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with the Arminians, the Catholics, and the Cartesian
philosophers, and advocated the doctrines set forth by
the Synod of Dort. Died in 1676.

See BAYLE, " Historical and Critical Dictionary."

Voet, (JOHN,) son of Paul, noticed below, was born
at Utrecht in 1647. He became professor of law at
Leyden, and was the author of a commentary on the
Pandects, and other legal works, in Latin. Died in 1714.

Voet, (JOHN EUSEBIUS,) a Dutch poet and physician,
resided at the Hague. Died in 1778.

Voet, (PAUL,) son of Gisbert, noticed above, was
born at Heusden in 1619. He became professor of
logic, Greek, and civil law at Utrecht. He was the
author of several valuable legal works, among which
we may name "On Laws and their Harmony," ("De
Statutis eorumque Concursu.") Died in 1677.

Voetius. See VOET.

Vogel, vo'zhel' or fo'gel, (ADOLPHE,) a French mu-
sical composer, a grandson of Christoph Vogel, was
born at Lille in 1806. He produced an opera entitled
"The Siege of Leyden," which was performed with
applause in 1847. Died September 27, 1892.

Vogel, fo'gel, (CHRISTIAN LEBERECHT,) a German
historical painter, born at Dresden in 1759, became pro-
fessor in the Academy of his native city. Died in 1816.

Vogel, (CHRISTOPH,) a German composer of operatic
music, born at Nuremberg in 1756. Among his works
is "Demophon." Died in 1788.

Vogel, (EDUARD,) son of Johann Karl, noticed below,
was born at Crefeld in 1829. Being sent in 1853 by the
English government to assist Barth, Richardson, and
Overweg in their researches in Central Africa, he was
put to death, by order of the Sultan of Wadai, in 1856.

Vogel, (JoHANN KARL CHRISTOPH,) a distinguished
German teacher and educational writer, born in 1795.
He became director of the Burgerschule at Leipsic in
1832. He published a "School Dictionary of the Ger-
man Language," a "German Reader for the Higher



eas k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/,- G, H, K,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z: th as in this. (Jgp^See Explanations, p.



VOGEL



2404



VOITURE



Classes," etc. Died in 1862. His daughter ELISE, born
in 1823, published " Musikalischen Mahrchen," (1852,)
and other popular tales.

Vogel UOHANN WILHELM,) a German mineralogist,
born in the duchy of Coburg in 1657. He published
"Travels in the East Indies," (1690,) and other works.
Died in 1723.

Vogel, (THEODOR,) a German botanist, who in 1841
accompanied the expedition sent out to Africa by the
English government. He died at Fernando Po about
lix months after.

Vogel von Vogelstein, fo'gel fon fo'gel-stin , (KARL
CHRISTIAN,) a German painter, son of Christian Lebe-
recht Vogel, noticed above, was born at Wildenfels in
1788. He studied at Dresden, and afterwards visited
Rome and Florence. He became professor of painting
at the Academy of Dresden in 1820, and in 1824 court
painter. Among his principal works are portraits of
Thorwaldsen and Pope Pius VII., and illustrations of
ioethe's " Faust." Died at Munich, March 4, 1868.

Vogelin, fo'geh-leen', (ERNST,) a Swiss painter, born
at Constance in 1528, was a son-in-law of Valentine
Papa, a noted publisher of Leipsic. Among the publi-
cations of Vogelin were excellent editions of Isocrates
and other classics. Died in 1590.

Voght, von, fon foot, (KASPAR,) BARON, a German
philanthropist, born at Hamburg in 1752, was the founder
of several benevolent and educational institutions for the
poor in his native city. He was the author of treatises
on agriculture and rural economy. Died in 1839.

Vogl, fool, QOHANN NEPOMUK,) an Austrian lyric
poet, born at Vienna in 1802, published " Ballads and
Romances," " Soldier Songs," " Lyric Poems," and other
works. Died November 16, 1866.

Vogler, foc'ler, (GEORG JOSEPH,) a German musician
and composer, born at Wiirzburg in 1749. He was
appointed chapel-master at Stockholm in 1786. He
published several musical treatises, and numbered
among his pupils Meyerbeer and Weber. His com-
positions include masses, symphonies, etc. Died in 1814.
Vogler, (VALENTIN HEINRICH,) a German medical
writer, born at Helmstedt in 1622 ; died in 1677.

