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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Vernes, v?Rn, (JACOB,) a Protestant divine, born at
Geneva in 1728, wrote "Letters on the Christianity of
J. J. Rousseau," and other works. Died in 1791.

Vernet, veVn^', (ANTOINE CHARLES HORACE,) some-
times called CARLE VERNET, a son of Claude Joseph,
noticed below, was born at Bordeaux in 1758. He was
instructed by his father, and afterwards studied at the
French Academy of Arts, and in 1782 gained the grand
prize offered by that institution. His favourite subjects
were battle-scenes and animals, particularly horses.
Among his master-pieces are "The Bombardment of
Madrid," "The Battle of Wagram," and "The Entrance
of Napoleon into Milan." Died in 1836.

See DURANDK, "Joseph, Carle et Horace Veniet," 1865: L.
LAGRANGE, " Les Vernet, (Carle el Horace,") 1864 ; C. BLANC,
" Histoire des Peintres ;" " Nouvelle Biographic Gene'rale."

Veniet, (CLAUDE JOSEPH,) an eminent French
painter, born at Avignon in 1714. He studied at Rome,
devoting himself principally to marine landscapes, in
which department he soon attained rare excellence. He
resided nearly twenty years in Italy, during the early
part of which time he was so reduced as to be obliged
to paint coach-panels, which were afterwards taken out
and framed. He was invited to France in 1752 by Louis
XV., who commissioned him to paint the principal sea-
ports of France. These views fifteen in number are
in the Louvre, where many of his best works are to be
seen. Among his other master-pieces we may name the
pictures in the Borghese and Rondanini palaces at Rome,
and a " Seaport at Sunset," in the Louvre. He had been
elected in 1 753 a member of the Academy of Arts. Died
in 1789.

See DURANDE, "Joseph, Carle et Horace Vernet," 1865: L.
LAGRANGS, "J. Vernet et la Peinture au dix-huitierne Siecle,"
1864; C. BLANC, "Histoire des Peintres;" "Nouvelle Biographic

Vernet, (HORACE,) a celebrated French painter of
battles, son of Antoine Charles, noticed above, was born
in Paris in 1789. He studied under his father, and in 1809
exhibited his " Capture of a Redoubt." This was soon
followed by "The Trumpeters," "The Barriere de
Clichy," "Battle of Tolosa," "Soldier of Waterloo,"
and other military pictures, which won for him the
highest reputation in that department of the art. He
was created a chevalier of the legio'n of honour by
Napoleon in 1814, an officer of the legion of honour
by Charles X., (1825,) a member of the Institute, (1826,)
and director of the Academy at Rome, (1828.) He was
also patronized by Louis Philippe, for whom he painted
a series of battles in the Constantine gallery at Versailles.
1 lis pictures are of large dimensions. He worked at

Among his chief works are the "Siege
and the "Battle of Isly." At the Exposition of 1855 a
jury of painters from various nations awarded him the
grand medal of honour. Died in 1863.

See A. PURANDR, "Joseph, Carle et Horace Vemet,'* 1865;
L. DB LOM&NIB, "M. H. Vemet, par un Homine de Rieo," 1841,
L. LAGRANGR, "Les Vernet, (Carle et Horace,") 1864: C. BLANC.
"Histoire des Peintres;" T. SVLVESTRB, "Histoire des Attistet
vivants," 1857 : DK MIRECOURT, "H. Vemet," 1835; "Nouvelle
Biographic Ge'ne'rale;" "Jahrbuch zum Conversations- Lexikon,

Vernet, veVni', (JACOB,) a Swiss theologian, born at
Geneva in 1698. He became pastor at Geneva in 1734,
rector of the Academy in 1737, and professor of the-
ology there in 1756. He wrote, besides many other
works, "Socratic Dialogues on Moral Subje'cts," (1746,]
and "Christian Instruction," (4 vols., 1752.) Died in

Verneuil, de, deh veR'nuI' or veVnuh'ye, (PHILIPPE.
EDOUARD Pout-LETiER,) a French naturalist, distin-
guished as a geologist and palaeontologist, was born in
Paris in 1805. He became a member of the Institute in
1854. Among his works is a "Memoir on the Geology
of the Crimea," (1837.) Died at Paris, May 29, 167

Verney, du, (JOSEPH.) See DOVERNEY.

