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lenburg, Friedland, and Sagau, a celebrated German
general, born at the castle of Hermanic, in Bohemia,
in September, 1583, was a son of Wilhelm, Baron von
Waldstein. After the death of his parents, who were
Protestants, he was sent to the Jesuit College at Olmiitz,
and was converted into a Roman Catholic. He also
studied several sciences and languages at Padua and
Bologna. About 1606 he fought against the Turks at
the siege of Gran. He married a rich widow in 1610,
and at her death, in 1614, inherited a large estate.
Having raised a troop of horse in 1617, he fought with
distinction for the Austrian archduke Ferdinand against
the Venetians. In 1619, at the beginning of the Thirty
Years' war, he joined the Imperial or Roman Catholic
army, and was appointed quartermaster-general. He
defeated Bethlen Gabor, in Hungary, in 1621, and was
created Duke of Friedland and a prince of the Holy
Empire in 1624. In 1625 he raised, at his own expense,
a large army, which he resolved to support by pillage
and exactions from the enemy. His high reputation
attracted mercenaries from various parts of Europe. He
defeated Count Mansfeld in 1626, and invaded Denmark,
in which he encountered no effectual resistance. To re-
ward him for his services, the emperor gave Wallenstein
the duchy of Mecklenburg in 1628, and added the title
of admiral. His pride, rapacity, and cruelty rendered
him so odious that Ferdinand dismissed him from com-
mand in 1630, at the same time that Gustavus Adolphus
entered Germany to fight for the Protestant cause. The
victories of Gustavus, and the death of General Tilly,
reduced Ferdinand to such a critical situation that he
implored the aid of Wallenstein as the only man who
was able to save the empire. He consented to serve
nim again, on condition that he should have exclusive
control of the army, and should govern or reign over
the countries which he might conquer. He displayed
great skill in defence of the lines near Nuremberg, which
were attacked by the Swedes in September, 1632. In
November of that year he was defeated by Gustavus
Adolphus at the great battle of Lutzen. He afterwards
gained victories in Silesia, but refused to march to the
relief of Bavaria, which was overrun by the Swedes.
According to some authorities, he aspired to be sovereign
of Bohemia. The Duke of Bavaria, and other enemies
of Wallenstein, persuaded the emperor to distrust his
loyalty. In January, 1634, he was deprived of his com-
mand, and secret orders were given to Gallas and Picco-
lomini to arrest or assassinate him. He attempted to
secure himself by negotiations with the Swedes, but his
overtures were rejected, and he retired to the castle of
Eger or Egra, where he was assassinated in February,
1634. The story of Wallenstein forms the subject of
Schiller's greatest though not his most popular tragedy.

See SCHILLER, "History of the Thirty Years' War;" MURR.
"Die Ermordung Herzogsvon Friedland," 1806; HELLER, " Leben

des Grafen von Wallenstein," 1814: F. FORSTER, "Wallenstein,
Herzog zu Mecklenburg," etc., 1834; J. MITCHELL, "Lite of Wal-
lenstein," 1837; MEBOLD, " Gustav Adolf und Wallenstein," 2 volt.,
'835-40; HBLBIG, "Wallenstein und Armin," 1850; GuALDo-PRl-
ORATO, "Istoria della Vita d'A. Valstain," 1643; CARL MARIA you
ARBTIN, "Wallenstein," 1846; SIR EDWARD CUST, "The Thirty
Years' War," 2 vols., 1865 : MALMSTROHM, " De Wallensteinio Cnm-
mentarius," 1815; "Nouvelle Biographic Generale;" " Blackwood'l
Magazine" for January, 1838.

Wallensteiuius. See WALLENSTEIN.