Vogli, v61'yee, (GIOVANNI GIACINTO,) an Italian
physician, born near Bologna in 1697. He published
a work "On the Generation of Man," ("De Anthropo-
gonia," 1718.) Died in 1762.

Vogorides. See ALEXANDER VOGORIDES, and ADOS-
SIDES.

Vogt, foot, sometimes written Vocht, (KARL,) a
German naturalist and physiologist, born at Giessen in
1817. He studied anatomy and medicine, and subse-
quently accompanied Agassiz in his expedition to the
glaciers. He was appointed professor of geology at
Geneva in 1852. Among his works we may name
"Physiological Letters," (1845,) "Pictures from Animal
Ijfe," (1852,) "Outlines of Geology," (1860,) and "Lee
tu/es on Man, his Position in the Creation and in the
History of the Earth," (1863.) He also contributed to
Agassiz's " Natural History of Fresh-water Fish." He
favoured the Darwinian theory. "All the German writers
we have quoted," says the *' North American Review"
for April, 1870, " Vogt, Buchner, Haeckel, and others,
dwell with more or less concealed elation on one great
service, as they suppose, of the Darwinian theory, that
it has removed the necessity of an intelligent Creator from
the theory of the universe." Died May 5, 1895.

Vogii6, vo'gwi', (CHARLES JEAN MELCHIOR,) MAR-
QUIS, a French archaeologist, born in Paris in 1829. He
travelled in the East. In 1871 he was made ambassador
to Turkey, and from 1875 to 1879 was ambassador to Aus-
tria. Among his works are " Les Eglises de la Terre-
Sainte," (1859,) " Les Evenements de Syrie," (1860,) " Le
Temple de Jerusalem, (1864-65,) " Melanges d'Archeolo-
gie orientale," (1869,) " Inscriptions se'mitiques," (1869-
77,) etc.

Voiart, vwa'iV, (ANNE ELISABETH Petitpaln
peh-te'paN',) a French authoress, born at Nancy in 1786.
She was married to M. Voiart. She wrote novels and
educational works, among which is " Woman, or the
Six Loves," ("La Femme, ou les Six Amours," 6 vols.,
1828.) This gained the Montyon prize. Died in 1866.



Voigt, foiKt, (GOTTFRIED,) a learned German writer,
born in Misnia in 1644. He became rector of an academy
at Hamburg about 1680. He published, besides other
works, " Physical Curiosities," (" Curiositates Physi-
cae," 1668,) and a treatise on the altars of the early
Christians, called " Thysiasteriologia, sive de Altaribus
veterum," etc., (1709.) Died in 1682.

Voigt, (JoHANN,) a German Protestant minister, born
in Hanover in 1695. He published a " Critical Cata-
logue of Rare Books," (1732.) Died in 1765.

Voigt, (JOHANNES,) a German historian, born in Saxe-
Meiningen in 1786. He became professor of historical
sciences at Konigsberg in 1817, and afterwards filled the
chair of mediaeval and modern history in the same uni-
versity. He published a " History of the Lombard Con
federacy," (" Geschichte des Lombardenbundes," 1818,)
a " History of Prussia from the Earliest Times down to
the Destruction of the Power of the German Order," (9
vols., 1827-39,) and other works. Died in 1263.

Voigt, von, fon foiKt, (CHRISTIAN GOTTLOB,) a Ger-
man jurist, born at Allstadt in 1743, rose to be minister
of state for Saxe-Weimar. He was an intimate friend
of Schiller, Herder, Goethe, and Wieland. Died in 1819.

His son, of the same name, born in 1774, filled several
offices under the government, and was sent on a mission
to Saint Petersburg in 1801. Died in 1813.

Voisenon, de, deh vwlz'noN', (CLAUDE HENRI
FusftE,) AHHE, a French wit and dramatic writer, born
near Melun in 1708. Having taken orders, he was ap-
pointed grand vicar of Boulogne, and subsequently
obtained the abbey of Jard. He was elected to the
French Academy in 1762. He wrote a number of pop-
ular comedies ; also poems, tales, literary anecdotes,
and historical sketches. He was an intimate friend of
Voltaire. Died in 1775.

