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by his nobles. He encouraged the spirit of enterprise
among the Portuguese, and fitted out a squadron destined
for the East Indies and the Eastern Seas. Died in 1495.

See VASCONCELI.OS, " Vida y Acciones del Rey Don Juan II.,"
1639, (translated into French, 1641 ;) DAMlAo DE GOES, "Chronics
do Principe Dom Joao Rey," etc., 1567; " Nouvelle Biographic

John iJoaoi III., King of Portugal, born in 1502,
succeeded his father, Emanuel the Great, in 1521. In
1524 he married Catherine of Austria, to whose brother,
Charles V., he gave his sister Isabella in marriage. He
colonized Brazil, and sent to the Eastern Seas a fleet,
by which Japan was discovered. He established the
Inquisition in Portugal and its colonies. Died in 1557.

John (Joao) IV., surnamed THE FORTUNATE, chief
of the dynasty of Braganza, was born in 1604. He threw
off the authority of Spain, to which Portugal had been
subjected since the days of Philip II., and became king
in 1640. He enacted many wise and beneficial laws, and
died, greatly regretted by the nation, in 1656.

See VERTOT, " Histoire des Revolutions de Portugal," 1689.

John (Joao) V., King of Portugal, born in 1689, suc-
ceeded his father, Peter II., in 1707. He joined the allies
against France and Spain about 1702. After the peace
of Utrecht (1713) he devoted his time to the encourage-
ment of education and commerce. Died in 1750.

See " Vida, Successes e Fallecimento do Rey Joao V'.," Lisbon,
1750; FERDINAND DENIS, "Portugal."

John (Joao) VI. of Portugal, was born in 1769, and
was appointed Regent of Portugal in 1793 on account of
the derangement of his mother, Maria I., who was then
queen-regnant. In 1807, when the French invaded
Portugal, he sailed to Brazil, where he received the title
of emperor. He returned in 1821, soon after which the
Brazilians revolted and declared themselves independent.
Died in 1826.

See " Histoire de Jean VI, Roi de Portugal," 1827; " Nouvelle
Biographic Ge'ne'rale."



John (Johan, yo'han) I., King of Sweden, the last
of the dynasty of Sverker, succeeded Eric in 1216. He
was very active in establishing Christianity. Died in 1222.


John HI., King of Sweden, the second son of Gus-
tavus Vasa, was born in 1537. He married Catherine
Jagellon, daughter of Sigismund, King of Poland. In
1560 he visited England, to negotiate a marriage between

us elder brother Eric and Queen Elizabeth, in which he
was unsuccessful. In 1568 he deposed Eric and ascended
the throne in his stead. Influenced by his queen, he
attempted to re-establish the Catholic religion, but was
eflectually resisted by his brother Charles, Duke of
Sudermania, at the head of the Protestants. Died
in 1592.

John, King, or Emperor, of Abyssinia, was known as
Prince Kassai or Kasa, (Lij Kassa,) and was Under-
Governor of Adowa. In 1867 the Emperor Theodore
made him one of the kings of Tigre. In 1868 he as-
sisted the English in their march against Theodore, after
whose fall John received from the conquerors large
amounts of military stores. Civil wars followed, but in
1872 John was crowned at Axoom. la 1876 he repelled
an Egyptian invasion, and in 1879 he received the alle-
giance of Menilek, King of Shoa. Died Marcli 12, 1)589.

John (Jean) I., Duke of Bretagne, was born in 1217.
Having attempted to check the papal encroachments,
the pope excommunicated him, and he was obliged to
g-> to Rome to obtain absolution. Died in 1284.

John IL, son of the preceding, was born in 1 239. He
married Beatrix, daughter of Henry III. of England,
from whom he received the title of Count of Richemont.
He was also made a peer of France by Philippe le Bel.
He was killed at the ordination of Clement V. at Lyons
by the falling of a wall.

