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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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lected by a burning-glass. Every repast in which a
family joined was considered as a sacrifice to Vesta and
the Penates. Each city had its_ sacred hearth or sanc-
tuary of Vesta, usually located in a public edifice called
the Prytaneum. She was supposed to preside at all
sacrifices, and had a share of the sacrifices offered in all
the temples. The Romans celebrated in her honour an
annual festival, called Vcstalia, which occurred in- the
month of June, Vesta appears to have been one of the
chief Penates of Troy, and the vestal fire is said to have

as * 9 as /; g hard; g as /; G, H, ^guttural; N, nasal; ^trilled; 3 as z; th as in Ml.

See Explanations, p. 23.*




"been brought to Italy by .(Eneas. The vestal -vurgins,
whose office is supposed to have been instituted by
Numa, were six in number, and were required to de-
vote thirty years to the service of the goddess. If any
one of them violated her vow of chastity, she was buried

Vestris, veVtRess, or Vestri, veVtRee, (ANGIOLO
MARIA GASPARO,) an Italian dancer, born at Florence
in 1730, was a brother of Gaetano Apollme, noticed
below. Died in 1809.

SARE,) a famous Italian dancer, born at Florence in
1729. He made his dfbut in Paris in 1748, and was
received with enthusiastic applause. He was afterwards
appointed ballet-master at the Grand Opera. His per-
formances were unrivalled in their kind, and he was
popularly styled "the God of Dancing." His vanity
was excessive and amusing ; and he once observed that
Frederick, King of Prussia, M. Voltaire, and himself,
were the only great men of the century. Died in 1808.

Vestris or Vestris- Allard, ves'tRess' i'lia', (MARIE
AUGUSTE,) a dancer, born in Paris in 1760, was a son of
the preceding. Died in 1842.

Vestris,(MARiE RosEGourgaud-Dugason gooR'-
go' du'gt'zi.N',) a French actress, especially celebrated
for her skill in tragic parts, a sister-in-law of Gaetano
Apolline, noticed above, was born in Paris in 1746;
died in 1804.

Vestricius Spurinna. See SPURJNNA.

Ve-tra'nI-o, a Roman general, who was persuaded
by his troops to assume the title of emperor in 350 A.D.
About the end of that year he abdicated in favour of
Constantius. Died in 356.

Vetromile, va-tRo-mee'la, (EuGENio,) an Italian
priest and author, born at Gallipoli, February 22, 1819.
He became a Jesuit priest at Port Tobacco, Maryland,
and was for a time a professor in Washington. In 1858
he went as a missionary to the Indians of Maine, and
was for some time parish priest at Machias, Maine.
He prepared a prayer-book, a hymnal, and other religious
books in the Abnaki language. He wrote "The Abnakis
and their History," (1866,) "Travels in the Holy Land,"
etc. Died at Gallipoli, Italy, August 23, i8So.

Vettori, vih-to'ree, or Vittori, vet-to'ree, (BENE-
DETTO,) an Italian medical writer, born at Faen^a in
1481 ; died in 1561.

Vettori, [Lat. VICTO'RIUS,] (FRANCESCO,) an Italian
antiquary, born at Rome about 1710. He wrote numer-
ous dissertations. Died in 1778.

Vettori, (PiETRp,) an accomplished Italian scholar,
born at Florence in 1499, was appointed professor of
Latin and Greek literature in that city. He was the
author of Latin commentaries on the works of Aristotle,
and he published editions of Sallust, Cicero, and other
Latin classics; also the " Electra" of Euripides, and
various Greek works. He likewise wrote a number of
letters, poems, and orations in Italian. Died in 1585.

See A. M. RANDINI, "Vita di P. Vettori," 1756; BSNIVIBNI,
"Vila di P. Veltori," 1585.

Ve-tu'rI-a, [Fr.VETURlE, va'tii're',] a Roman matron,
the mother of CORIOLANUS, (which see.) When Rome
was attacked by an army of Volscians commanded by
her son, she headed a procession of women who went to
his camp and entreated him to spare the city. lie finally
relented, and exclaimed, "O mother, thou hast saved
Rome, but destroyed thy son 1"

Veturie. See VETURIA.