See G. DESNOIRBSTBRRES, " Ls priginaux ;" " Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Ge"nra]e ;" " Eraser's Magazine" for January, 1851.

Voisin, (DANIEL.) See VOYSIN.

Voiain, vwa'zaN', (FfiLix,) born at Mans in 1794,
studied medicine in Paris, and was appointed, in 1831,
physician to the Bice'tre Asylum. He published a
treatise " On the Moral and Physical Causes of Mental
Maladies," (1 826,) "On Idiocy in Children," (1843,) and
other similar works. Died November 23, 1872.

Voisin, de, deh vwl'zaN', (JOSEPH,) a French theolo-
gian and Hebrew scholar, born at Bordeaux about 1610.
He was chaplain to the Prince of Conti. He published
the "Theology of the Jews," ("Theologia Judaeorum,"
1647,) a "Treatise on the Jubilee," (1655,) and other
works. Died in 1685.

Voiture, vwa'tiiR , (VINCENT,) a famous French poet
and wit, born at Amiens in 1598, was a son of a rich wine-
merchant. He was admitted about 1625 into the H&tel
Rambouillet, where he acquired great favour and admira-
tion by his wit, his talent for raillery, and his agreeabls
manners. In his early life he was in the service of Gas-
ton, Duke of Orleans, who, having revolted against the
king, sent Voiture to Spain about 1632 to solicit the aid
of the Count of Olivares. He described his travels in
Spain in letters, which are among his best works. He
was one of the first members of the French Academy,
into which he was admitted in 1634. In 1639 he became
mattrc-fhStil (steward) to the king. He obtained in
1642 the office of chief clerk to the controller-general of
finances, a lucrative sinecure. Died in 1648. He wrote
many letters and poems, which the critics of his own
time extolled as models of grace, but which are marred
by affectation. His style was greatly admired by Boileau.
"If the bad taste of others," says Hallam, "had not
perverted his own, Voiture would have been a good
writer. His letters, especially those written from Spain,
are sometimes truly witty, and always vivacious. .
Pope, in addressing ladies, was nearly the ape of Voi-
ture." ("Introduction to the Literature of Europe."
Two English translations of Voiture's letters were made,
one by J. Davies, (1657,) and one by Dryden and others,
(3d edition, 1736.)

See ALPHHN, " fitude sur Voiture," etc., 1853 : TALLKMANT D
RKAUX, " Historiettes;" A. DAUPHIN, "Discoure sur Voiture,"
1847 ; PELLISSON, " Histoire de 1'Acade'mie Fran{aise ;"
Biographic G^ne>ale."



1 Nouvelle



5. e, T, o. u, y, long: a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; g<56d; mrJon



VOLANUS



2405



VOLT A



Volanus, vo-li'nOs, (ANDREAS,) a Polish writer and j
<*rotestant theologian, born in the province of Posen in
1530, published numerous controversial works against
the Jesuits and Socinians; also a Latin treatise "On
Political Liberty," (1582.) Died in 1610.

Volfius, vol'fe'iis', (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a French prelate,
born at Dijon in 1734. He became constitutional Bishop
of Cote-d'Or in 1791. Died in 1822.

See AMANTON, " Notice sur J. B. Volfius," 1823.

Volger, fol'ger, (WILHELM FRIEDRICH,) a German
teacher, born near Liineburg in 1794, published several
geographical and historical works. Died March 6, 1879.

Volk, folk, (WILHELM,) a Prussian writer, born at
Berlin in 1804. He published "The Ecstatic Virgins
of the Tyrol," and other works on mysticism ; also a
"Manual of Italian Literature," and "Sweden, Ancient
and Modern." Died in 1882.

Vol-keTI-us, [Ger. pron. fol-ka'le-us,] (JoHANN,) a
German Socinian minister, born in Misnia, flourished in
the seventeenth century. He wrote a work " On True
Religion," (" De vera Religione," 1630.)

Volkhardt, folk'haRt, (WILHELM,) a German his-
torical painter, born at Herdecke, on the Ruhr, in 1815.
He worked at Dusseldorf. Died March 14, 1876.

