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Villamediana had expressed admiration of the queen,
Elizabeth of France.

Villamene, vel-li-ma'na, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian
engraver, born at Assisi about 1588. He died at Romo
at inc age of sixty.

Villaiidon. .See L'llERlTlER.

Villani, vel-la'nee, (FiLipro,) an Italian historian and
biographer, son of Matteo, noticed below, was the author
of litfes of Dante, Petrarch, and other eminent Floren-
tines, (in Latin,) also a work on the origin of the French
kings, ("De Origine Regum Fraacorum.") Died about
1404.

Villani, (GIOVANNI,) an eminent Italian historian,
born at Florence about 1280. He was the author of a
"History of Florence from its Origin down to his Own



as k; c as,; g hard; g asy; G, H, K. guttural; N. nasal; R, trilled; as z; th as in thv. (^=See Explanations, p. 23.)



VILLANI



2392



VILLAVICIOSA



Time," (12 books, 1554, in Italian.) It is highly es
teemed for the simplicity and elegance of its style. H
was elected to the high office of prior in 1316 and i
132:. Died in 1348.

Villani, (MATTED,) brother of the preceding, con
tinued the " History of Florence" down to 1363, in whic"
.year he died. His work is commended for accuracy an
truthfulness.

Villa Nova or Villanovanus. See ARNALDUS.

Villanueva, de, da vel-ya-nwa'va, (JoAQUiN Lo
FENZO,) a Spanish statesman and patriot, born in the
province of Valencia in 1757. Having been ordained a
priest, he was appointed court preacher at Madrid anc
confessor at the royal chapel. He was elected to the
Cortes in 1810, and published, soon after, a defence o:
constitutionalism from the philosophy of Aquinas, en
titled " Angelicas Fuentes, o el Tomista en las Cortes.'
After the return of Ferdinand VII., he was confinec
several years in a monastery. The constitutional gov
ernment having been overthrown in 1823, he remove(
to Ireland, where he died in 1837. He was the author
of the " Spanish Christian Year," (19 vols.,) being an
account of the Spanish church festivals, etc., a treatise
in favour of reading the Scriptures in the common Ian
guages, entitled "De la Lcccion de la sagrada Escritura
en Lenguas vulgares," and a Latin dissertation on the
Phoenician colonization of Ireland, etc. He also trans-
lated Paley's " Natural Theology," and other English
works, into Spanish. His brother JAIME, born in 1765
was the author of a "Literary Tour to the Churches of
Spain," (unfinished.) Jaime died in London in 1824.

Villar, vel'yfR', (NoEL GABRIEL LUCE,) a French
bishop, born at Toulouse in 1748. As a member of the
Convention, (1792-95, (he promoted education and liter-
ary interests. He was a member of the French Academy.
Died in 1826.

VillareaL See FERNANDEZ VILLAREAL.

Villaret, ve'yi"r&', (CLAUDE,) a French liltlratntr,
born in Paris about 1720, was the author of several
dramas and fictitious works, and wrote a continuation of
Velly's " History of France." He treated of the period
from 1329 to 1469. Died in 1766.

Villaret, de, deh ve'yS'r^', (FOULQUES,) a French
commander, was chosen grand master of the order of
Malta in 1307. He captured Rhodes in 1310, and re-
signed his office in 1319. Died in 1327.

Villaret de Joyeuse, ve'yrrj' deh zhwa'yuz',
(Louis THOMAS,) COUNT, a French vice-admiral, born
at Auch in 1750. He entered the navy in 1766, and be-
came rear-admiral in 1793. He gave proof of skill and
courage in a battle against the British admiral Howe,
which began May 29 and ended June I, 1794. Villaret,
who commanded in this action, lost about seven ships.
In June, 1795, he was defeated by Lord Bridport, who
had a superior force. He commanded the naval forces
Bent to conquer Saint Domingo in 1801, and was captain-
general of Martinique from 1802 to 1809, when it was
taken by the English. Died in 1812.

Villari, (PASQUALE,) an Italian scholar, born at
Naples in 1827. Educated in the University of
Naples, he became in 1859 a professor of history at
Pisa, and in 1866 at Florence. In 1891 he was made
minister of public instruction. His works include
"Savonarola and his Times," (1859-61,) "Modern
Painting in Italy and France," (1869,) " Machiavelli
and his Times," (1877,) "The First Two Centuries
of Florentine History," (1895,) etc. He married
LINDA WHITE, an English writer, born 1836, author
of " Camilla's Girlhood," " A Double Bond," " Here
and There in Italy," etc.