John HI., Duke of Bretagne, surnamed THF. GOOD,
succeeded his father, Arthur II., in 1312. He is said
to have been a just and benevolent prince. Died in

John IV., Duke of Bretagne, known as JEAN DE
MONTFORT, half-brother of the preceding, was born in
1293. John (Jean) III., having no children, willed the
dukedom to Charles de Blois ; but Jean de Montfort, re-
garded by many as the legitimate heir, soon reduced all
the towns and provinces to his subjection, and went to
England to render homage to King Edward for his estates.
On his return he was summoned before the court of peers
to prove his claims to Bretagne. The peers decided
against him, and he raised an army to defend his rights,
but was shortly after taken prisoner by the Duke of Nor-
mandy and confined in the tower of Louvre at Paris.
In the mean time the war was carried on with energy
by his duchess, Jeanne of Flanders. At the expiration
of nearly four years, John escaped, disguised as a mer-
chant. He died soon after, in 1345.

See DARU, " Histoire de Rretasne."

John (Jean) V., (or John IV, according to some
authorities,) Duke of Bretagne, born in 1338, was a
son of the preceding. lie married Mary, a daughter
of Edward III. of England. By a decisive victory over
his competitor, Charles de Blois, at Auray, in 1364, he
obtained possession of Bretagne. He afterwards fought
for the English against the French, who drove him out
of Bretagne about 1374 ; but he was soon restored. Died
In 1399.

See SISMONDI, " Histoire des Francais."

John (Jean) VI., son of the preceding, became Duke
of Bretagne in 1399, when he was ten years of age. He
carried on a war against the Count of Penthievre and
the Duke of Burgundy, and afterwards joined the Eng-
lish under the Duke of Bedford against France. Died
in 1443.

zhoN SON pUR,| Duke of Burgundy, born at Dijon in
1371, was the eldest son of Philip the Bold. At the age
of twenty-five he assisted Sigismund, King of Hungary,
against the Turks, by whom he was made prisoner at the
battle of Nicopolis. When taken before the Sultan Baya-
zeed, (Bajazet.) he evinced so much courage that that
sovereign gave him his liberty and the surname of SANS
PEUR, (the "Fearless.") After his return to France he
was engaged in fighting the English and in political in-
trigues at the French court. He was appointed guardian
of the dauphin of France in 1406. He caused the assas-
sination of his rival, the Duke of Orleans, in I. .07, and
obtained almost unlimited power in the kingdom. He
was murdered in 1419, at the instigation of the dauphin,
son of Charles VI.

i. e. I. o, u, y, long ; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, f, 6, u, 5?, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; n6t; good, moon ;




John, IGer. JOHANN, yo'hln,] surnamed THE CON-
STANT, a son of the Elector Ernest, was born in 1467,
and became Elector of Saxony in 1 525. He was a zealous
defender of the Protestant faith, and in 1530 caused the
Confession of Augsburg to be proclaimed in the Diet
assembled at that city. Died in 1532.

See EXSCH und GRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie. "

John |Lat. JOHAN'NES; Fr. JEAN, zhON ; It. GIO-
VANNI, jo-vin'nee| I., a native of Tuscany, was raised to
the Roman see upon the death of Hormisdas, in 523.
He was sent on an embassy to Constantinople by King
Theodoric to obtain toleration for the Arians ; and on
his return, having displeased that monarch, he was
thrown into prison, where he died in 526.

John n., surnamed MERCURIUS, was a native of
Rome, and succeeded Boniface II. in 532 or 533. Died
in 535.

John IH, a native of Rome, succeeded Pelagius I.
in 560. Died about 573, and was succeeded by Bene-
dict I.

John IV., a Dalmatian, succeeded Severinus in 640.
He condemned the doctrines of the Monothelites and the
edict of the emperor Heraclius, called "The Exposition
of Faith," which was issued in their defence. Died in
642, and was succeeded by Theodorus.

John V., a native of Antioch, in Syria, was chosen
pope on the death of Benedict II., in 685, and died in
687. Conon succeeded him.

John VI., a Greek, succeeded Sergius I. in 701. During
his pontificate Wilfred, Archbishop of York, was tried
and acquitted of the charges preferred by the English
clergy. Died in 705.