Volkmaun, folk'man, (ALFRED WILHELM) a distin-
guished German physiologist, born at Leipsic in 1801.
He studied medicine and natural history at the univer-
sity of his native city, and in 1837 became professor of
physiology at Dorpat. He was afterwards appointed to
the chair of physiology and anatomy at Halle. Among
his principal works are the " Anatomy of Animals,"
(" Anatomia Animalium," 183 133,) " New Contributions
to the Physiology of Vision." (1836,) and "The Doctrine
of the Corporeal Life of Man," (1837.) Died in 1877.

Volkmann, (JULIUS,) a jurist, born at Leipsic in
1804, is a brother of the preceding. He practised law
at Chemnitz, and published legal works. Died in 1873.

Volkof, Volkov, or Wolkow, vol-kof, (FEODOR
GRIGORIEVITCH,) born at Kostroma, in Russia, in 1729,
was the founder of the first theatre in his native country.
It was erected at Yaroslaf about 1750. He officiated as
architect, scene-painter, manager, actor, and poet, and
distinguished himself in various departments. About
1756 he was ordered by the empress to establish a
theatre at Moscow. Died in 1763.

Volkonski, vol-kon'ske, (PETER MIKHAILOVITCH,)
PRINCE, a Russian field-marshal general, born in 1776.
He was the creator of the general staff (Itat-major) of the
Russian service, was distinguished at Austerlitz and Leip-
sic, and for many years took an influential part in Russian
military and political affairs. Died in 1852.

Vollenhove, vol'len-ho'veh, (JAN,) a Dutch poet and
Protestant minister of the seventeenth century, preached
at the Hague. His chief work is "The Triumph of
the Cross."

Volney, vol'ne, de, [Fr. pron. deh vol'nj',] (CoN-
STANTIN FRANCOIS,) COUNT, a distinguished French
philosopher, author, and traveller, was born at Craon
(Mayenne) in February, 1757. His family name was
CHASSEBCEUF, (shiss'buf,) for which his father substi-
tuted BOISGIRAIS. The name Volney was adopted by the
subject of this article, who inherited an independent
fortune. Having travelled in Egypt and Syria (1783-
85) and learned the Arabic language, he published in
1787 his " Travels in Egypt and Syria," (" Voyage en
Egypte et en Syrie," 2 vols.,) which is a work of high
reputation. It was esteemed the best description of
those countries that had yet appeared. In 1789 he was
elected a deputy to the States-General. He favoured
rational liberty and reform, but opposed the excesses of
the Revolution, and was identified with the Girondists.
The weakness of his voice hindered his success as an
orator. In 1791 he produced a popular and eloquent
work, entitled " Ruins, or Meditations on the Revolu-
tions of Empires." He was imprisoned by the dominant
party in 1793, and saved from death by the fall of
Robespierre, (July, 1794.) He crossed the Atlantic in
1795, and passed two years or more in the United
States. He complained that he was ill treated by the
government or by President Adams. In his absence he
was chosen a member of the Institute. He supported



Bonaparte on the i8th Brumaire, 1799, but declined the
place of minister of the interior, which the First Consul
offered him, and soon became alienated from his service.
In 1803 he published a " Description of the Climate and
Soil of the United States of America," ("Tableau du
Climat et du Sol des Etat-Unis d'AmeViqne," 2 vols.
8vo,) which was received with favour. He married his
cousin, Mademoiselle de Chasseboeuf, in 1810. Among
his works are "The Natural Law, or Physical Principles
of Morality," (1793,) and "Researches on Ancient His-
tory," (3 vols., 1814.) Died in April, 1820.

See A. BOSSANGE, " Notice sur la Vie de Volney," 1821 : EUG*N
BEKCII, " Etudes sur Volney," 1852 ; SAINTK-BEUVE. "Cuuerin
du Lundi," vol. vii. : " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale.

Vo-log'e-sel [Fr. VoLOGtse, vo'lo'zhiz'] L, King of
Parthia, ascended the throne in 50 A.D. He waged war
against the Romans, who in the reign of Nero invaded
Armenia. Died about 81 A.D.

