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legal writer, born in Denbighshire in 1807. He studied
medicine at Edinburgh, but subsequently devoted him-
self to the law, and was admitted to the bar in 1837.
His "Passages from the Diary of a Late Physician"

eas/5; 9as.t; QharJ; gas/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; th as in Mix.

Explanations, p. 23.)




(New York, 1831) came out in "Blackwood's Magazine,"
and obtained an extensive popularity; and his novel of
"Ten Thousand a Year" (1841) appeared soon after in
the same journal. Both works were afterwards published
separately, and the latter has been translated into the
principal languages of Europe. Mr. Warren also wrote
"A Popular and Practical Introduction to Law Studies,"
etc., (1845,) "Now and Then," a novel, (1847,) "Moral,
Social, and Professional Duties of Attorneys and Solici-
tors," (1848,) and other works, principally legal treatises.
He was chosen to represent Midhurst in Parliament in
1856 and 1857. Died July 29, 1877.

See ALLIBONK, " Dictionary of Authors:" " Blackwood's Maga-
fine" for February, 1848: "British Quarterly Review" for May.

Warren, (WILLIAM,) an American comedian, born in
Philadelphia, November 17, 1812. He went upon the
stage at the Arch Street Theatre in 1832. In 1847 ne
became connected with the Boston Museum, where he
remained throughout the rest of his professional life.
His specialty was legitimate comedy of the old school,
in which he was extremely popular. Died in 1888.

Warren, (WILLIAM FAIRFIELD,) D.D., LL.D., an
American educator, born at Williamsburg, Massachu-
setts, March 13, 1833. He graduated at the Wesleyan
University, Middletown, Connecticut, in 1853, became a
Methodist preacher in 1855, and studied divinity at
Andover and the German universities, becoming in 1861
professor of systematic theology in a Methodist institu-
tion at Bremen, in Germany. He was in 1866 called to
a similar chair in the theological school afterwards con-
nected with Boston University, and in 1873 became presi-
dent of that university.

Warrington, wor'ring-tpn, (LEWIS,) an American
naval officer, born at Williamsburg, Virginia, in 1782.
He fought with distinction in the war of 1812, and com-
manded the Peacock, which captured the British brig
Epervier in April, 1814. He was appointed chief of the
bureau of ordnance and hydrography in 1842. He had
been raised to the rank of captain in 1814. Died in 1851.

Wartenberg, von, fon waR'ten-beRG', (FRANZ WIL-
KELM,) COUNT, a German ecclesiastic, born in 1593.
He became Bishop of Ratisbon and Osnabriick, and
cardinal in 1661. He died the same year.

Wartensleben, waR'tens-la'ben, (ALEXANDER HER-
MANN,) a German general, born in Westphalia in 1650.
He served in the armies of Hesse, Austria, and Prussia,
with the rank of field-marshal. Died in 1734.

Warteusleben, von, fon waR'tens-li'ben, (WiL-
HELM LUDWIG GASTON,) an Austrian general, born
in 1728. He obtained command in 1796 of a corps
d'arme'e under the archduke Charles, and was defeated
by Jourdan at Friedberg, from which he retreated to
Wurzburg. Having effected a junction with the arch-
duke, he contributed to the victory over the French near
Wurzburg, in September, 1796. Died soon after 1797.

War'ton, (JOSEPH,) D.D., an English critic and
scholar, born in Surrey in 1722. He studied at Oriel
College, Oxford, and, having taken his degree of B.A.,
was ordained curate of Basingstoke. He published in
1746 a collection of poems, entitled "Odes on Various
Subjects," and in 1753 an edition of Virgil, with a new
poetical version of the " Eclogues" and " Georgics." His
"Essay on the Writings and Genius of Pope" appeared
in 1782, and, although not favourably received at the
rime, is now generally regarded as one of his best works.
Warton became head-master of Winchester School in
1766, and he was afterwards successively created preb-
endary of Saint Paul's and of Winchester Cathedral, and
rector of Clapham. In 1797 he published an edition of
Pope's works, with notes, (9 vols. 8vo.) Died in 1800.

See " Biographical Memoirs of the Late Rev. Joseph Wartoo,
D.D.," by the RKV. JOHN WOOLL : " Lives of the English poets,
from Johnson to Kirke White." by GARY.