Waller, wfll'ler, (EDMUND,) an eminent English poet,
born at Coleshill, in Hertfordshire, in 1605, was acousin-
german of the celebrated John Hampden. He studied
at King's College, Cambridge, and represented Amers-
ham in the Long Parliament in 1640, having been pre-
viously several times elected for that borough. He was
for a time a moderate partisan of the popular cause ; but
he subsequently went over to the royalists. He was
arrested in 1643 on a charge by the Parliament of having
formed a " popish plot for the subversion of the Prot-
estant religion," etc. Several of his accomplices were
punished with fines and imprisonment, and two were exe-
cuted, while Waller, the leader of the conspiracy, saved
his life by a most abject and pusillanimous speech. He
was released, after a year's confinement, on condition of
his leaving the country, and, after a residence of about
ten years in France, was permitted to return to England
in 1653. He died in 1687. Waller was twice married,
and had by his second wife five sons and eight daughters.
Among his earliest productions are the verses addressed
to the Lady Dorothea Sidney, under the name of Saccha-
rissa. His other principal poems are a " Panegyric on
Cromwell," " On a War with Spain," " On the Death
of the Lord Protector," and an ode to Charles II., en-
titled " To the King upon his Majesty's Most Happy
Return." It is said that when Charles remarked to
Waller the greater poetical merit of his panegyric on
Cromwell, he replied, " Poets, sire, succeed better in fic-
tion than in truth." After the restoration he was several
times returned to Parliament, where, according to Bur-
net, " he was the delight of the House, and, though old,
said the liveliest things of any among them." Johnson
observes, " The general character of his poetry is ele-
gance and gaiety. He is never pathetic, and very rarely
sublime ; but it cannot be denied that he added some-
thing to our elegance of diction and something to our
propriety of thought."

See JOHNSON, "Lives of the English Poets," voL i. ; WOOD,
"Athenz Oxonienses;" HALLAM, " Introduction to the Literature
of Europe;" CAMPBELL, " Specimens of the British Poets."

Waller, wol'ler, (JOHN FRANCIS,) an Irish poet and
litterateur, born at Limerick in 1810. He was for many
years editor of the " Dublin University Magazine," to
which he contributed papers under the signature of JONA-
THAN FREKE SLINGSBY. These papers were collected
and published in book-form, under the title of "The
Slingsby Papers," in 1852. In 1854 he published a vol-
ume of " Poems." Died January 19, 1894.

Waller, wfll'ler, (JOHN LIGHTFOOT,) LL.D., an
American Baptist divine and journalist, born in Wood-
ford county, Kentucky, in 1809. He became editor in
1845 of the " Western Baptist Review," and published
several controversial works. Died at Louisville in 1854.

'Waller, (Sir WILLIAM,) an English statesman and
general of the Parliamentary army, born in Kent in
1597, was a distant relative of the poet, Edmund Wal-
ler. Having served for a time in the Protestant army
in Germany, he was elected to the Long Parliament
for Andover in 1640, and was soon after appointed
second in command of the forces under the Earl of
Essex. He was removed from the service by the self
denying ordinance of 1645, and in 1647 he was one ol
the eleven members of the House of Commons im
peached by the army. He afterwards resumed his seat
in Parliament, and was appointed one of the council of
state in 1660. He died in 1668, leaving a "Vindication
of Sir William Waller," etc., and " Divine Meditation!
upon Several Occasions," (1680.)

See CLARENDON, " History of the Great Rebellion. "

Wal-le'rf-us, [Swedish pron. val-ffi're-us,] (JoHANH
GOTTSCHALK,) a Swedish savant, was the author of
several valuable works on chemistry and mineralogy.
Died in 1785.

easi; 933^; ghard; gas/; G, H, K.,guttural; N,ara/; K,tritted; sasz; th as in Mir. (J53f=See Explanations, p. 23.




Wallerius, (NICHOLAS,) a Swedish philosopher, born
at Nerika in 1706. He became professor of theology at
Upsal, and wrote, besides other works, " Rational Psy-
chology," (" Psychologia Rationalis.") Died in 1764.

Wallia. See VALLIA, King of the Visigoths.