Vologeses II. was a son of Chosroes, whom he suc-
ceeded in 122 A.D. His reign was pacific. He died
about 148, and left the throne to his son, Vologeses IIL
He attempted about 162 to conquer Armenia from the
Romans, but was defeated.

Volpato, vol-pJ'to, (GIOVANNI,) an Italian engraver,
born at Bassano about 1735. He studied at Venice under
Bartolozzi, and afterwards executed a number of prints,
after the works of Raphael in the Vatican, and other
eminent artists. His engravings are numerous, and are
ranked among the master-pieces of the time. Raphael
Morghen was the pupil and son-in-law of Volpato. Died
in 1803.

Volpi, vol'pee, (GiAN ANTONIO,) an Italian printer
and classical scholar, born at Padua in 1686. In con-
junction with the printer Comino, he established a press,
called "Libreria Volpi-Cominiana," from which were
issued excellent editions of the classics, including Ca-
tullus. Volpi was for many years professor of rhetoric
and philosophy at Padua, and was the author of Latin
poems and other works. Died in 1766.

See FABRONI, " Viue Italorum doctrina excellentium."

Volpi, (GIUSEPPE,) an Italian historian, born near
Bari in 1680. He wrote a history of the Visconti, (2 vols.,
1737-48.) Died in 1756.

Volta, vol'ta, (ALESSANDRO,) a celebrated Italian
electrician and natural philosopher, born at Como,
February 19, 1745. He wrote a treatise "On the At-
tractive Force of Electric Fire," (" De Vi attractiva Ignis
electrici," 1769,) and invented an electrophorus in 1775.
About 1776 he became professor of natural philosophy
in the University of Pavfa. He travelled in Germany,
France, and England in 1782. He invented an electrical
condenser and a eudiometer. His celebrity is derived
chiefly from the discovery of the Voltaic pile, an appa-
ratus which excites a continuous current of electricity by
the contact of different substances. He published this
discovery about 1792, and received the Copley medal of
the Royal Society of London in 1794. He generalized
the phenomena which Galvani had observed, and recti-
fied an error in the theory by which that philosopher
had explained them. " It was thus," says Sir J. F. W.
Herschel, " that he arrived at the knowledge of a gene-
ral fact, that of the disturbance of electrical equilibrium
by the mere contact of different bodies, and the circula-
tion of a current of electricity in one constant direction
through a circuit composed of three different conductors.
To increase the intensity of the very minute and delicate
effect thus observed, became his next aim ; nor did his
inquiry terminate till it had placed him in possession of
that most wonderful of all human inventions, the pile
which bears his name, through the medium of a series
of well-conducted and logically-combined experiments,
which has rarely, if ever, been surpassed in the annals
of physical research." (" Preliminary Discourse on the
Study of Natural Philosophy.") Volta married Teresa
de' Peregrin! in 1794, and had three sons. Invited by
Bonaparte, he went to Paris in 1801, and performed ex-
periments with his pile before the Institute, of which he
was chosen one of the eight foreign associates in 1802.
He retained his professorship at Pavia about thirty
years. In 1810 he received the title of count from Na-
poleon, who also appointed him a senator of the king-



as k; ? as j; | hard; g as/; G, H, ^guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (B^=See Explanations, p.



VOL TAIRE



2406



VOLTAIRE



dom of Italy. He wrote a number of treatises on elec-
tricity, etc., which were collected and published in 5 vols.,
(1816,) under the title of " Opere di Volta." He died at
Como in April, 1827.

See ARAGO, " filoge de Volta," 1834 : ZUCCALA, " Elogio storico
di A. Volta," 1827 ; MOCCHETTI, "Vita del Conte Volta," 1833: A.
SEEBECK, " Gedachtnissrede auf A. Volta." 1846; TIPALDO, " Bio-
grafia degli Italian! illustri :" " Nouvelle Biographic Gen^rale."