'Warton, (THOMAS,) an eminent English critic and
poet, born at Basingstoke in 1728, was a brother of the
preceding. He studied at Trinity College, Oxford, of
which he became a Fellow in 1751. He was elected
professor of poetry in 1757, and subsequently Camden
professor of history, at Oxford. His " History of Eng-
lish Poetry," esteemed one of the most valuable works
of the kind, came out in 1781, in 3 vols. Among his

other productions we may name "The Triumph of
Isis," a poem, written in reply to Mason's " Isis," " The
Progress of Discontent," and "The Oxford Sausage,
or Select Pieces written by the Most Celebrated Wits of
the University of Oxford," all of which display great
powers of humour and satire. His " Observations on
the Faerie Queene of Spenser" (1754) was also received
with great favour. Warton made several contributions
to Dr. Johnson's "Idler," and published an edition of
Milton's minor poems, and an excellent edition of The-
ocritus, to which was prefixed a Latin dissertation on
the bucolic poetry of the Greeks. In 1785 he succeeded
Whitehead as poet-laureate. Died in 1790.

See R. MANT, "Life of Warton," 1802 ; CAMPBELL, " Specimen*
of the British Poets :" GARY, " Lives of the English Poets, from
Johnson to Kirke White :" " Blackwood's Magazine" for October,
1838 ; " Monthly Review" for September and November, 1778, it uq.

Warton, (THOMAS,) REV., an English scholar, born
in 1687, was the father of Joseph Warton, noticed above.
He was professor of poetry at Oxford. Died in 1745.

'Warwick, wor'rik, EARLS OF. This title was given
to one of the family of Newburgh by William the Con-
queror, and was inherited by William de Beauchamp in
the second half of the thirteenth century. The earldom
remained in the family of Beauchamp until 1449, when
Richard Nevil became Earl of Warwick. (See separate
article, given below.) The title became extinct about
1500, and was revived in favour of John Dudley in 1547-
In 1618 it was obtained by Robert Rich, and was given
to Lord Brooke in 1759.

Warwick, EARL OK. " See DUDLEY, (JOHN.)


Warwick, (Guv,) EARL OF, an English hero, whose
history is involved in great obscurity. He is supposed
to have lived in the tenth century. The " Romance of
Sir Guy" was probably written in the early part of the
fourteenth century, and was printed by William Cop-
land in the sixteenth century.

DUKE OF, was created by Henry VI. Premier Earl of
England, Duke of Warwick, and King of the Islands
of Wight, Jersey, and Guernsey. He was the son of
Richard de Beauchamp, noticed below. Died in 1445.

Warwick, (Sir PHILIP,) an English writer, born at
Westminster in 1608. He was a member of the Long
Parliament of 1640, and a partisan of the king in the
civil war. He officiated as clerk to the signet or as
secretary to Charles I., and wrote " Memoirs of his Own
Time," (1701,) a work of some interest. Died in 1683.

See " Monk's Contemporaries," by GUIZOT, London, 1864.

English statesman and military commander, who served
in France under the Duke of Bedford, during whose
absence he acted as regent of that kingdom. On his
return to England he was appointed governor to the
young prince, afterwards Henry VI. In 1437 he be-
came again Regent of France, where he died in 1439.

See SHAKSPRARK, " Henry VI.," Parts II. and III.

Warwick, (RICHARD NEVIL,) EARL OF, (caller)
"Warwick the King-Maker,") son of the Earl of Salis-
bury, and son-in-law of Richard, Earl of Warwick, no-
ticed above, was born about 1420. By his marriage with
Anne, daughter of the Earl of Warwick, he acquired
the immense estates of that family, and assumed the title
of Earl of Warwick. He was also nephew of Richard,
Duke of York, and was first-cousin to Edward IV., be-
sides being allied to other noble families of the kingdom.
Having joined the party of the Duke of York in the civil
war of the Roses, in 1455, he was chiefly instrumental in
gaining the victory of Saint Alban's, and was soon after
made governor of Calais. After the defeat of the York-
ists at Ludiford, Warwick collected a large army, and
gained a signal victory over the enemy at Northampton,
( 1460,) and took King Henry prisoner. He defeated the
Lancastrians, in 1461, at the battle of Towton, which
secured the throne to Edward IV. He was liberally re-
warded for his services, and became the most powerful
subject of England. Having quarrelled with the king,
Warwick passed over to France, (1470,) formed an
alliance with Queen Margaret, and returned with an

I, e, I, 6, u, p, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 5, ii, J, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fit- met- nftt; good; m<5on;



243 1


army to England, where he proclaimed Henry VI. as
king. Edward IV. was driven out of the kingdom, am
retired to Holland, but returned in March, 1471, with a
body of troops, and defeated the enemy at Barnet in
April, 1471. The Earl of Warwick, who commandee
the Lancastrians, was killed in this action. He had t
daughters, Isabella, who was married to the Duke ol
Clarence, and Anne, who was married first to Edward
Prince of Wales, (a son of Henry VI.,) and again to
Richard III.