John VII., a native of Greece, was elected successor
to the preceding. Died in 707. Sisinnius succeeded

John VHI., (called John IX. by those who admit the
truth of Pope Joan's history,) was a native of Rome, and
succeeded Adrian II. in 872. He crowned the emperor
Charles the Bald, and afterwards Charles le Gros. He
confirmed Phocius Patriarch of Constantinople. In 878
the Saracens invaded Italy and compelled him to pay
tribute. Died in 882. He was succeeded by Martin II.

See ARTAUD DB MONTOR, " Histoire des souverains Pontifes."

John IX., an Italian, became pope in 898, after the
death of Theodore II. Died about 900.

John X was elected in 91 5, through the influence of his
mistress Theodora, as successor to Lando. He crowned
Berengarius as emperor. Subsequently, with the assist-
ance of this sovereign, he marched against the Saracens,
who had invaded Italy, defeated them, and drove them
from the country. At this time Guido, Duke of Tus-
cany, with his wife, the infamous Marozia, possessed
great power in Rome. John, having offended them, was
seized in his palace by their soldiers and put in prison,
where he is said to have been killed in 928.

John XI., elected pope in 931, was the son of Maro-
zia, as some suppose, by Pope Sergius III. Alberico,
another son of Marozia, raised a revolt against his
mother, whom he imprisoned with John in the castle
of Sant' Angelo. The latter died about 936, and was
succeeded by Leo VII.

John XI I., son of Alberico, was elected successor to
Agapetus II. in 956, when he was but eighteen years old.
He changed his name from Octavianus. Four years
later he crowned Otho I. Emperor of Germany and
King of Italy. Subsequently he became so notorious for
his oppression and licentiousness that Otho returned to
Rome in 963 and caused John to be deposed and Leo
VIII. to be chosen in his place. But, as soon as Othu
left Italy, John entered Rome at the head of a powerful
party, drove out Leo, and committed great atrocities.
He died in 964. One of his mistresses, named Joan,
exercised much influence at Rome during his pontificate ;
and it has been suggested that this may have given rise
to the story of " Pope Joan."

See BARONIUS, "Annales."

John XIII., Bishop of Narni, was raised to the papal
see in 965 by the influence of the emperor Otho I. The
Romans, however, being opposed to this election, im-
prisoned John. Otho marched to Rome, liberated him,
ind hanged several of his opponents. John crowned

Otho II., son of Otho I., as emperor. Died in 972, and
was succeeded by Benedict VI.

John XIV., Bishop of Pavia, was raised to the papal
see, as successor to Benedict VII., about 984. After a
pontificate of nine months, he was deposed by Boniface
VII. and put in prison, where he is supposed to have
been poisoned in 985.

John XV., elected successor to John XIV., died a few
days after. By some he is left out of the order of popes.

John XVI., a native of Rome, became pope about
986. During his pontificate, a patrician, named Cres-
centius, caused great disturbances and drove the pope
from Rome. He was, however, reinstated in his au-
thority by the emperor Otho. Died in 996, and was
succeeded byGregory V.

John XVU . whose previous name was PHILACA-
THIUS, a native of Calabria, and Bishop of Piacenza, was
chosen pope in 997 by the faction of Crescentius, in op-
position to Gregory V. Otho III., espousing the cause
of the latter, executed Crescentius with his adherents,
and imprisoned John after having horribly mutilated him.

John XV1I1. was elected successor to Sylvester II.
in 1003, and died four months afterwards.

John XIX, elected pope in 1004. He sent Saint
Bruno to preach Christianity to the Russians, and healed
the schism between the Churches of Rome and Constan-
tinople. Died in 1009, and was succeeded by Sergius IV.

John XX., previously named ROMANUS, was the son
of Count Gregory of Tuscany, and brother of Benedict
VIII., whom he succeeded in 1024. In 1027 he crowned
Conrad as emperor. He died in 1033 or 1034, and was
succeeded by Benedict IX.

John XXI., born in Lisbon, was elected successor to
Adrian V. about 1276. He died after a pontificate of a
few months. Nicholas III. succeeded him.