Wallich, vtl'liK, (NATHANIEL,) a Danish botanist,
born at Copenhagen in 1787. Having entered the ser-
vice of the East India Company, he was appointed in
1815 superintendent of the botanic garden at Calcutta.
He visited Nepaul and other parts of India, and made a
large and valuable collection of plants. He published
" A Description of the Tree which produces the Nipal
Camphor-Wood," etc., (1823,) " Tentamen Florae Nepa-
lensis," (1824,) " Plantae Asiaticae Rariores," (3 vols. fol.,
1829, with 300 plates,) and other works. Died in 1854.

Wallin, val-leen', (GEORGE,) a Swedish prelate, born
in Nordland in 1686. He published several works, and
was appointed Bishop of Gothenburg. Died in 1760.

'Wallin, (JoHAN OLOF,) an eminent Swedish prelate
and pulpit orator, born in Dalecarlia in 1779. He
studied at Upsal, and became in 1810 a member of
the Swedish Academy. He was afterwards appointed
theological tutor to Prince Oscar, and rose through
various preferments to be Archbishop of Upsal in 1833.
His hymns are ranked among the finest productions
of the kind in the language, and have been adopted
into the authorized Swedish Hymn-Book. He also pub-
lished a number of sermons of great excellence. Died
in 1839.

See E. G. GEIJER, " Minnes-Tal ofver Dr. J. O. Wallin." 1840;
I. H. SCHHOEDER, " J. O. Wallin, Svea Rikes Erkebiskop," 1846;
J. E. RVDQUIST, "J. O. Wallin; Minnesteckning," 1839.

Wallingford, w&l'ling-ford, (RICHARD,) an English
mechanic and astronomer of the fourteenth century,
made a clock which is supposed to have been the first
that was regulated by a fly-wheel.

Wallis, w&l'lis, (JOHN,) an eminent English mathe-
matician and theologian, born at Ashford, Kent, on the
23d of November, 1616. He entered Emanuel College,
Cambridge, in 1632, took the degree of M.A. in 1640,
and was ordained a priest the same year. He favoured
the party of the Parliament in the civil war, and ren-
dered valuable services by deciphering intercepted
despatches written in cipher. In 1644 he was one of
the secretaries of the Assembly of Divines at Westmin-
ster. He was one of the first members of the Royal
Society, and became Savilian professor of geometry at
Oxford in 1649. In 1655 he published an important
work, entitled " Arithmetic of Infinites," (" Arithmetica
Infinitorum,") preceded by a treatise on conic sections.
He treated of the fundamental points of arithmetic,
algebra, and geometry in his " Universal Science or
Learning," (" Mathesis Universalis," 1657.) He made
important discoveries in mathematical theories, and
distinguished himself by his sagacity and talent for gen-
eralization. Having promoted the restoration of Charles
II., he retained his professorship. Besides the above-
named works, he wrote several books on theology, and
a treatise on logic, which had a high reputation. He
edited Ptolemy's " Harmonics," (1680,) and Aristarchus
of Samos. Died in October, 1703.

See THOMSON, " History of the Royal Society ;" NICERON, "M-
moires ;" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'neraJe."

'Wallis, (SAMUEL,) an English navigator, who, as
commander of the Dolphin, made a voyage in the Pacific
and discovered Easter Island in 1767, and Tahiti, to
which he gave the name of King George's Island. The
latter is supposed to have been previously discovered by
Quiros. Died in 1795.

'Wallis, von, fon wal'liss, (GEORG OLIVER,) COUNT,
an Austrian general, born in 1671. He obtained the
rank of field-marshal and the chief command of an army
in Hungary. He was defeated by the Turks in 1739.
Died in 1743.

Wallis, von, (JOSEPH,) COUNT, an Austrian financier,
born in 1768. He was minister of finance from 1810
to 1816. Died in 1818.

Walliser, ftal'le-zer, (CHRISTOPH THOMAS,) a Ger-
man composer and writer upon music, born at Stras
burg in the latter part of the sixteenth century. Died
in 1648.

Wallius, wal'Ie-us, or Van de Walle, vfn deh wal'-
leh, (JACOB,) a Flemish Jesuit and Latin poet, bora at
Courtrai in 1599. Died about 1680.