Veuillot, vuh'yo', (Louis,) a French writer and
journalist, born in the department of Loiret in 1813.
He became successively editor of the " Charte de 1830,"
" La Paix," and the " Univers Rcligieux," in Paris, and
distinguished himself by his zealous support of the ultra-
montane party and violent abuse of his opponents. His
' Univers was suppressed in 1860. lie published sev-
eral novels. Died April 7, 1883.

See "Nouvelle Biographic GeWrale."

Veyssiere de La Croze. See LA CROZE.

Veytia, de, <14 va-e-tee'4, ? (MARIANO,) a Mexican
historian, of Spanish extraction, born at Puebla in 1718,
wrote an account of the early history of Mexico, en-
titled "Historia Antigua," (Mexico, 1836.)

Viani, (GIOVANNI,) an Italian painter, born at Bo-
logna in 1636, is said to have been a skilful artist. Died
in 1700. His son DOMENICO, born in 1668, was also a
painter. Died in 1711.

Viardot, ve'iVdo', (LEON,) i French portrait-painter
born at Dijon in 1804.

Viardot, (Louis,) a French littlrateur, a brother of
the preceding, was born at Dijon in 1800. He wrote,
besides other works, "The Museums of Italy," (1842,)
and a "History of the Arabs and Moors of Spain," (z
vols., 1851.) He married Pauline Garcia, the vocalist, in
1840. He translated " Don Quixote" and other Spanish
works into French. Died May 6, 1883.

Viardot, (PAULINE GARCIA.) a popular French ac
tress and singer, a daughter of Manuel Garcia, was born
in Paris in 1821. She made her dflmt in London in
1839, and was married to L. Viardot in 1840. She
excels in the rSlts of "Desdemona," "Valentine," (in
"The Huguenots,") and "Fides," (in "The Prophet" of

Vias, de, deh ve'ts', (BALTHASAR) a Latin peet, born
at Marseilles in 1587, was a friend of Peiresc. lie was
appointed a councillor of state by Louis XIII. He
wrote numerous poems. Died in 1667.

Viassolo. See FEDERICI, (CAMILLO.)

Viaud, (Louis MARIE JULIAN.) See LOTE,

Viaud or Viau, de, deh ve'6', (TuEoriHLE,) a French
poet. (See THEOPHILE.)

Vibert, ve'baR', (JEHAN GEORGES,) a French portrait
and genre painter, born at Paris, September 30, 1840
He was a pupil of Picot and liarrias. In 1870 he be-
came a chevalier of the legion of honour. Among his
many noteworthy pieces are "The Christian Martyrs
among the Lions," "The Dead Sheep," "Daphnis and
Chloe,""The Fairy-Tale," "The Comedy," "Gulliver
among the Liliputians," etc. He takes a high rank as an

Viborg, veeTxiRG, (ERICH NISSEN,) an eminent Dan
ish naturalist and veterinary surgeon, born in Sleswick
in 1759. He wrote numerous works. Died in 1822.


Vic, de, deh vek, (DOMINIQUE,) a French commander
and constant adherent of Henry IV. lie rendered
important services at the battle of Ivry. In 1602
he became governor of Calais and vice-admiral. Died
in 1610.

Vicari, von, foil vee'kj-ree, (HERMANN,) a German
Catholic prelate, born at Aulendorf, in Upper Suabia, in
1773, became Archbishop of Freiburg in 1842. Died 1868.

soldier, born on the island of Mauritius, December 7,
1826. His father was of a prominent Irish family.
Hedley Vicars entered the army in 1844, and rose tope
a captain in the Ninety-Seventh Foot. He was distin-
guished for faithfulness as an officer, and was of a sin-
cerely religious character. He was killed in a sortie
before Sebastopol, March 22, 1855. (His " Life," anony-
mously published, had a great currency both in England
and America.)

Vic'arS, (JOHN,) an English Puritan writer in the
time of' Cromwell, was born in London in 1582. He
published, among other works, "The Burning Bush not
Consumed," and "God's Ark Overtopping the World's
Waves." Died in 1652.

Vic'a-ry 1 , (THOMAS,) an English anatomist, born in
London,' was surgeon to Henry VIII. and Edward VL
He published a treatise on anatomy, (about 1^48.)