Vernier, veR / ne-4', (PIERRE,) a French mathema-
tician, born at Ornans, in Franche-Comte, about 1580
invented a graduated scale or quadrant. Died in 1637.

Vernier, (THEODORE,) a French advocate and rhor
alist, bornatLons-le-Saulnierin 1731. He wasamember


of the Convention, in which he voted against the death
of the king, (1793.) He wrote several works on the
>assions, etc. Died in 1818.

Verniquet, veVne'ki', (Eons,) a French architect,
)orn at Chatillon-sur-Seine in 1727. He built many
chateaus and bridges in the provinces. His chief work
was the plan of Paris and its faubourgs, at which he
worked twenty-eight years. Died in 1804.

Ver'npn, (EDWARD,) a celebrated English admiral,
)orn at Westminster in 1684. He served in the early
campaigns of the war of the Spanish succession, and in
1727 was elected to Parliament for Penryn, being re
turned for Portsmouth in 1734. In 1739 he was sent,
with the rank of vice-admiral of the blue, to the West
Indies, to take Porto Bello from the Spaniards, which
exploit he accomplished with only six ships. After his
return he was several times re-elected to Parliament.
Died in 1757.

See a "Life of Admiral Vemon." London, 1758: CHARNOCK,
' Biographia Navalis ;" CAMPBSLL, " Lives of the British Admirals. '*

Vernon, (JOHN RICHARD,) an English clergyman,
)orn at Louth (Lincolnshire) in 1833. He graduated at
Magdalen Hall, Oxford, in 1859, and in 1861 took priest's
orders in the English Church. Among his principal
works are "The Church of England the Guide for her
Children," " The Harvest of a Quiet Eye," " Poppies in
the Corn," etc.

Vernon, (ROBERT,) an English amateur, born in
1774, devoted a large fortune to the purchase of pictures
by British artists. In 1847 he presented this collection,
containing one hundred and fifty-seven paintings, to the
British National Gallery. The Vernon pictures are,
with two exceptions, the work of native artists. They
have been placed in Marlborough House. Died in 1840,

Vernon, de. See GAY DE VERNON.

Ver'npn-Har'court, (Sir WILLIAM GEORGE,) an
English lawyer, born in 1827. He graduated at Cam-
bridge in 1851, where he became professor of interna-
tional law. He was solicitor-general, 1873-74, and was
appointed home secretary in 1880. He married, in 1876,
a daughter of the historian Motley.

Vernou-Smith, (ROBERT.) See LYVEDEN.

Vernulz, de, deh ver-nulz', | Lat VERNULJE'US, |
(NICOLAS,) a Flemish poet and orator, born at Robel-
mont in 1583, became professor of eloquence and Latin
at Louvain. He published numerous Latin orations and
poems. Died in 1649.

Verny, veVne', (CHARLES,) a French poet, born at
Besancon in 1753; died in 1811.

Verocchio, del, del vi-rok'ke-o, or Verrocchlo,
(ANDREA,) an eminent Italian statuary and painter, bom
at Florence in 1432. Among his works are a bronze
bast of David the Psalmist, and paintings of "The
Holy Family" and "The Incredulity of Saint Thomas."
Leonardo da Vinci was his pupil. Died in 1488.

See VASARI, "Lives of the Painters:" LANZI, "History of
Painting in Italy."


Veron, va'r6N', (EucENE,) a French author, born in
Paris, May 29, 1825. He was educated at the Ecole
Normale, and became a journalist at Lyons, and after-
wards at Paris, where he established "1'Art." He pub-
lished " Du Progres intellectuel dans l'Humanite,"( 1862,)
"Histoire de la Prusse," (1867,) "Histoire de 1'Alle-
magne depuis Sadowa,"(i874,) " La troisieme Invasion,"
(1876-77.) " L'Esthetique," (1878,) etc. Died in 1889.

Veron, (FRANCOIS.) a French Jesuit and controversial
writer, born in Paris about 1575, had a public dispute
with Bochart, at Caen, in 1628. Died in 1649.

Veron, (Louis DESIRE,) a French journalist and
physician, born in Paris in 1798. He founded in 1829
the " Kevue de Paris," which was very successful, and
became director of the Opera in 1831. He resigned
this position in 1836, became proprietor of the "Consti-
tutionnel" in 1844, and supported Louis Napoleon as

resident and as emperor. He published "Memoirs
jf a Citizen of Paris," (" Memoires d'un Bourgeois de
Paris," (autobiographic,) (6 vols., 1854.) Died in 1867.