Wallon, vt'I6N', (HENRI ALEXANDRE,) a French
historian, born at Valenciennes in 1812. He published
many historical and critical works, and was chosen a
member of the Institute in 1850. After 1870 he became
a leading statesman of the republic, belonging to the
group of constitutional monarchists.

Wallot, wal'lot or vS'lo', (JEAN GUILLAUME,) a Ger-
man astronomer, born at Pauers, in the Palatinate, in
1743. He became professor of astronomy at Paris. He
was executed by the Jacobins in July, 1794.

Wallraf, wal'raf, (FERDINAND FRANZ,) a German
physician and naturalist, born at Cologne in 1748. He
made a large and valuable collection of objects in natu
ral history and art, which he presented to his native city.
Died in 1824.

Walmesley, w&mz'le, (CHARLES,) an English mathe-
matician and Benedictine monk, born in 1721, became
apostolical vicar of the western district in England. He
was the author of an "Analysis of the Measures of Pro-
portions and of Angles," etc., and other works, in French
and Latin. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society.
Died in 1797.

'Wain, wawl, (NICHOLAS,) an American lawyer, bora
about 1740, practised with distinction in Philadelphia.
He afterwards became a minister of the Society of
Friends. He was noted for his wit and humour.
Died in 1813.

Wain, (ROBERT,) Jr., an American poet, born in
Philadelphia in 1794. He wrote "The Hermit in Phila-
delphia," a satire, (1819,) "The American Bards," and
other poems, also a " Life of La Fayette," (1824.) Died
in 1825.

Walpole, wfll'pol, (HORACE,) fourth Earl of prford,
a famous literary gossip, amateur, and wit, born in Lon-
don in October, 1717, was the youngest son of Sir Robert
Walpole and Catherine Shorter. He was educated at
Eton and King's College, Cambridge. In 1739 he began
a tour on the continent, in company with his friend
Thomas Gray the poet, from whom, in consequence of
a disagreement, he parted in 1741. He returned home,
and entered the House of Commons in the same year.
In March, 1742, he made a speech in defence of his
father, which was commended by William Pitt. He
continued to sit in the House of Commons for many
years, but seldom spoke there. He called himself a
Whig, but cared little for any political principle. He
held lucrative sinecure offices.

In 1747 he purchased the villa of Strawberry Hill, at
Twickenham, on the improvement and decoration of
which he expended much time and money. He collected
there many prints, pictures, books, curiosities, and
objects of virtu. He published in 1758 a "Catalogue
Dt Royal and Noble Authors," and commenced in 1761
his " Anecdotes of Painting in England," the last volume
of which appeared in 1771. The materials for this work
were furnished by Vertue the engraver. In 1764 he
produced a novel entitled "The Castle of Otranto,"
which was very successful. Among his other works are
"The Mysterious Mother," a tragedy, (1768,) " Historic
Doubts on the Life and Reign of Richard III.," (1768,)
" Reminiscences of the Courts of George I. and George
II.," "Memoirs of the Reign of George III. from 1771
to 1783," and his " Letters," (9 vols., 1857-59,) which
are greatly admired. He affected a great dislike to
be considered a literary man. Macaulay expresses the
opinion that " he was the most eccentric, the most arti-
ficial, the most fastidious, the most capricious of men.
. . . Serious business was a trifle to him, and trifles
were his serious business. . . What, then," asks the
same critic, "is the irresistible charm of Walpole's
writings ? It consists, we think, in the art of amusing
without exciting. . . . His style is one of those peculiar
styles by which everybody is attracted, and which nobody
can safely venture to imitate." (Review of Walpole's
" Letters to Sir Horace Mann," in Macaulay's Essay
published in the "Edinburgh Review" in 1833.) His
Letters are considered his best productions. In 1791
he succeeded his nephew George as Earl of Orford,

a, e, I, 5, u, y, long ; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, g. I. 3. ii, y, short; a, e, j, p, obscure; far, fill, fit; mftt: nftt: good; moon;




but he never took his seat in the House of Lords, and
seldom used his title. Died in March, 1797.