Vicat, ve'kJ', (Louis JOSEPH,) a French civil engineer,
born at Grenoble in 1786. He distinguished himself bj-
the discovery of hydraulic cement, and made an improve-
ment in the foundation of bridges. Died in iS6l.

Vicence, Due DE. See CAULAINCOURT.

Vicente, (Gil.) See GIL VICENTE.


Vichard. See SAINT-REAL,

Vichmann, viK'mln, (UuRKHARD,) a Russian his
torian, of German extraction, born at Kiga in 1786. He
wrote (in German) several works on Russian history.
Died in i#22.

Vichiiou. See VISHNU.

a, e, i, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, ess prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, J, short; a, e, j, o, al<scure; far, fill, fit; mjt; njt; good; mflon;




Vici, vee'chee, (ANDREA,) an Italian architect, Dorn
at Arcevia in 1744, was appointed in 1787 hydraulic
architect and engineer for the work of draining the Pon-
tine marshes. Among the principal structures he has
built may be named the cathedral of Camarino, and the
church of San Francesco at Foligno. Died in 1817.

Vico, vee'ko, (ENF.A,) an Italian engraver and numis<
matist, born at Parma about 1520. lie worked at Flor-
ence and Ferrara, and engraved some pictures of Michael
Angelo and Raphael. He published several works on
numismatics, among which is a "Treatise nn the Medals
of the Ancients," (" Discorsi sopre le Medaglie degli
Antichi," 1555.) Died about 1570.

Vico, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) an eminent Italian phi-
losopher, called the creator of the philosophy of history,
was born at Naples in 1668. He studied languages,
philosophy, and law, and, after he left college, passed
nine years as preceptor in the family of the Bishop of
Ischia. In 1697 he was appointed professor of rhetoric
in the University of Naples, with a salary of one hun-
dred scudi (or ducats) per annum. He published in
I72oawork on law, entitled "On the One Principle and
End o'f all Law," (" De universi Juris u'no Principio et
Fine uno.") His principal work is entitled " Principles
of a New Science of the Common Nature of Nations,"
(" Principj di una Scienza nuova intorno alia commune
Natura della Nazione," 1725,) in which he attempts to
prove that the events of history are determined by cer-
tain and immutable laws. It presents original thoughts,
out in some parts is rather obscure. In 1735 ne became
historiographer to the King of Naples. He was author
Of other works. Died at Naples in January, 1 743 or 1 744.

See his Autobiography, prefixed to his " Scienza nuova," 1821 :
M. PARMA, "Studj IV. sopra Vico," 1838; J. FKRRARI, "Vico et
1'Ilalie," 1839; Rocco, "Elogio storico di Vico," 1844; A. MANA-
VIT, "Cloge du PeredeVico," 1848: " NouveUe Biographic Gen>
rale ;" " Foreign Quarterly Review" for January, 1845.

Vico, di, de vee'ko, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian Jesuit
and astronomer, born, at Macerata in 1805, became di-
rector of the Observatory at Rome. Died in 1848.

Vicq-d'Azyr or Vicq-d'Azir, vek'dS'itR', (FELIX,)
a distinguished French anatomist, born at Valogne, in
Normandy, in 1748. He studied medicine in Paris, and
was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences in
1774. He became in 1776 6ne of the founders of the
Royal Society of Medicine, of which he was appointed
perpetual secretary, and in 1788 succeeded Buffon in
the French Academy. lie was made first physician to
the queen in 1789. His wife was a niece of Daubenton.
He died in 1794. Among his numerous and valuable
works we may name "Observations on the Means of
Preserving Animals from Contagion," (1774,) "Medicine
for Horned Cattle," (1781,) "Treatise on Anatomy and
Physiology," (with coloured plates, 1786.) and "Eulogies
on Members of the Royal Society," (1778-88.)

See CUVIKR. " Close de Vicq-d'Azyr:" NfoRtiAU DB LA SARTHB,
"Sloge de F. Vicq-d'A*ir," 1797 : P. E. I.EMUNTKV, "FJoee his-
torique de Vicq-d'Atir," 1825 ; " Nouvelle Biographic G^ne'rale."