Veronese, (PAUL.) See CAGLIAKL,

Ver-planck', (GuLlAN CROMMELIN,) a distinguished
American scholar and writer, born in New York in 1786.

as k; 9 as ;; g k*rd; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, natal; R, trilled; s as i; th as in this. (t=See Explanations, p.




He published in 1819, anonymously, a brilliant satirical
work, entitled "The State Triumvirate, a Political Tale."
He was soon after appointed professor of the evidences
of Christianity in the Protestant Episcopal Seminary,
New York, and in 1825 was elected to Congress. In 1827
he published conjointly with W. C. Bryant and Robert C.
Sands a miscellany entitled "The Talisman," to which he
contributed nearly one-half of the articles. Among his
other works we may name his address before the New
York Historical Society, entitled "The Early European
Friends of America," (1818,) "Essays on the Nature and
Uses of the Various Evidences of Revealed Religion,"
(1824,) and " Discourses and Addresses on Subjects of
American History, Art, and Literature," (1833.) He
brought out in 1846 his superb edition of Shakspeare,
with notes, esteemed one of the best that had ever ap-
peared. Died in March, 1870.

Verrazzano, da, da vSr-rat-sa'no, or Verrazani,
(GIOVANNI,) an Italian navigator, born of a Tuscan
family about 1486. He served in French vessels, and is
believed to have visited the North American seas in
1508 or earlier. He became a privateer or pirate, cap-
turing many Spanish and Portuguese ships, but was
himself taken and put to death at Pico, Spain, in No-
vember, 1527. A celebrated letter ascribed to Verraz-
zano, and giving an account of one of his voyages to
America, (1524,) has latterly, after much discussion, been
generally rejected as unauthentic, and by some his
brother, GERONIMO VERRAZZANO, is believed to have
forged the narrative of the voyages in question.

Vgr'res, (CAius,) a Roman governor, notorfbus for
his rapacity and cruelty, was born about 112 B.C. He
was qusstor in 82, and city praetor at Rome in 74 B.C.
When his term of office as praetor had ended, in 73, he
became governor of the rich and important province of
Sicily, which he almost ruined by his extortions, out-
rages, and vexatious measures. He was accused by the
people of Sicily, who engaged Cicero to conduct the
prosecution before the senate. Hortensius was the
counsel for the defence in this trial, which was one of
the most celebrated in the history of Rome, and was
one of the great eras in the life of Cicero, who gained
his cause ; but Verres had absconded before the end of
the trial, and retired to Marseilles. He passed twenty-
seven years in exile, and died about 42 B.C.

See CICERO'S Verrine Orations, including ne oration " In Q.
Czcilium:" DRUMANN, Geschichte Roms."

Verri, ver'ree, (AtESSANDRO,) COUNT, an Italian
lawyer and eloquent writer, was born at Milan in 1741.
He contributed many able essays to a literary journal
called "The Coffee-House," ("II Caffe.") About 1767
he became a resident of Rome. He published a suc-
cessful novel, "The Adventures of Sappho," (1780.) and
B series of dialogues of the dead, entitled "The Roman
Nights," (" Le Notti Romane," 1792,) which were much
admired. Died at Rome in 1816.

See A. LEVATI, " Elogio storico di A. Verri," 1808 : G. MAGGI
Vila di A. Verri," 1822 ; " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Verri, (CARLO,) an agriculturist, born at Milan in 1743,
was a brother of the preceding. He became a member
of the council of state in 1805, and a senator at Milan in
1809. He wrote on the cultivation of the vine and other
subjects. Died in 1823.

Verri, (GADRIELE,) COUNT, an Italian jurist, born at
Milan in 1696, was the father of Alessandro, noticed
above. lie published several legal works. Died in 1782.

Verri, (PiETRO,) an Italian author and political econ-
omist, born at Milan in 1728, was a son of the preceding.
He served in the Austrian army in his youth, became a
member of the council of economy at Milan in 1765, and
president of the chamber of accounts in 1780. lie pub-
lished a work on political economy, ("Meditazioni sull'
Economia politica," 1771,) which has a high reputation,
a "History of Milan," (2 vols., 1783-98,) and othei
works. Died at Milan in 1797.