Villars, ve'yaR' or vel'yiR', (DOMINIQUE.) a French
botanist, born in Dauphine in 1745, studied medicine
and took his degree in 1778. He was appointed in i8o<;
professor of medicine and botany at Strasbourg He
published a "Natural History of the Plants of Dau-
phine," (with 65 plates, 4 vols., 1 786.) and other botanical
works, also "Principles of Medicine and Surgery."



The genus Villarsia was named in his honour
in 1814.



Died



Villars, de, deh ve'ytR' or vel'ytR', (CLAUDE Louis
HECTOR,) Due, a famous French general, born at Mou-
lins in 1653, was a son of General Pierre de Villars,
noticed below. He had a handsome form, and personal
advantages which, with his courage and high spirit, early
attracted the notice of Louis XIV. For his conduct at
Senef, in 1674, he obtained the rank of colonel. He
served in Flanders and Alsace from that year until the
peace of 1678, after which he was employed in diplo-
matic missions to Vienna and Munich. Having returned
to Paris about 1688, he obtained the favour of Madame
de Maintenon and Louvois, who appointed him com.
missary- general of cavalry in 1689. He became n
lieutenant-general in 1693, and served several campaigns
near the Rhine in the war which was ended by the peace
of Ryswick, in 1697. In 1698 he was sent as ambassa-
dor to Vienna, where he displayed much finesse, and
adroitly counteracted the intrigues of the Austrian
court in relation to the Spanish succession. The war
of the Spanish succession began in 1701, and Villars re-
turned to Paris. He married Mademoiselle de Varange-
ville in 1702. Having been appointed commander of
an army sent to aid the Elector of Bavaria, he gained a
victory on the Khine in October, 1702, and was raised
to the rank of marshal of France in the same year. In
1704 he subdued theCamisards, Protestants of Cevennes,
who had revolted. For this service he received the
title of duke in 1705. He is praised by several English
writers for his humanity to the Camisards. He obtained
in April, 1705, command of the army of the Moselle,
with which he took Lauterburg and Haguenau in 1706,
md invaded Wurtemberg in 1707. In January, 1709,
ic took command of the army in Flanders, where he
was opposed to the Duke of Marlborough and Prince
Eugene. He was defeated by them at the great battle
of Malplaquet, (1709,) having in the early part of the
action received a wound which disabled him for some
months. This victory was dearly bought to the allies,
who lost about 20,000 men. Villars was compelled, by
want of men and money, to remain on the defensive
n 1711. He commanded with success against Prince
iugene, who invaded France in 1712. The French
gained a victory at Denain, took Douai and Bouchain,
and compelled the enemy to retreat to Brussels. After
he treaty of Utrecht (1713) ensued along peace. Villars
lad great influence at court in the latter part of his life,
and was a member of the council of state in the reign
of Louis XV. He was one of the most fortunate, as

Died at



well as most able, French generals of his time.
Turin in 1734.

See "Me'moires de Villars," (partly written by himself.) 3
,' 5 .-' '734: PBYSSONNBL, "Eloge de Viilars," 1734: ANOUBTIL,
'Viedu Mankhil de Villars," 4 vols., 1784; VOLTAIKR, " Siccle de
ims XIV ;" SAINT-SIMON, "Mi*tnoires;" DANGBAU, "Journal ;"
SAINTK-BBUVE, "Causeries du Lundi;" "NouveUe Bioerjphie
Ge'De'raJe."

Villars, de, (HONORS ARM AND,) Prince de Martigues,

>orn in 1702, was a son of Marshal Villars. He became

overnor of Provence, and a member of the French

Academy in 1734. His talents were only ordinary.

le was a friend of Voltaire. Died in 1770.

Villara, de, (MONTFAUCON, moN'fo'kdN',) ABB, a

Drench ecclesiastic, born near Toulouse in 1635, settled

n Paris, where he became celebrated as a pulpit orator.

He published io 1670 a satirical work, entitled "Con-

ersations of the Count de Gabalis," ("Entretiens du

Comte de Gabalis,") for which he was forbidden the

uIpiL He was killed by robbers in 1673.