Voltaire, de, deh vol'taV, (FRANCOIS MARIE
Arouet a'roo'i',) the most remarkable name in the
history of French literature, was born at Chatenay, near
Sceaux, the 2oth of February, 1694. His father was
Francois Arouet, formerly a notary, then a treasurer in
the chamber of accounts ; his mother, who belonged to
a noble family of Poitou, was Marie Marguerite Dau-
mart The name Voltaire, according to some authorities,
was derived from an estate which belonged to his mother,
though others have maintained that it was an anagram
of Arottft 1. i., (i.e. Aroutt le ieum, (jfune,) or " Arouet
the Younger.") Madame Arouet is said to have been an
intelligent, witty, and attractive woman. She died before
her distinguished son had reached his twentieth year.
The godfather and first teacher of young Arouet was the
Abbe de Chateauneuf, whose morals, like his religious
principles, were anything but strict : so that it was whis-
pered and believed by many that Voltaire might justly
have claimed with him a more direct relationship than
that of godson. So much, at least, may be considered
certain, that the abbe early indoctrinated his pupil in
the skeptical literature which was then becoming all the
fashion in France. At the age of eleven years Voltaire
wrote a poetical petition for an invalid soldier, which
excited the admiration of the celebrated beauty Ninon
de Lenclos, then far advanced in years ; and, at her re-
quest, he was presented to her by the Abbe Chateauneuf,
who had the reputation of being her latest lover. Hei
death occurred shortly after this interview, and by her
will she left Voltaire two thousand livres for the purpose
of purchasing books. He had been placed when he was
ten years old at the Jesuit college Louis-le-Grand, where
one of his instructors, Pere Le Jay, is said to have pre-
dicted that he would some day be the Coryphaeus of
deism in France. Even at that early age the wit and
genius of the young Arouet appear to have excited
general admiration. In 1710 the poet Jean Baptiste
Rousseau, then in the acme of his fame, assisted in the
distribution of the honours at the college. As one
prize after another was awarded to Voltaire, the atten-
tion of Rousseau was arrested ; he desired to have the
boy presented to him, and predicted for him, we are
told, a brilliant literary destiny.

On leaving the college of the Jesuits, he was sent by
his father to a law-school, where he says he was dis-
gusted with the unphilosophical method of pursuing the
study of jurisprudence, and he therefore resolved to
abandon the law ; but it is probable that his taste for light
literature contributed quite as much towards leading
him to that resolution as the philosophical considera-
tions to which he refers. The Abbe Chateauneuf had
already introduced him into a circle at once brilliant
and licentious. To withdraw him from this corrupt but
fascinating influence, his father sent him as secretary to
the Marquis Chateauneuf, who was setting out as am-
bassador to the United Provinces. While there, he se-
duced the daughter of Madame du Noyer, an intriguing
woman, who passed for being a Protestant. She was
even suspected by some of conniving at, if not directly
encouraging, the fault of the youthful lovers, in the
hope of obtaining money from Voltaire's relations. She
complained loudly to the Marquis of Chateauneuf, from
whom, soon after, Voltaire received an order to quit the
Hague and nturn to France. Mademoiselle du Noyer's
father was in Paris, and Voltaire diB not hesitate to ad-
vise his inamorata to feign a conversion to the Catholic
faith, in which case she might hope to have the powerful
assistance of the Church in rescuing her from the tyranny
of her mother. But this ingenious plot was not success-
ful, and the correspondence between the lovers soon after
ceased, at least for a time.

At the house of M. de Caumartin, (a friend of the
family,) with whom Voltaire sought refuge from the



frowns and reproaches of his father,* he had an oppor-
tunity of hearing the father of that gentleman talk of
the glorious days of Henry IV., with some of whose
contemporaries the old man had conversed in his youth.
Young Arouet's enthusiasm was strongly excited. It
was then that he formed the design of his great epic, the
" Henriade," and of his history of the age of Louis XIV.
About this time Louis XIV. died ; a witty and satirical
pamphlet, in which the decease of the king was treated
as a national deliverance, and in which the new govern-
ment was not spared, was suspected to have been written,
in whole or in part, by Voltaire. He was accordingly
arrested, and confined in the Bastille. This, however,
proved a blessing to him, rather than a calamity. Freed
during his imprisonment from the seductions of pleasure
and the dissipations of society, he composed a consider-
able part of the " Henriade," and completed his tragedy
of " CEdipe," which attracted the favourable notice of the
regent, and procured his liberation. He was presented
soon after by M. Noce to the regent, who gave him one
thousand crowns. Voltaire is reported to have said on that


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 378 of 425)