See ISIDORG BIANCMI, "Elocio storico di P. Veni." iSov A.

< s *t," Or " 210 in Lode di p ' Verri," iSiS: CUSTOM, " Notizie
sulla Vita di P. Verri." 1841; NEWI, Elojio di P. Verri," 1844-

Foreign Quarterly Review" for June, 1828.

Ver'rill, (ADDISOX EMERY,) an American naturalist,
born at Greenwood, Maine, February 9, 1839. lie was

educated in the scientific department of Harvard Uni-
versity, and in 1864 became professor of zoology in Yale
College. His publications are mostly in the form of
scientific papers. He has given much attention to deep-
sea dredging for scientific purposes.

Verrio, ver're-o, (ANTONIO,) an Italian painter, born
about 1639, was invited to England by Charles II., whu
employed him to paint a series of frescos in Windsor
Castle. He was also patronized by James JI. His
works, executed for Lord Exeter at Burleigh House, are
esteemed his best performances ; he is said by Dr,
Waagen to have received more money for these alone
than Michael Angelo or Raphael ever obtained for all
their paintings. His works are chiefly remarkable for
bad taste and absurdity. Died in England in 1707.

See WALPOLE, "Anecdotes of Painting."

Ver'rl-us Flac'cus, (MARCUS,) a distinguished Ro-
man grammarian, who was appointed by Augustus in-
structor to his grandsons Caius and Lucius, lie waa
the author of several valuable works, one of which waa
a Roman calendar, entitled "Fasti Praenestini," frag'
ments of which were published by Foggini in 1779.

Verrocchio, del, (ANDREA.) See VEROCCHIO, DEL,

Verschaffelt, de, deh ver-sKlf felt, (PIERRE,) a Flem-
ish sculptor, called by the Italians PIETRO FIAMMINCO,
was born at Ghent in 1710. lie worked in Rome and
Mannheim, where he died in 1793.

Verschuring, ver-SKu'ring, (HENDRIK,) a Dutch
painter, whose works are principally battle-pieces, was
born at Gorcum in 1627 ; died in 1690.

Ver-ste'gan, (RICHARD,) an English antiquary, of
Dutch extraction, was born in London. He removed
to Antwerp, where he published his principal work,
entitled "A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence con-
cerning the Most Noble and Renowned English Nation,"
(1605.) Died about 1635.

Verstolk van Soelen, ver-stolk' vin soolen, (JAN
Gijsbert^gTs'beRt.) BARON, a Dutch statesman, born
at Rotterdam in 1777. He was ambassador to Saint
Petersburg in 1815, and in 1825 was appointed minister
of foreign affairs. Died in 1845.

Vert, de, 3eh vaiR, (CLAUDE,) a French Benedictine
and liturgist, born in Paris in 1645. He wrote several
works on religious ceremonies. Died in 1708.

Verteillac. See LA BROUSSE.

Ver'tin, (JOHN,) D.D., a bishop, born in Carniola,
Austria, July 17, 1844, graduated in 1866 at Saint Francis
Seminary, Milwaukee, was a Roman Catholic missionary
in Northern Michigan, and in, 1879 was consecrated
Bishop of Marquette.

Vertot, de, rich veVto', (RENft AUBERT,) an eminent
French ecclesiastic and historian, born in Normandy in
1655. He studied in the Jesuits' College at Rouen, and
subsequently entered the order of the Premonstrants a)
Valsery. He was the author of a " History of the Revo-
lutions of Portugal," (1689.) " History of the Revolutions
of Sweden," (1696,) i " Complete History of the Estab
lishment of the Britons in Gaul," (1710,) " History of
the Revolutions of the Roman Republic," (3 vols., 1719,)
and " History of the Knights of Malta," (4 vols., 1726.)
His works were very popular, owing partly to the stjle,
which is very agreeable. Died in Paris in 1735.

See " Notice sur la Vie de I'Abbe' Vertot," 1795: MOR^RI, "Do
aonnaire Historique:" "Nouvelle Biographic Gen^rale."

Ver'tue, (GEORGE,) an eminent English engraver,
born in LoYidon in 1684. He acquired the friendship
and patronage of Sir Godfrey Kneller, and, on the es-
tablishment of the Academy of Painting in London, in
1711, became one of its members. In 1717 he was ap-
pointed engraver to the Society of Antiquaries by the
Earl of Winchelsea, president of that body. He en-
graved the portraits of many eminent men of his own
time, and illustrated several works for the booksellers
He collected materials for a history of painting and en-
graving in England, which he left in manuscript. These
were purchased by Horace Walpole, and published in
his "Anecdotes of Painting." Died in 1756.