Vicramaditya. See VIKRAMADITYA.

Victoire de France, vek'twaR' deh fRONss, (LouiSE
MARIE THERESE,) a daughter of Louis XV., was born
at Versailles in 1733. She emigrated in 1791, after which
she lived at Rome and Naples. Died in 1799.


Vic'tor L, a native of Africa, became Bishop of Rome
about 185 A.D. He died about 198 A.D., and was suc-
ceeded by Zephyrinus.

Victor IL, originally GEBHARD, Bishop of Eichstadt,
succeeded Leo IX. as Pope of Rome in 1055. He died
in 1057, and was succeeded by Stephen IX.

Victor IIL, (DESIDEIUUS,) Abbot of Monte Casino,
succeeded Gregory VII. in 1086. After a contest with
the adherents of the emperor Henry IV., he retired to
Beneventum, where he anathematized the anti-pope
Guibert. He died in 1087, and was succeeded by
Urban II.

Victor IV. was supported as anti-pope by Frederick
I. of Germany, in opposition to Alexander III., in 1159.
Died in 1164.

Victor, vek'toR', (CLAUDE PERRIN,) Duke of Belluno,
a celebrated French marshal, born in the department
of the Vosgcs in 1764. He served in Spain in 1794, and

in the principal engagements of the Italian campaigns
from 1795 to '799. having been made genera] of division
in 1797. He commanded part of the vanguard at the
battle of Marengo, (1800,) and had a prominent share in
the victory of that day. He was ambassador to Copen-
hagen in 1805. He distinguished himself in the Prussian
campaign of 1806, and was created marshal of France
after the battle of Friedland, (1807.) for his signal ser-
vices on that occasion. Appointed in iSoS commander
of the first corps of the army of Spain, he gained several
important victories over the Spaniards, but he was de-
feated by the Duke of Wellington at Talavera, (1809.)
In the Russian campaign of 1812 he was conspicuous
for his skill and bravery, as well as for his humanity to
the wounded soldiers during the disastrous retreat. He
rendered important services at Dresden and Leipsic,
(1813.) Having entered the service of Louis XVIII.
in 1814, he adhered to him in the Hundred Days, and
denounced Napoleon as "the man who has tyrannized
and betrayed France." He was minister of war from
December, 1821, to October, 1823. Died in 1841.

Victor, (ORVILLE JAMES,) an American historian,
born at Sandusky, Ohio, in 1827. He engaged in
editorial work on various journals, edited Beadle's
" Dime" publications, etc. He wrote " History of
the Southern Rebellion," (4 vols.,) and other works.

Victor, SAINT, of Marseilles, served in the Roman
army. During the persecution of the Christians under
Diocletian, he suffered martyrdom, in 303 A.D.

Vic'tor Am-a-de'us [Fr. VICTOR AM^DEE, vek'-
IOK' i'ma'da'; It. VITTORIO AMEDEO, vet-to're-o a-mi-
da'o| L, Duke of Savoy, born at Turin in 1587. In
1635 he was the ally of France in the war with Spain.
He married Christine de France, a sister of Louis XIII.
Died in 1637, and was succeeded by his son, Charles
Emmanuel II.

Victor Amadeus IL, first King of Sardinia, born in
1666, succeeded his father, Charles Emmanuel, in 1675,
the government being conducted by his mother as regent.
Soon after his accession to the sovereignty, he was urged
by Louis XIV. to the persecution of the Waldenses:
but in 1690, having formed an alliance with Spain ana
Austria, he restored them to their homes, and declared
war against France. He joined the Austrians in the war
of the Spanish succession, and in 1706 assisted his rela-
tive Prince Eugene in defeating the French, who had
besieged Turin. After the peace of Utrecht he obtained
Lomellina and other territories, and the island of Sicily,
with the title of king. He subsequently gave up Sicily
to the Austrian emperor, receiving in exchange the island
of Sardinia. He abdicated in 1730, died in 1732, and
was succeeded by his son, Charles Emmanuel III.

Victor Amadeus in , son of Charles Emmanuel
III., was born in 1726, and ascerided the throne in 1773.
He was deprived of Savoy and Nice by the French
during the Revolution. He died in 1796, and was suc-
ceeded by his son, Charles Emmanuel IV.

