the head of an
army. John marched against him with 60,000 men, was
defeated and made prisoner at the battle of Poitiers, fought
in 1356, and conducted to London, where he was received
with great honour by Edward III. While he remained
in England a civil war broke out in France with the peas-
antry, known in history by the name of" La Jacquerie."
In this revolt the castles of the nobility were plundered
and burnt and the inmates massacred. These ravages
continued for two years, until the dauphin, assisted by
several powerful lords, defeated the peasants, putting
thousands of them to the sword. In 1360, peace having
been concluded between France and England, John re-
turned to his capital ; but, finding much opposition made
by the nobles to the conditions of the treaty, he again
visited England, to confer with King Edward. He wa
soon after taken ill, and died in London in 1364.

See SISMONDI, "Histoire des Francais:" FROISPART, "Chroni-
cles;" MICHELET, "Histoire de France;" HENRI MARTIN, "His-
toire de France."


as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/'; G, H, H,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as ; th as in this.

Explanations, p. 23.)




John m. OF NAVARRE, or Jean d'Albret, zhoN
JJl'bRj', began to reign in 1494. In 1512 Ferdinand
the Catholic invaded Navarre and drove John from the
throne. Died in 1516.

John I, King of Poland, a son of Casimir IV., was
born in 1459, and succeeded his father in 1492. He
waged war against the Tartars and Turks. Died in 1501.



John [ Port. JoAo or JOAM, zho-owN'] I, surnamed TH E
GREAT, King of Portugal, the natural son of Peter I.,
was born in 1357. On the death of his brother F-rdi-
nand, in 1385, he assumed the regal power in opposition
to the rights of Ferdinand's daughter Beatrix, who had
married John I., King of Castile. This led to a war with
Spain, in which the Portuguese monarch gained several
important victories and firmly established his power. He
subsequently carried on a successful war against the
Moors of Africa. During his reign the Portuguese com-
menced those maritime expeditions which soon after
rendered them so celebrated. Under the command of
his son, Prince Henry, they discovered Madeira, the
Canaries, the Azores, and several places on the western
coast of Africa. Died in 1433.

See LA CLBDE, " Hisioire ge'ne'rale de Portugal :" FERNANDO
LOPEZ, "Chromca del Rev Joio I.," 3 vols., 1644; MANOBL MOM-
THIRO. "Joannes Portugal!* Reges," 1742.

John (Joao) II., King of Portugal, surnamed THE
PERFECT, son of Alfonso V., was born in 1455, and
ascended the throne in 1481. At the age of sixteen
years he fought against the African Moors and took Ar-
zile and Tangiers, and five years later gained the battle
of Toro over the Castilians. Soon after his coronation
he quelled a powerful conspiracy formed against him

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 37 of 425)