See "Walpoliana," by J. PINKERTON, 1792: LORD DOVER,
Sketch of the Life of Horace Walpole," prefixed to "Letters to
Horace Mann," 1833; ELIOT WARBURTON, "Memoirs of Horace
Walpole and his Contemporaries," 2 vols., 1851 ; "Quarterly Re-
view" for April, 1823 ; " Monthly Review" for September, October,
and November, 1798: "Eraser's Magazine" for July, 1843, article
"Walpole and his friends."

Walpole, ( HORATIO,) LORD, an English diplomatist
and writer, born in 1678, was a brother of Sir Robert,
the premier. He was ambassador at Paris from 1723 to
1727, became treasurer of the king's household in 1730,
and minister plenipotentiary to Holland about 1733.
His talents and character are praised by the historian
Coxe. He wrote political treatises. Died in 1757.

Walpole, (Sir ROBERT,) Earl of Orford, a celebrated
English statesman, born at Houghton on the 26th of
August, 1676, was a son of Robert Walpole, Esq., M.P.
He was educated at Eton and King's College, Cam
bridge. In 1700 he married Catherine Shorter, and
entered Parliament as member for Castle Rising and a
supporter of the Whig party. He became an able de-
bater, a skilful parliamentary tactician, and an excellent
man of business. In 1708 he was appointed secretary
of war, and the management of the House of Commons
was committed to him by his party. He resigned with
the other Whig ministers in 1710, and declined the place
which Harley offered him in the new cabinet. The Tory
majority expelled him from the House in 1712, and im-
prisoned him in the Tower on a charge of corruption.
lie was released at the end of the session.

On the accession of George I., (1714,) Walpole ac-
quired great influence at court, and was appointed pay-
master-general of the forces. He took a prominent part
in the impeachment of the Earl of Oxford and Lord
Bolingbroke. In October, 1715, he became first lord of
the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer. His
brother-in-law, Lord Townshend, was the chief minister
of this administration. Townshend having been re-
moved by the intrigues of Lord Sutherland, Sir Robert
resigned in April, 1717, although the king urged him to
remain in office. He opposed the South Sea act, and
was preserved by his good sense from the general in-
fatuation during the inflation of the South Sea Bubble.
" When the crash came, when ten thousand families
were reduced to beggary in a day, . . . Walpole was
the man on whom all parties turned their eyes." (Mac-
aulay.) He became first lord of the treasury (prime
minister) in April, 1721, and restored the public credit.
Supported by a large majority of Parliament, he en-
countered at first no serious opposition, until he created
an opposition by proscribing the eminent men of his
own party and indulging his propensity to engross the
power. Pulteney, who had strong claims to a place in
the cabinet, was neglected and turned into a formidable
adversary. The highly-gifted Lord Carteret, who was
secretary of state, was removed in 1724, and a few year*
later a violent quarrel occurred between Walpole and
Lord Townshend, who had long been personal friends.

At the death of George I., (1727,) Queen Caroline
exerted her influence in favour of Sir Robert, who was
reappointed prime minister and gained the confidence
of George II. According to Macaulay, Walpole first
gave to the English government that character of lenity
which it has since generally preserved. The same
author remarks, that " though he was at the head of
affairs during more than twenty years, not one great
measure, not one important change for the better or the
worse in any part of our institutions, marks the period
of his supremacy. . . . The praise to which he is fairly
entitled is this, that he understood the true interest
of his country better than any of his contemporaries,
and that he pursued that interest whenever it was not
incompatible with the interests of his own intense and

f rasping ambition." (Review of " Walpole's Letters to
ir Horace Mann.")