See STRUTT, "Dictionary of Engravers;" "Monthly Review"
for February and March, 1781.

Vertumne. See VERTUMNUS.

a, e.i, o, u, y, long: A, e, d, same, less prolonged; a.e, T, o. u, y, short; a, e, i, o. etwrr; fir, fjll, fit; met; not; g on,l; ,.-,,




Ver-tum'nus or Vor-tum'nus, JFr. VERTUMNK,

divinity, supposed

! an Etruscan and Roman

to preside over the changes of the seasons and the trans
formation of plants. He was regarded by some writers
as the god of gardens, of orchards, and of autumn. The
poets relate thaf he loved Pomona, who was so coy that
he did not succeed urttil he had metamorphosed himself
into many forms.

Verulam, LORD. See BACON, (FRANCIS.)

Ve'rus, (Lucrus ^LIUS), son of jtlius Verus. who
had been adopted and made Cxsar by the emperor
Hadrian. In 161 A.D. he became the colleague of Mar-
cus Aurelius as Emperor of Rome. He was a weak and
profligate prince. Died in 169 A.D. His original name


Ver'jf, (JoNES,) an American poet, born at Salem,
Massachusetts, in 1813. He published "Essays and
Poems," (1839,) and wrote some of the best sonnets in
the language. He was also an able critic. _ He was a
Unitarian of a devout and mystical tmn of mind. Died
May 8, 1880.

Vesale. See VESALIUS.

Vesalio. See VESALIUS.

Ve-sa'11-us. [Fr. VESALE, veh-zSt'; Tt. VESALIO, vl-
8i'le-o,| (ANDREAS,) the most eminent anatomist of the
sixteenth century, was born at Brussels in December,
1514. His father, Andrew, was apothecary to the Em-
peror of Germany. He studied languages at Louvain,
and medicine at Montpellier and Paris. About 1535 he
served in the Imperial army, probably as surgeon. He
became professor of anatomy at Padua or I'avia about
1538, and published a Latin work in 1539 in which he
taught tliat blood should be drawn from the right arm.
In 1 543 he produced his great work on anatomy, " Seven
Books on the Structure of the Human Body," (" De Cor-
poris human! Fabrica Libri septem,") which operated
immense improvements in the science. Senac compared
it to the discovery of a new world. I laving in this work
controverted some doctrines of Galen, he was rewarded
for his services by violent hostility and reproaches from
several eminent anatomists of his time. About 1544
he quitted Italy, and became physician to the emperor
Charles V., at whose court he remained until the abdi-
cation of the emperor, in 1555. Soon after this event
he went to Madrid to attend Philip II. He had a high
reputation as a physician. According to a doubtful re-
port, he incurred the censure of the Inquisition. For
some reason not well explained, he left Madrid in 1363
or 1564, and performed a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. While
he was at Jerusalem, he was invited by the senate of
Venice to occupy the chair of anatomy at Padua. He
resolved to accept this offer ; but, in his voyage to Italy,
he was wrecked on the island of Zante, where he died
of exposure in October, 1564. His collected works, with
his "Life," were published by Boerhaave and Albinus, (2
vols., 1725.)

See BURGGRABVE, "Etudes snr Vesale." 1841, and " loge de
Vesale." 1848; MERSSBMAN, " Eloge de Vesale." 1845: HALLEK,
" Bibliotheca Anatomica ;" L. SCHOONEN, " Hommage a Vesale, "(in
verse.) 1847; PORTAL, " Histoire de I'Anatomie." tome i. ; "
velle Biographic Ge'nerale."

Vealing, feVling, (JOHANN,) a German physician and
naturalist, born at Minden in 1598, became professor of
anatomy at Padua. He visited Egypt and Palestine, and
published several botanical works. Died in 1649.