Warwick, (ROBERT RICH,) EARL OF, was a de-
scendant of Lord-Chancellor Rich. He became Earl of
Warwick in 1618. In the civil war he adhered to the
Parliament, by which he was appointed admiral of the
fleet in 1642. He acquired great authority and credit
with the popular party, and supported Cromwell after
he became Protector. According to Clarendon, " he
lived in entire confidence and friendship with Cromwell.' 1
(" History of the Rebellion.") Died in 1658.

Waser, wa'zer, (ANNA,) a Swiss miniature-painter,
born at Zurich in 1679; died in 1713.

Waser, (CASPAR,) a Swiss Orientalist, born at Zurich
in 1565. He became professor of Hebrew at Zurich in
1596. Died in 1625.

Washburn, wdsh'burn, (CADWALADER C.,) an Ameri
can general and lawyer, born at Livermore, Maine, in
1818. He removed to Wisconsin, and represented a
district of that State in Congress from 1855 to 1861.
He became a brigadier-general about July, 1862. In the
spring of 1863 he moved a division from Memphis to rein-
force General Grant at Vicksburg. Died May 14, 1882.

Waahburn, (LIHU B.,) a brother of the preceding,
was born in Oxford county, Maine, in 1816. He studied
law, and settled at Galena, Illinois. He was elected a
member of Congress in 1852, and served for many
years. He was appointed secretary of state in 1869
by President Grant, and soon after was made minister
to Paris. Died in 1887.

Washburn, (GEORGE,) D.D., an American mission-
ary, born at Middleborough, Massachusetts, March i,
1833. He graduated at Amherst College in 1855, studied
theology at Andover, went to Turkey as a missionary in
1863, and became a professor in Robert College, near
Constantinople, in 1869, and its president in 1877. He
published "Woman, her Work in the Church," "The
Deaconesses of Kaiserswerth," etc.

Washburn, (ISRAEL,) an American Governor, a
brother of E. B. Washburn, was born at Livermore,
Maine, in 1813. He was a member of Congress from
1851 to 1860, and was chosen Governor of Maine in the
latter year. Died May 12, 1883.

Washington, (BOOKER TALIAFERRO,) an Ameri-
can educator, born, of African parentage, at Hale's
Ford, Virginia, about 1859. He graduated at Hamp-
ton Institute in 1875, and taughl there until placed in
charge of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Insti-
tute, Alabama. This, under his care, has had a
remarkable progress, and is regarded as having gone
far towards solving the race problem by making the
negro self-supporting.

Washington, wosh'ing-ton, (BusHROD,) a judge,
born in Westmoreland county, Virginia, in 1759, was a
nephew of General George Washington, and a son of
John Augustine Washington. He was a member of
the Virginia Convention which ratified the Constitution
of the United States in 1788, and was appointed a judge
of the supreme court of the United States in September,
1798. By the will of his illustrious uncle he became
the possessor of the estate of Mount Vernon, (1799.)
He died in Philadelphia in November, 1829, leaving a
good reputation.

Washington, (GEORGE,) an illustrious American
general, statesman, and patriot, the first President of
the United States, was born on the Potomac River, in
Westmoreland county, Virginia, on the 22d of February,
1732. He was a son of Augustine Washington, a planter,
and his second wife, Mary Ball. Mis great-grandfather,
John Washington, emigrated with his brother Lawrence
from England to Virginia about 1657. Augustine dying
in 1743 left a large estate in land to his widow and his

five surviving children. The subject of this article In-
herited a large farm on the Rappahannock River, (neal
Fredericksburg,) on which farm was the house occupied
by Augustine Washington at the time of his death.
George attended several schools in the vicinity of his
home, but was never sent to college, and never studied
the ancient languages. His manuscript school-books
are still extant, and are models of neatness and accuracy.
In his early youth he was distinguished for his probity
and veracity. Favoured with superior physical strength,
he excelled in athletic exercises and in horsemanship.
His moral character was moulded by the influence of
his high-spirited and intelligent mother.