See J. DB MAISTRB, " Cloge de Victor Ame'de'e III," 1775.

Vic'tor Em-man'u-el [It VITTORIO EMANUELE.
vet-to're-o a-ma-noo-a'li] L, Kingof Sardinia, second son
of Victor Amadeus III., was born in 1759, and ascended
the throne on the abdication of his brother, Charles Em-
manuel IV., in 1802. His subjects having demanded a
more liberal constitution, to which he refused to accede,
he resigned in 1821 in favour of his brother, Charles
Felix. Died in 1824.

Victor Emmanuel H., (of Sardinia,) and the first
King of Italy, the eldest son of Charles Albert and Maria
Theresa of Austria, was born at Turin in 1820. He married
his cousin-german, Maria Adelaide of Austria, in 1842,
and succeeded his father, who abdicated, in March, 1849.
His kingdom, which then included only Piedmont, Savoy,
and Sardinia, was not in a prosperous condition ; but he
was fortunate in obtaining the services of an able states-
man. Count Cavour, who became prime minister in 1852.
The wise and liberal policy of Cavour increased the
power of the Sardinian states and induced the friends
of Italian unity to regard Victor Emmanuel with favour.
By joining the French and English in the Crimean war,
;i854,) he gained admission into the conventions Of

casj; ^h<ird; gas/;G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; K, trilled; sass; th as in Mir.

Explanations, p. 23.)




European powers. In April, 1859, his dominions were
invaded by the Emperor of Austria, who was offended
by the growing spirit of liberty and nationality in the
peninsula. By an alliance with France, Cavnur was
prepared for the contest. The Austrians were defeated
at the battles of Magenta and Solferino in June, 1859. soon
after which peace was concluded, and Lombardy was
added to the dominions of Victor Emmanuel. In the
mean time the people of Tuscany, Parma, and Modena
had deposed their petty sovereigns, and had taken steps
to unite themselves with the other Italian states. The
people of the Romagna were also nearly unanimous in
favour of annexation to the kingdom of Sardinia. The
cause was rapidly advanced, in 1860, by the brilliant
operations of Garibaldi in Sicily and Naples, the libera-
tion of which was completed by the capture of Gaeta
in March, 1861. The result of these transactions was
the union of all Italy, except Venetia and a small part
of the papal states adjacent to Rome. Victor Emmanuel
was proclaimed King of Italy in March, 1861, and was
recognized as such by the French government in June
of that year. He compensated Napoleon III. for his
aid by the cession of Savoy and Nice. The King of
Italy and his subjects ardently desired the possession
of Rome, the position of which rendered it the most eligi-
ble place for the capital of the kingdom, but it was under
the domination of the pope, supported by a French army,
which had occupied the city since 1849.

In 1865 the seat of government was transferred from
Turin to Florence. Victor Emmanuel was the ally of
Prussia in the short but momentous war of 1866. The
Italian army, having, entered Venetia, was repulsed at
Custozza ; but the victory of the Prussians at Sadowa,
July 3, compelled the Emperor of Austria to sue for
peace and to give up Venetia. This province, in ac-
cordance with a nearly unanimous vote of its people,
was annexed to the kingdom of Italy about the end of
1866, an event which was a source of great exultation
to the Italian patriots. In fulfilment of a treaty nego-
tiated in 1864, Napoleon withdrew his army from Rome
in December, 1866, in spite of the efforts of the pope to
retain that last bulwark of his temporal power. Italy
was then free from the presence of foreign soldiers for
the first time probably in a thousand years. The recent
changes have been most favourable to religious liberty
in Italy, the government of which has adopted the
motto of "a free church in a free state."

To secure the neutrality or friendship of Italy, Napo-
leon III., in August, 1070, withdrew his army from
Rome. In September of that year Victor Emmanuel
sent an army to occupy Rome, and wrote to the pope
that republicanism was so rampant in Italy that if he
had not taken that course a republic would have been
proclaimed in every Italian city. His army obtained
possession of Rome, without serious resistance, Septem-
ber 20, 1870, and the temporal power of the pope then
came to an end. On December 31 Victor Emmanuel
made a formal entry into the city as the capital of United
Italy, where he died January 8, 1878, and was succeeded
by his son Humbert.