John XXII., a native of Cahors, in France, and pre-
viously known as JACQUES D'EusE, or JAMES OF OSSA,
was chosen to succeed Clement V. in 1316. He was
consecrated at Lyons, and made his residence at Avignon.
At this period there was a competition for the throne of
Germany between Louis of Bavaria and Frederick of
Austria. John, who declared that he had the right to
appoint the emperor, excommunicated Louis in 1324 or
1 327, and advanced the claims of Robert, King of Naples.
This led to a long war in Italy between the Guelphs,
who were allies of Robert, and the Ghibelines, who were
assisted by the troops of Louis. At first the Guelphs had
the advantage ; but their opponents soon gained ground,
and in 1327 Louis visited Italy and received the iron
crown of Milan. At Rome the Bishops of Venice and
Aleria crowned him emperor, after which he deposed
John and appointed Peter de Corvara in his place, with
the name of Nicholas V. After the return of Louis to
Germany the Guelphs began to obtain the ascendency.
John died at Avignon in 1334. He possessed extraor-
dinary abilities, was devoted to study, and wrote some
medical treatises. His avarice, however, was the most
prominent trait in his character ; and to him is attributed
the introduction of the Annates, or First-Fruits. He left,
besides his jewels, eighteen millions of golden florins in
his coffers.

See ARTAUD DE MONTOR, "Histoire des souverains Pontifes;'
PLATINA, " Historia de Vitis Pontificum Romaiiorum ;" " Nouvelle
Biographic Gt^ne'rale."

John XXLLL, (or XXTL, according to some authori-
ties,) (Cardinal COSSA,) a Neapolitan, was elected as suc-
cessor to Alexander V. in 1410, during a schism of the
Church. His title was disputed by two rivals, Benedict
XIII. and Gregory XII. He was a man of depraved
morals and of insatiable cupidity. A quarrel between
John and Ladislaus of Naples resulted in the expulsion
of the former from Rome. John applied for support
to the emperor Sigismund, who convoked at Constance
in 1414 a general council. This council (at which John
was present) required him to abdicate the popedom.
He pretended to comply, but left Constance disguised,
and fled towards Rome with the intention to resist the
decree of the council. He was quickly arrested and
brought back to Constance, where he was convicted of
many heinous offences, and formally deposed, in 1415.
He was confined in prison about three years. He died
at Florence in 1419.

eas/t; 9 ass; gAard; gasj; G,H,Vi, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasr; th as in this.

Explanations, p. 2V




John, (Juan,) DON, OF AUSTRIA, one of the most cele-
brated military and naval commanders of the sixteenth
century, was the natural son of the emperor Charles V.
and Barbara Blomberg, a native of Germany. He was
born at Katisbon in 1546, and passed as the son of a
Spanish nobleman named Quixada, by whom he was
educated. Charles V. on his death-bed recommended
him to the protection of Philip II., who soon after ac-
knowledged John as his brother and made appropria-
tions which enabled him to live in princely state. At
the age of twenty-two he was appointed commander-in-
chief of the forces sent against the Moriscoes of Granada,
whom he vanquished in several battles and finally re-
duced to complete subjection. In 1571, war having been
declared between Philip II. and the Sultan, Don John
was appointed generalissimo of the combined fleets of
Spain and Italy. He sailed from Messina in the middle
of September with two hundred and fifty ships of war
and about fifty thousand men, and on the 7th of October
encountered the Turkish fleet in the Gulf of Lepanto,
where he gained one of the greatest naval victories of
which history makes mention. Soon after the battle
of Lepanto he received an embassy from thf Greeks of
Albania and Macedonia, requesting him to assist them
against the Turks and to receive the sovereignty of their
countries. Don John was prevented from accepting the
offer by Philip, who, jealous of his brother's reputation,
refused the assistance necessary for the enterprise. Don
John, in a subsequent expedition against Africa, took
Tunis, Biserta, and several other important places. Ik
was appointed in 1576 Governor of the Netherlands,
which were then in a state of rebellion. He at first used
conciliatory measures ; but the States, suspecting him
of duplicity, declined his overtures and prepared for war
Don John soon after took Namur by stratagem, and on
the 1st of January, 1578, gained the decisive victory ol
Gemblours. He afterwards reduced Louvain, Nivelle,
and other towns belonging to the insurgents. \Vhilt
thus actively engaged, in October, 1578, he was seized
with an illness which carried him to the grave. Strong
suspicions were entertained by many that he was poisoned.