After he left school (1747) he passed much time with
his elder brother Lawrence, who resided at Mount
Vernon, on the Potomac River. He was also a frequent
guest at Greenway Court, the seat of Thomas, Lord
Fairfax, an eccentric nobleman, who owned an immense
tract of land in that part of Virginia. Young Washing-
ton gained the favour of Lord Fairfax and of his cousin
Sir William Fairfax, who lived at Belvoir. In the spring
of 1748 he was employed by Lord Fairfax to survey a
portion of his land which was situated beyond the Blue
Ridge and had not yet been settled by white people.
In the hardships and privations of this enterprise he
passed nearly three years, during which he was accus-
tomed to sleep in the open air. He kept a journal of
these surveying expeditions, as well as of the subsequent
events of his life. At the age of nineteen he was ap-
pointed adjutant-general (with the rank of major) of one
of the districts into which Virginia was divided when
hostilities between the English and French became im-
minent. In November, 1753, he was sent by Governor
Dinwiddie on a mission to the French commander, and
performed a perilous journey of five hundred miles or
more through the wilderness. The prudence, sagacity,
resolution, and fortitude which he manifested in this
mission pointed him out as one fitted for more impor-
tant public services. " It is an expedition," says Irving,
" that may be considered the foundation of his fortunes.
From that moment he was the rising hope of Virginia."
Hostilities between the Virginians and the French
began in the spring of 1754, when, as lieutenant-colonel.
Washington led a small force to the frontier. He de-
feated the enemy in May of that year, at the Great
Meadows. In a letter relating to this action, (which
was the first of the Seven Years' war,) he wrote, " I
heard the bullets whistle ; and, believe me, there is some-
thing charming in the sound." About this time he was
raised to the rank of colonel. He served as aide-de-
camp to General Braddock in his disastrous expedition
against Fort Duquesne. This imprudent general, de-
spising both the Indians and the Virginia militia, and
obstinately adhering to the tactics of regular war,
rejected the advice of Washington, and was defeated
with great loss, and mortally wounded, by the French
and their savage allies, who attacked him in the fores*
about seven miles from Fort Duquesne, July 9, 1755.
In this battle four bullets passed through the coat of
Colonel Washington, who distinguished himself by his
courage and presence of mind amidst the general panic
and total rout of the English army.

In a letter written soon after this battle, Colonel Wash-
ngton said, " We have been most scandalously beaten
>y a trifling body of men. . . . The dastardly behaviour
of those they called regulars exposed all others to almost
certain death, and at last they ran as sheep pursued by
dogs." In the summer of 1755 he was appointed com-
mander-in-chief of the forces (about two thousand men)
which the Assembly of Virginia ordered to be raised
or the defence of the province. He commanded a part
of the army which, under General Forbes, took Fort
5uquesne in November, 1758. In January, 1759, he
married Mrs. Martha Custis, whose maiden name was
Jandridge, and whose first husband was John Parke
Custis. He now resigned his commission, retired from
he service, and settled at Mount Vernon as a planter,
n 1758 he had been elected to the House of Burgesses,
he Speaker of which, on the first appearance of Washi-
ngton in that body, tendered to him a compliment for
lis military services. " Washington rose to reply,"

as k; c as s ; g hard; g as/; G, H. K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (Jiy="See Explanations, p. 23.)




says Irving, "blushed, stammered, trembled, and could
not utter a word." " Sit down, Mr. Washington," said
the Speaker: "your modesty equals your valour, and
that surpasses the power of any language I possess."

By his marriage he added about one hundred thousand
dollars to his fortune, which was before considerable.
He was partial to the pursuits of agriculture, and carried
into his rural affairs the same methodical habits and dili-
gent attention which distinguished him in military opera-
tions. He kept his own accounts, posted his books and
balanced them with mercantile exactness. By the pur-
chase of adjacent plantations he enlarged the Mount
Vernon estate until it amounted finally to eight thousand
acres. He continued for many years a member of the
House of Burgesses, but never took a prominent part
in the debates of that or any other public assembly. He
was a delegate to the convention which met at Wil-
liamsburg on the 1st of August, 1773, and, asserting the
right of the colonies to self-government, resolved that
taxation and representation were inseparable. This
convention chose Washington, Patrick Henry, and five
others, to represent Virginia in the General Congress
which met at Philadelphia in September, 1774. Patrick
Henry being asked, after the end of the first session,
whom he considered the greatest man in Congress,
replied, " If you speak of solid information and sound
judgment, Colonel Washington is unquestionably the
greatest man on that floor."