Villara, de, (PIERRE,) a French general and diplo-
latist, born in 1623, was the father of Marshal Villars.
He served in Italy under the Prince of Conti. On ac-
ount of the enmity of Louvois, he left the army and
ecame a diplomatist. He was sent as ambassador to
Spain in 1672, and to Denmark in 1683. Died in 1698,
-lis wife, MARIE GIGAULT DE BELLEFONDS, (ge'gydeh
el'fAN',) born in 1624, was distinguished for intelligence
nd WIL She wrote Letters, which were published io
759- Died in 1706.

Villars-Brancas. See BRANCAS, (ANDRt)

Villaviciosa, de, da vil-yi-ve-Me-o'sa, (Josfe.) A
panish poet and ecclesiastic, born at Siguenza in 1589,
as appointed in 1628 Inquisitor of the kingdom of



<^6,u.y>,,,;a.e.6.sa nl e lle s S prolonged; a, ^,5, u.y.^V; a.e, j, o,^^ ; rir. fl,,. fit; n ie ;not;go6d,



VILLE



2 393



VILLENA



Murcia. His principal work is the " Battle of the Flies,"
("La Mosquea,") a mock-lieroic poem. Died in 1658.

Ville, de, deh vel, (ANTOINE.) a French military en-
gineer and writer on fortification, born at Toulouse in
1596 ; died in 1656.

Villedieu, de, deli vtl'de-uh', (MARIE CATHERINE
HORTENSE Desjardins d.VzhSu'diN',) MADAMK, a
French authoress, born near Fougeres in 1631. She
wrote verses and novels which were once popular. Died
in 1683.

Villefore, de, deh vH'fbR', (JOSEPH FRANCOIS BOUR-
COIN,) a French biographer, born in Paris in 1652. He
wrote a "Life of Saint Bernard," (1704,) and lives of
other saints. Died in 1737.

Villefosse. See HERON DE VILLEFOSSE.

Villefroy, de, deh vil'fRwi', (GUILLAUME.) a French
Orienta'list, born in Paris in 1690. He founded in 1744
a society of linguists, called Cafitcins hltrauants, who
sought to explain the prophecies of Scripture by a double
literal sense. He became professor of Hebrew at Paris
in 1752. Died in 1777.

Villegagnon, de, deh vel'gfn'yiN', (NICOLAS Du-
RAND,) CHEVALIES, a French admiral, born at or near
Provins in 1510, was a nephew of Villiers de 1'Isle Adam,
grand master of the order of Malta. He commanded
the vessel which conveyed Mary Queen of Scots to
France in 1548. He proposed to found in Brazil a
French colony where the Protestants could enjoy re-
ligious liberty, and obtained the patronage of Admiral
Coligny for that enterprise. In 1555 he conducted a
party of emigrants in two vessels to Brazil. He did
not succeed in forming a permanent colony, and he
returned to France, where he was censured for his
mismanagement. Died in 1571.

See " Navigation de VilleRaenon en 1555." 1557; NicdRON," Mi-
moires :" "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Villegas, de, da vel-ya'gas, (ALONSO,) a Spanish
writer of romance, born at Toledo, flourished about
1550. He wrote " Selvaggia," which is an imitation of
the " Celestina."

Villegas, de, (ANTONIO,) a Spanish poet, lived about
1550. A volume of his poems was published in 1565-

See LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe."

Villegas, de, (ESTEVAN MANUEL,) a celebrated lyric
poet of Spain, born in Old Castile in 1596, published a
collection of poems entitled "Amatorias," (1620.) He
also translated Horace and Anacreon into Spanish verse,
and made a prose translation of Boethius. Died in 1669.

"The graceful luxuriance of the poetry of Villegas,"
says Bouterwek, "has no parallel in modern literature ;
and, generally speaking, no modern writer has so well
succeeded in blending the spirit of ancient poetry with
the modern."

See TICKNOR, " History of Spanish Literature."

Villegas, de (FERNANDO Ruiz,) a Spanish writer of
Latin verse, born at Burgos, Hved about 1500-1530. He
became governor of Burgos, and was a friend of Erasmus.
lie left many elegant Latin poems, which remained in
manuscript until 1743.

See VICENTB DB LOS Rios, " Memorias de la Vida de F. Ruiz de
Villegas," 1774.

Villegas, de, (FRANCISCO.) See QUEVEDO.