Among the errors of his administration was the war
against Spain, (1739,) into which he was driven by the
popular clamour, while his own judgment condemned it
as impolitic and unjust. When he heard the bells ring-
ing on account of the declaration of war, he muttered,

"Before long they will be wringing their hands." It is
admitted tnat he practised corruption or bribery on a
large scale, for which some writers apologize by the plea
that it was impossible to govern without corruption. In
the latter part of his official career he was attacked by
a powerful combination of Tories, disaffected Whigs
called patriots, and wits, including Pulteney, Carteret,
Chesterfield, Swift, Pope, and Pitt. The Prince of
Wales also, having become estranged from the king,
put himself at the head of the opposition. After a long
and spirited contest, he resigned office, and passed into
the House of Lords, with the title of Earl of Orford,
in February, 1742. He died in March, 1745, leaving
three sons.

"Without being a genius of the first class," sajt
Burke, "he was an intelligent, prudent, and safe minis-
ter. . . . The prudence, steadiness, and vigilance of
that man, joined to the greatest possible lenity in his
character and his politics, preserved the crown to this
royal family, and with it their laws and liberties to this
country." (" Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs.")

See W. MUSGRAVK, " Brief and True History of Sir R. Walpole
and his Family," 1738; " Histoire du Ministere du Chevalier Wal-
pole," Amsterdam, 1755: "Walpoliana," London, 1783; COXH,
" Memoirs of the Life and Administration of Sir R. Walpole," 3
vols., 1798; LORD MAHON, (STANHOPE,) "History of England ;"
MACAULAY, Essay on the " Earl of Chatham," reprinted from th*
" Edinburgh Review" for 1834 ; " Historical Sketches of the Reign
of George II.," in " Blackwood's Magazine" for April, 1868.

Walpole, (SPENCER HORATIO,) an English conser-
vative statesman, born in 1806. He was elected to
Parliament for Midhurst in 1846, and in March, 1852,
became secretary of state for the home department.
He resigned about December, 1852. In 1856 he repre-
sented the University of Cambridge in Parliament. He
was secretary for the home department about a year,
(1858-59,) and obtained the same office in July, 1866.
He resigned in May, 1867. Died in May, 1898.

Walpurga, wal-pooR'ga, Walburga, or Walpurgis,
wal-pooR'gis, SAINT, a princess of Wessex, in England,
who, with her brothers, Saints Wunnibald and Wilibald,
went to Germany to convert the heathen. She became
Abbess of Heidenheim about 763, and died in 778. The
most marvellous stories were told regarding the miracles
wrought by her relics. Her festival falls on February 25,
but popularly the night between April 30 and May I
was consecrated to her honour, as Walpurgis-night.
This saint was specially invoked as a protectress against
dogs and wild beasts.

Walsh, w&lsh, (BENJAMIN D.,) an eminent entomol-
ogist, born in Great Britain in 1808, removed to America
when very young. He enjoyed a national reputation
among scientific men for excellence in his special study.
Died at Rock Island, Illinois, in 1869.

Walsh, wolsh, (EDWARD,) M.D., an Irish physician
born at Waterford, served as army surgeon in Holland
and America. He published a " Narrative of the Expe-
dition to Holland." Died in 1832.

Walsh, vSlsh, (JOSEPH ALEXIS,) VICOMTE, a French
litterateur, born in Anjou in 1782, was a legitimist in
politics. He wrote several novels, a book entitled
" Memorable Days of the French Revolution," (5 vols.,
1840,) and other works. Died at Paris, Feb. n, 1860.

Walsh, (PETER,) a Roman Catholic priest, born in the
county of Kildare, Ireland, in 1610. He wrote against
the temporal power of the pope, (1674.) Died in 1688,

Walsh, wolsh, (ROBERT,) an American author, born
in Baltimore in 1784, was the son of an Irishman. He
studied law, travelled in Europe, returned home about
1808, and became a resident of Philadelphia. He
wrote (December, 1809) a " Letter on the Genius and
Disposition of the French Government," etc., which
was highly commended by the " Edinburgh Review."
" Perhaps nothing from the American press," says R.
W. Griswold, "had ever produced a greater sensation."
In January, 1811, he began to publish "The American
Review of History and Politics," which was the first
American quarterly, and was discontinued about the
end of 1812 for want of patronage. In 1813 he produced
an "Essay on the Future State of Europe." He edited
the "American Register" for a short time, (1817-18,)

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 384 of 425)