Hitherto, Washington and the other leading patriots
had not aimed at independence or separation from the
mother-country ; but the battle or massacre of Lexington,
April 19, 1775, became the signal of a general deter-
mination to resist by arms the tyranny of the British

On the I5th of June, 1775, he was unanimously elected
by the Continental Congress commander-in-chief of all
the forces. Before he could take command of the army,
occurred the important battle of Bunker Hill, June 17,
1775, the result of which was that the British remained
masters of the field, but lost about 1050 men, while the
Americans lost only 449 killed, wounded, and prisoners.
On the 2d of July, General Washington assumed com-
mand of the army at Cambridge, Massachusetts, amount-
ing to about 15,000 men, and engaged in the siege of
Boston, which was occupied by 11,000 British veterans.
General Washington applied himself to the organization
of his troops, whom he fonnd undisciplined and nearly
destitute of powder and other materials of war. The
difficulty of his situation wa^ increased by the fact that
the Continental Congress was very deficient in all the
attributes of an efficient government, and was almost
destitute of money and credit. While the main army
was besieging Boston, Generals Montgomery and Arnold,
about the end of 1775, invaded Canada, and attacked
Quebec, but were not successful. On the I7th or :8th
of March, 1776, the British army evacuated Boston, and
escaped on their fleet, which sailed thence to Halifax.
Congress passed a vote of thanks to the commander-in-
chief for his services and success in this siege. General
Washington moved his army from Boston to New York,
where he arrived in April, and awaited the approach of
the enemy, who were moving by the sea towards that
objective point In the mean time the Declaration of
Independence was signed by Congress, July 4, 1776.

The opposing forces next met at the battle of Long
Island, where the Americans were defeated by General
Howe, August 27, and lost nearly 2000 men. In conse-
quence of this victory, the British took the city of New
York, and General Washington was compelled to retreat
through New Jersey to the west side of the Delaware
River. During this retreat his army was reduced to
4000 men or less, and the cause for which he fought
seemed almost desperate ; but General Howe was too
indolent or incapable to follow up his successes with
vigour. General Washington, having been reinforced,
crossed the Delaware in open boats on the night of
December 25, 1776, attacked a British force at Trenton,
and captured nearly looo prisoners, (Hessian merce-
naries.) On the 3d of January, 1777, he gained another
victory at Princeton, where he took about 300 prisoners.
Soon after these successes, which greatly revived the

spirits of the Americans, General Washington was in-
vested with almost dictatorial powers by Congress. In
the summer of 1777 a British army, under General Bur-
goyne, moved from Canada towards Albany, and another
army, of about 16,000 men, under General Howe, sailed
up the Chesapeake Bay to take Philadelphia. To defend
this city, then the seat of government, General Wash-
ington interposed his army of about 11,000 men, and
encountered the enemy on the Brandywine on the nth
of September. Overpowered by superior numbers, the
Americans retreated, having lost about 900 killed and
wounded. Among the wounded of this day was the
Marquis de La Fayette. A few days after this battle
the British army occupied Philadelphia. On the 4th of
October the Americans attacked the British army at
Germantown, about six miles from Philadelphia; but
they were repulsed, with a loss of about 800 killed and
wounded. In the mean time General Burgoyne and
General Gates had fought an indecisive battle at Still-
water, New York, September 19, and General Stark had
gained a victory at Bennington. On the 7th of October,
1777, General Gates, at the second battle of Stillwater,
defeated General Burgoyne, who, on the I7th of that
month, surrendered his army of about 6000 men, at
Saratoga. This victory was one of the important events
of the war, as it not only inspired the people with con-
fidence, but induced the French government to bec<Jme
the ally of the United States against Great Britain.

In December, 1777, General Washington went into
winter quarters at Valley Forge, on the Schuylkill River,
where his men suffered great hardships and distress
for want of clothing, etc. General Henry Clinton, who
had been appointed commander-in-chief in the place
of General Howe, evacuated Philadelphia in June, and
moved his army through New Jersey towards New York.
General Washington pursued and attacked him on the
28th of June, 1778, at MonmouthCourt-House. After an
indecisive battle, in which the Americans lost 69 killed
and about 160 wounded, General Clinton continued his
march to New York. Congress expressed their satisfac-
tion with General Washington's conduct in this action
by a unanimous vote of thanks. Hitherto the opera-
tions of the British armies had been directed against
the Northern and Middle States; but in 1779 no great
battle was fought in this portion of the republic. About
the end of 1778, General Sir Henry Clinton sent to
Georgia a body of troops, who captured Savannah in
December and made themselves masters of the prov-
ince. The chief command of the Southern American
army was given to General Lincoln, who, aided by the
French fleet, attacked Savannah in September, 1779,
but was repulsed.

The army of General Washington passed the winter

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 387 of 425)