Villegas, de, (PERO FERNANDEZ,) a Spanish poet,
born in 1453, became Archdeacon of Burgos. I le trans-
lated Dante's "Inferno" into Spanish verse, (1515.)
Died in 1525.

Villehardouin, de, deh vel'iVdoo-lN', (GEOFFROY,)
a French diplomatist and historian, born at Arcis-sur-
Aube about 1 165. He was sent in 1201, by Thibault,
Count of Champagne, to solicit aid from the Venetians
in fitting out a crusade, in which mission he was suc-
cessful. In 1204 he assisted in the siege of Constanti-
nople, and afterwards wrote an interesting account of it,
entitled "The History of the Capture of Constantinople
Dy the French and Venetians." It is supposed to be
the oldest prose history in the French language, and is
esteemed one of the most valuable records of the time.
Died about 1213.

See MICHAUD, " History of the Crusades."

Villele, do. deh ve'141', (JOSEPH,) COUNT, a French



statesman, born at Toulouse in 1773. In 1815 he repre-
sented the department of Haute-Garonne in the Cham-
ber of Deputies, where he was a prominent advocate of
the ultra-royalist party. After the fall of the Decazes
ministry, he became minister of state in 1820, and of
finance in 1821. lie was appointed president of the
council (prime minister) in September, 1822. His talents
for administration were respectable, but he was not
capable of grand views and genuine statesmanship. He
rendered himself unpopular by illiberal and reactionary
measures, and was removed from office in January, 1820.
Died in 1854.

See Da NeuvtLLR, "Notice sur M. de Villele." 1855: L. DI
LOMSNIE, " M. de Villele, par un Humme de Rien," 1841; LA-
MARTINE, "History of the Restoration;" " Nouvelle biographic
G^neiale."

VUlemain, vel'miN', (AnEL FRANC.OIS,) a celebrated
French critic, orator, and minister of state, born in Paris
on the gth of June, 1790. He was educated at the Im-
perial Lyceum, (College Louis-le-Graixl,) and was a
pupil in rhetoric of Luce de Lanciva). About 1810
he was appointed professor of rhetoric in the Lycee
Charlemagne by M. de Fontanes. He gained a prize
offered by the Institute, in 1812, for his " Eloge de Mon-
taigne," in which he displayed a great power of general-
ization and an excellent gift of harmonious language.
He produced, in 1814, a "Discourse on the Advantages
and Inconveniences of Criticism," which was crowned
by the French Academy. In 1816 he became professor
of French eloquence at the University of Paris, and
wrote an " Eloge de Montesquieu." lie acquired a high
reputation as a professor and critic. Blending in his
lectures literary analysis, biography, spicy anecdotes,
ingenious judgments in detail, and profouna generalities,
he gave to them the form of eloquent conversation. As
a critic, he was liberal, impartial, and disposed to appre-
ciate merit, in whatever nation or school it appeared.
He was appointed master of requests to the council of
state in lSi8, published a "History of Cromwell," (z
vols., 1819,) and was admitted into the French Academy
in 1821. Having avowed liberal political opinions, he
was deprived of the office of master of requests in 1827.
Under the new regime he became a peer of France in
1832, president of the royal council of public instruction
in 1834, and perpetual secretary of the French Academy
in the same year. He published his " Lectures on French
Literature," ("Cours de Litterature Fran9aise," 5 vols.,
1828-38,) which is considered his principal work. He
was minister of public instruction from May, 1839, to
March, 1840, and held the same office in the cabinet of
Guizot from October, 1840, to December, 1844. Aftet
the revolution of 1848 he took no part in politics. He
contributed many admirable articles to the "Biographic
Universelle" ana the "Nouvelle Biographic Generate. "
Among his numerous works we notice " Discours et
Melanges litteraires," (1823,) and "Studies of Ancient
and Foreign. Literature," (1846.) Died in May, 1870.

M. Villemain is generally recognized as one of the
most accomplished writers of his time. His style is
admirable, and his works present a happy union of mod-
eration with independence, while they preserve a due
equilibrium between reason and imagination.

See L. DB LOMENIE, "M. Villeroain, par un Homme de Rien."
1841 : SAINTE-BBUVB, "Portraits coniemporains," and "Causeriea
du Lundi ;" F. Z. COLLOMBET, " M. Villemain, de ses Opinion!
rdigieuses," etc, 1844; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Villemessant, vel'm^'siN', (JEAN HIPPOLYIE CAR-
TIER,) a French journalist, born at Rouen in 1812. He
supported the Legitimist party, and began to publish
the " Figaro" in Paris in 1854. Died April II, 1879.