Victor Emmanuel III., King of Italy, was born
November II, 1869; married in 1896 Princess
Helena, daughter of Nicholas, Prince of Montenegro,
and succeeded to the throne |uly 29, 1900, on the
death, by assassination, of his father, Humbert I.

Victoria, vek-to're-i, or Vitorla, (FRANCISCO,) an
eminent Spanish theologian, born in Navarre. He be-
came a professor in the University of Salamanca, and
produced "Theological Relections," ("Relectiones The-
ologies XIII.," 1557.) The most important parts of
this scarce work are those which treat of the Indians
and of the laws of war, ("De Indis," and "De Jure
Belli.") Nicolas Antonio and other Spanish writers
bestow the highest eulogy on Victoria. Commenting on
his " De Jure Belli," Ilallam observes, "The whole
relection, as well as that on the Indians, displays an
intrepid spirit of justice and humanity." ("Introduction
to the Literature of Europe.") Died about 1550.

Victoria, (Don VINCENTE,) a Spanish painter, born
at Valencia in 1658. lie worked with success at Rome,
where he died in 1712.

Vic-to'rI-a Al-ex-an-dri'na, Queen of Great Brit-
ain and Ireland, and Empress of India, was born at
Kensington Palace, May 24, 1819. She was the only child
of Edward, Duke of Kent, (a son of George III.,) and
Maria Louisa Victoria of Saxe-Coburg, who was a sister
of Leopold I. of Belgium. Her education was directed
by the Duchess of Northumberland. She received in-
struction in political affairs and principles from Lord
Melbourne. On the death of her uncle, William IV.,
she succeeded to the throne on the 2Oth of June, 1837,
and was crowned June 28, 1838. Lord Melbourne, who
was prime minister when she became queen, resigned
in May, 1839, and Victoria then requested Sir Robert
Peel to form a new ministry. lie consented to take
office, but insisted that she should dismiss the ladies of
her bed-chamber, (who were Whigs,) which she refused
to do. The result of this affair was that Lord Melbourne
returned to power. In February, 1840, she was married
to Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, with whom she
lived happily and in whom she found a prudent coun-
sellor. (See ALBERT.) The Whig ministry, having been
defeated in Parliament, resigned in August, 1841, and
Sir Robert Peel became prime minister. Amon% the
events of 1841 was the birth of her son Albert Edward,
Prince of Wales. Between 1840 and 1843 three several
attempts were made to assassinate her, by persons
named Oxford, Francis, and Bean. Victoria visited
Louis Philippe in France in 1843, and travelled with
Prince Albert in Germany in 1845.

The year 1846 was rendered memorable by the repeal
of the corn laws after a long and exciting contest (See
Russell was prime minister from July, 1846, to February,
1852, and was succeeded by Lord Derby, a conservative.
Lord Derby having resigned, a coalition ministry was
formed by the Earl of Aberdeen in December, 1852. To
maintain the integrity of Turkey against the encroach-
ments of Russia, the British ministry formed an alliance
with France, and waged war in the Crimea and Baltic
against the Czar in 1854 and 1855. Lord Palmerston
became prime minister in February, 1855, the queen
visited Napoleon III. at Paris in August, and the allies
took Sebastopol in September of that year. The Crimean
war was ended by a treaty in the spring of 1856. A
great mutiny of the Sepoys broke out in India in 1857.
Lord Palmerston resigned office in February, 1858, to
the Earl of Derby, who remained in power until June,
1859, and was succeeded by Lord Palmerston. In De-
cember, 1861, occurred the dea:h of Prince Albert, by
which the queen was deeply affected, and subsequently
she lived a life of comparative retirement, although she
has not neglected the actual duties of her position. Her
character as a daughter, wife, and mother has always
been a model to her subjects, and during the life of the
prince-consort she co-operated zealously in his en
deavours to advance the British people in social, artistic,
and intellectual life. Among the more important events
of succeeding years of her reign were the passage of
Mr. Disraeli's Reform Bill of 1 867, the Gladstone minis-
try's great measures, including the disestablishment of

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 372 of 425)