See L. VAN DER HAMMRN, " Vida de Don Juan," 1627: BRUSLI*
DB MONTPLBINCHAMP, " Vie de Don Juan d'Autriche," i6qo ; ALEXI>
DUMESNIL, " Vie de Don Juan d'Autriche," 1827 ; MOTLEY, " Rise
of the Dutch Republic." vol. iii. part v. chaps, i.-v. ; PRESCOTT.
" History of Philip 1 1., "vol. ii. ; I. P. LVSHR, " Enherzog Johann,
der Freund des Volkes," iS4S; SCHNBIDEWIND, " Leben des Erz-
herzogs Johann von Oesterreich," etc., 1849.

John, yon, (EUGENIA,) a German novelist, best known
by the pseudonym of E. MARLITT. She was born at
Arnstadt, December 5, 1825. Adopted by the Princess
of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, she was trained as a
singer ; but, having lost the sense of hearing, she became
a very successful and prolific writer of romances. "The
Twelve Apostles," "Gold Else," and "The Second
Wife" are among her works. Died in 1887.

John or Johann, (NF.POMUK MARIA JOSEPH,) born in
1801, succeeded his brother Frederick Augustus as King
of Saxony in 1 854. He was distinguished for great virtues
as a ruler, and for his literary attainments. He trans-
lated Dante's " Divine Comedy." He was an ally of Aus-
tria in the war against Prussia in 1866. Died Oct. 29, 1^73.

bl'yuh',] a haughty and violent French prelate. He
became Archbishop of Rouen in 1070. Died in 1079.

bRe'en',) King of Jerusalem, and Regent of Constant!
nople, was born in France. He assisted in the taking
of Jerusalem in 1204, and in 1218, at the head of a Latin
army, he took Damietta. In 1226 he was compelled to
resign Jerusalem to the emperor Frederick II. Three
years later he was elected, by the French barons in the
East, Regent of Constantinople, which he bravely de-
fended against the Greek emperor John Ducas. Died
in 1237.


John OF CAPPADOCIA, a theologian, became Patriarch
of Constantinople about 518. He co-operated with the
pope Hnrmisdas in the restoration of union between
the Eastern and Western Churches. Died in 520.

John II. OF CAPPADOCIA became Patriarch of Con-
stantinople about 582 A.D. Died in 596.

John, surnamed CLIMACUS or CLIMACHUS. See

John OF GIS'CALA or GISCHALA, a Jewish captain,
was an enemy of Josephus the historian. He was the
chief of one of the factions of zealots and outlaws that
fought against each other and against the Romans in Je-
rusalem while that city was besieged by Titus, in JOA.U
On the capture of the city he was imprisoned for life.

John OF LUXEMBURG, surnamed THE BLIND, son of
the emperor Henry VII., was born in 1295. In 1309
he was elected King of Bohemia, and in 1322 he con-
quered Silesia. In 1331 he formed a league with Louis
of Bavaria, Emperor of Germany, against Pope John
XXII., and entered Italy. The pope then offered to
recognize him as King of Italy. The emperor, in order
*o prevent this, invaded Bohemia. John left the com-
mand of his army in Italy to his son, returned to Bo-
hemia, and drove out Louis. He was soon after attacked
with a disease in his eyes, which produced blindness,
but did not in the least affect his spirit of enterprise,
lie invaded Poland, reduced it to subjection, and formed
an alliance with Philip of France against the English.
He was mortally wounded at the battle of Crecy, in 1346,
after having performed great feats of valour.

See FROISSART, "Chronicles:" SISMONDJ, " Histoire des Fran-

John OF RAGUSA, a learned Romish prelate, was i:i
1426 sent by Martin V. to the Council of Bale, over which
he presided in 1431. He distinguished himself by his
controversies with the followers of Huss.