Villemot, vel'mo', (PHILIPPE,) a French astronomer
and priest, born at Chalons-sur-Saone in 1651. He
published in 1707 a "New System or Explanation of
the Movements of the Planets." Died in 1713. _

Villena, de, da vel-ya'na, (Don ENRIQUE,) MARQUIS,
a celebrated Spanish scholar and writer, born in 1384,
was related to the royal families of Castile and Aragon.
His extraordinary attainments in science procured for
him among his contemporaries the reputation of a necro-
mancer. He translated Virgil's "/lineid" and Dante'9
poems into Spanish, and wrote several original works,
among which is " Gaya Sciencia." Died in 1434.



as k. c as !: g hard; 5 as/; G, H, n,sttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; ih as in this. (SfSee Explanations, p. 23.)



VILLENA



VILLETERQUE



Villena, de, (JUAN Pacheco pa-cha'ko.) MARQUIS,
a Spanish courtier, became the favourite and chief
minister of Henry IV. of Castile about I 4 54- He was
a man of great abilities and ambition, and acquired an
entire ascendency over the imbecile king. After the
malcontent nobles formed a league against Henry IV.,
(1460) Villena was supplanted in the royal favour by
Bertram! de la Cueva ; but he retained his power by
joining the nobles who had fevolted, and who deposed
Henry in 1464. Died in 1474-

ViUenave? vel'ntv', (MATHIEU GUILLAUME THE-
RESE ) a French littfratfur and journalist, born in Lan-
guedoc in 1762. He practised as an advocate during
the Revolution, and was imprisoned in 1793^94 n sus-
picion of modlrantiime. He edited several journals of
Paris under the republic and restoration, wrote many
articles for the " Biographic Universelle," and produced
a translation of Ovid's "Metamorphoses," (4 vols., 1807
-22,) which was received with favour, and various other
works. Died in Paris in 1846.

See QUBKABD, " La France Litte'rairc."

Villenave, (THEODORE,) a French littlrafear, a son
of the preceding, was born at Nantes in 1798. He pro-
duced, besides other works, a drama, called " Walstem,"
(1828 ) and'"Constantine," a poem, (1837.) Died 1866.

Villeneuve, de, (ARNAUD.) See ARNALDUS VILLA-

NOVANUS.

Villeneuve. de. deh vel'nuv'. (CHRISTOPHE,) a



French soldier, born in 1541, served with distinction
under Henry IIL, Henry IV., and Louis XIII. Died
In 1615.

Villenenve, de, (GABRIELLE SUSANNE Barbot
biR'bo',) a French novelist, born about 1695. She died

Villeneuve, de, (GuiLLAUME,) a French soldier and
writer of the fifteenth century, accompanied Charles
VIII. in his Italian campaign, and was the author of
"Memoirs of the Conquest of Naples," (1497.)

Villeneuve, de, (HELION or ELION, a'le'AN',) was
born in 1270. Having entered the order of Saint John
of Jerusalem, he was elected grand master of Rhodes
in 1319. Died in 1346.

Villeneuve, de, (HuoN, Jii'dx',) a French poet
under the reign of Philip Augustus, was the author of
" Les quatre Fils d'Aymon," and other works.

Villeneuve, de, (Louis,) a French general, born
about 1450, was appointed by Charles VIII. commander
of the army sent against Naples. He was subsequently
employed on important missions to Rome, and in 1505
was created a marquis by Louis XII., being the first who
received that title m France. Died in 1516.

Villeneuve, de, (PIERRE CHARLES JEAN BAPTISTS
SILVESTRE,) a French admiral, born at Valensoles
(Basses- Alpes) in 1763. lie served with distinction in
the American war, became a rear-admiral in 1796, and
Commanded the right wing of the fleet which was
defeated by Nelson at the battle of the Nile, in 1798.
With the rank of vice-admiral, he fought an indecisive
battle against Sir Robert Calder, near Cape Finisterre,
in July, 1805. He commanded about thirty-three ships
of the line at the battle of Trafalgar, where the French
were defeated with great loss and Villeneuve was taken
prisoner, (October, 1805.) He was blamed by Napoleon
for this defeat, and committed suicide at Rennes in
April, 1806.