Vespasian, ve's-pa'zhe-an, [Lat VESPASIA'NUS; Fr.
VESPASIEN, v5s'pa"ze-i N' ; It. VESPASIANO, vSs-pa-se-
J'no,] or, more fully, Ti'tus Fla'vhiB Vespasia'nua,
Emperor of Rome, was born near Reate in 9 A.D. He
served as military tribune in Thrace, and held the offices
of quzstor of Crete and Cyrene, under Caligula. He
was afterwards made pra:tor ; and, having distinguished
himself by several important victories in Britain, he was
appointed proconsul of Africa about 60 A.D. As com-
mander of the forces against the revolted Jews in 66
A.D., he subjected nearly the whole of Judea in less than
two years. In 69 A.D. Vespasian was proclaimed em-
peror by Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, in oppo-
sition to Vitellius, who was soon after put to death by
the Roman soldiers. The principal events of the reign
of Vespasiaii were the conquest of Jerusalem by Titus,

n 70 A.D. , the victories of Agricola in Britain, and of
'etilius Cerealisover the Batavi, commanded byCivilis.
Jnder his wise and beneficent rule Rome enjoyed a high
degree of prosperity ; he patronized learning and the
arts, introduced important reforms into the army and
courts of justice, and repaired the ravages caused by
civil war. lie also restored the Capitol, built the mag-
nificent Temple of Peace, and began the erection of the
amphitheatre, afterwards called the Colosseum, and also
the Flavian Amphitheatre, from his name Flavius. He
died in 79 A.D.

...jperatons Vespasianl. 1625: - - - - - - , t - - - .

jeratoris Vila," 1833: TILLBMONT, "Histoire des Empereura ;"
MERIVALE, " History of the Romans under the Empire ;" "Nouvella
Biographic Generale."

Vespasiano. See VESPASIAN.

Vespasianus. See VESPASIAN.

Vespasien. See VESPASIAN.

Vespucci, v?s-poot'chee, (AMERIGO, 3-ma-ree'go,)
AMERIC VESFUCE, S'mi'rek' veYpiis',1 a famous Italian
navigator, who gave his name to the New World, was
born at Florence on the 9th of March, 1451. He
was educated by his uncle, Giorgio Antonio Vespucci,
an eminent scholar, and applied himself especially to
astronomy and cosmography. In his early life he was
engaged in mercantile pursuits. About 1490 he removed
to Spain, where, it is said, he became acquainted with
Columbus in 1492. In a letter dated February, 1505,
Columbus mentions Vespucci as a person whom he
knew and esteemed, Vespucci was' employed as a mer-
chant at Seville for several years. He accompanied an
expedition which Ojeda conducted to America in 1499.
It is probable that he served as astronomer in this
and several subsequent voyages. According to a letter
written by Vespucci, he took part in an expedition
which was sent by the King of Spain in 1497, and dis-
covered new islands and lands. Humboldt and others
argue that 1499 is the true date of his first voyage. It
is admitted that he made four voyages to the New
World, but he had not the chief command of any one
of the expeditions. The part of the continent discov-
ered by him Was near the equator. In his letter dated
July 18, 1500, he says, "We discovered a very large
country of Asia." Having entered the service of the
King of Portugal, he sailed in 1501 on an exploring ex-
pedition to Brazil, on his return from which, September,
1502, he was received at Lisbon with great honour and
rejoicing. He acquired a high reputation by his astro-
nomical discoveries. About 1505 he returned to Spain.
He died poor at Seville in 1512.

See A.M. BANDINI, "Vitae Lettere di Amerigo Vespucci," 1743.
CANOVAI, " Elogio di A. Vespucci." 1788 : SANTAREM, " Recherchei

, . ,

historiques sur AmeVic Vespuce," 1842. (translated into English

by "


riques sur , .

by E. V. CHILDE, 1850 :) C. EDWARDS LESTER, " Life of Amencuj
1846; AD. VARNHACEN, " Vespuce^et^son premieM/o-

American Review" for April, i

Vespuce and Vespuciua. See VESPUCCL _
Ves'ta, one of the principal Roman divinities, Was
identical 'with the Greek Hestia, ('Em-fa,) and was re-
garded as the goddess of chastity, virginity, fire, the
domestic hearth, and domestic happiness. She was,
according to Hesiod, a daughter of Saturn (Cronus) and
Rhea, and was bound by a vow of perpetual virginity.
Her symbol was the eternal fire burning on the hearth
or altar, and vigilantly kept alive by her priestesses, the
vestal virgins. If this fire ever became extinguished, it
was renewed by friction or by the rays of the snn col-

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 371 of 425)