John OF SALISBURY, a learned scholastic philosopher
and writer, born at Salisbury about 1120. He entered
the service of Thomas a Becket, and became his secre-
tary. In 1176 he was appointed Bishop of Chartres.
He wrote, besides other valuable works, " Polycraticus
de Nugis Curialium et Vestigiis Philosophorum," which
is a satire on the follies of courtiers, etc., and a " Life
of Thomas a Becket." Died in 1180. His works were
published by J. A. Giles, Oxford, (5 vols., 1848.)

See " Gallia Christiana," tome viii. ; B. HAUKSAU, "De la Philo-
ophie scholastique ;" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ue'rale."

John OF SEVILLE or OK LUNA, a learned Jewish
convert of the twelfth century. lie translated into Span-
ish many valuable Arabic works.

John OF SUABIA, surnamed THE PARRICIDE, born
in 1289, was a nephew of the emperor Albert I. Ths
latter, having withheld from him his hereditary domains
was murdered by John and a band of conspirators.

See BRANTCIME, " Viea des grands Capitaines."


John (Johann) Baptist, (JOSEPH FABIAN SEBAS
riAN,) Archduke of Austria, born in 1785, was a son of
Leopold II. He succeeded Kray in 1800 as commander
of the Austrian army, and was defeated by General
Moreau at Hohenlinden, in December of that year. In
the campaign of 1809 he directed the operations in the
Tyrol, and gained a victory over the viceroy Eugene. In
June, 1848, he was elected Vicar of the German empire
by the Parliament at Frankfort. He resigned that office
in December, 1849. Died in 1859.

John Cast-mir, [Ger. JOHANN CASIMIR, yo'hin
ka'ze-mtR,] Count Palatine, born in 1543, was the second
son of the Elector-Palatine Frederick III. He was a
zealous Calvinist, and in 1568 raised an army with which
he invaded Lorraine to aid the French Huguenots. In
'575 ne ag am entered France, as the ally of the Prince
of Conde. His court at Neustadt became the centre
of the Calvinist policy. After the death of his father,
John Casimir was the political chief of the Reformers.
Died in 1592.

See DE THOU, " Histoire Universelle :" DANIEL PARRNS, " H
loria P.-Uatina ;" F. JUNIUS, " Ecloga in Obitum Joannis Casimiri.'
1592; "Nouvelle Biographic GeWrale."

John Comneiuis. See CALO-JOANNES.

John Damascenus. See DAMASCENUS.

John de Matha, mi'tha, (SAINT,) a French priest,
born in Faucon, in Provence, June 24, 1169. He studied
at Aix and Paris, and became the associate of Saint
Felix of Valois, with whom he founded the order of
Trinitarian Brethren, for the purpose of aiding in the

, e, i, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, ii, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good;



work of ransoming Christian captives from among the
Moors, lie several times visited the Moorish countries.
Died December 21, 1213.

John Frederick |Ger. JOHANN FRIEDRICH, yo'han
freed'riK] 1 of Saxony, surnamed THE MAGNANIMOUS,
was a son of the Elector John the Constant, whom he
succeeded in 1532. Having joined the Protestant League
of Schmalkalden, he was taken prisoner at the battle of
Muhlberg, but was released through the intervention of
his cousin, Maurice of Saxony. Died in 1554.

See ERSCH und GRUBBR, "Allpemeine Encyklopaedie;" CASPAR
SAGITTARIUS, " Historia Joannis Fnderici Electoris," etc., 1678; C.
BUDER. " Nachricht von der Kurfurst Johann Friedrich's zu Sach-
en," 1755.

John Frederick II., Duke of Saxony, and a son of
the preceding, was born in 1529. He began to reign
in 1554. Died in 1595.

John George [Ger. JOHANN GEORG, yo'han ga'oRG]
L, Elector of Saxony, born in 1585, began to reign in
1611. During the Thirty Years' war his course was
vacillating, alternately favouring the cause of the emperor
and of the Protestant allies. In 1635 he made a disad-

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 38 of 425)