See J. J. MAGENDIB, "Me'moire ne'crologique sur le Vice-Araira]
de Villeneuve," 1814; "Nouvelle Biographic Gene'rale."

Villeneuve, de, (RoMEE,) an eminent French states-
man and general, born about 1170. He was employed
in the service of Berenger, Count of Provence, and was
regent of Provence after the death of Berenger, in 1245
Pied after 1250.

Villeneuve, de, (ROSALINE,) a, French nun, noted
for her ascetic piety, born about 1263, was canonized.
Died in 1329.

Villeueuve-Bargemon, de, deh vel'nuv' btRzh'-
PION', (JEAN PAULAlban tl'bON',) VICOMTE, a French
economist, born near Grasse (Provence) in 1784. He
leceived the Montyon prize for his " Christian Political
Economy, or Researches into the Causes oi Pauperism,"
etc., (3 vols., 1834.) Died in 1850.



Villeneuve-Trans, de, deh vel'nuv' tR A N, (Louis
FRANCOIS,) MARQUIS, a historical writer, born in 1784,
was a twin-brother of the preceding. Among his works
s a " History of Saint Louis, King of France," (3 vols.,
1836.) Died in 1850.

Villerme, ve'yeVmi', (Louis,) a son of the following,
was born in Paris in 1819. He wrote on agriculture
and economy.

Villerme, (Louis RENE,) a French economist and
medical writer, born in Paris in 1782. He advocated
reform in the treatment of prisoners, founded the " An-
nales d'Hygiene," (1829,) and was the first, it is said,
to apply statistics to questions of hygiene. His chief
work is a "Tableau of the Moral and Physical State
of Operatives employed in the Manufacture of Cotton,
Wool, and Silk," (2 vols., 1840.) Died in 1863.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'nerale."

Villeroi or Villeroy, de, deh vel'Rwi', (CHARLES
de Neufville deh nuh'vel',) MARQUIS, a French gen-
eral, born about 1560, was called Marquis d'Alincourt
n his youth. He fought for the League, and was a
rival ofSully. Died in 1642.

Villeroi, de, (FRANCOIS DE NEUFVILLE,) Due, a
marshal of France, bom in Paris in 1644, was a son
of Nicolas, noticed below. He was better qualified to
be a courtier than a general. He became marc'chal-
de-camp in 1674, lieutenant-general in 1677, and mar-
shal of France in 1693. Through royal favouritism
he was appointed commander-in-chief of the army in
Flanders in 1695. He failed to relieve Namur, which
was besieged and taken by William III. of England.
He commanded at the battle of Ramillies, (1706,) where
he was defeated by Marlborough ; but he retained the
favour of Louis XIV. even after this disaster. He
was noted for his presumption and self-esteem. Died
in 1730.

See SAIVT-SIMOM, "Me'moires ;" VOLTAIRR, "Siecle de Loaii
XIV;" DB COURCELLES, " Dictionnaire des GeneVaui Francais ;"
" NouveUe Biographic Ge'ne'rak."

Villeroi, de, (NICOLAS DE NEUFVILLE,) Due, a
courtier and general, born i 1598, was a son of Charles,
noticed above. He became a marshal of France, and
governor of the young king Louis XIV., about 1646.
Died in 1685.

Villeroi or Villeroy, de, (NICOLAS DE NEUFVILLE,)
SEIGNEUR, a French minister of state, born in 1542,
was the father of Charles, noticed above. He was ap-
pointed secretary of state in 1567, after which he was a
trusted counsellor of Charles IX. and Henry III. He
became a partisan of the Catholic League, and was the
agent of the negotiations opened in 1589 between the
Duke de Mayenne and Henry IV. In 1594 he ente:ed
the service of Henry IV. as secretary of state. He was
a rival or enemy of Sully. Died in 1617.

See P. MATHIEU, " Remarques sur la Vie de M. de Villeroy," 1618.

Villeroy. See VILLEROI.

Villers, ve'ya', (FRANCOIS TOUSSAINT,) a French revo-
lutionist, born at Rennes in 1749. He was a member
of the Convention of 1792-95, and of the Council of
Five Hundred. Died in 1807.

Villers, de, deh ve'ya', (CHARLES FRANC.OIS DOMI.
NIQUE,) a French philosopher and miscellaneous writer,
born in Lorraine in 1764. Soon after the breaking out
of the Revolution, he published a treatise " On Liberty,"


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 374 of 425)