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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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"The Art of Painting," (" L'Art de Pcindre," 1760,)
"Essay on Gardens," (1774.) and "Dictionary of the
Arts of Painting, Sculpture, and Engraving," (5 vols.,
1792.) The last-named work was completed by M.
Levesque. Watelet etched a number of portraits and
other pieces of great excellence. In 1760 he was ad-
mitted into the French Academy. He was identified
with the philosophic party, and contributed to the "F.n-
cyclope'die'' of Diderot. Died in 1786.

Watelet, (Louis ETIENNE,) a French landscape-
painter, born in Paris in 1780. He painted French,
Italian, and Belgian scenery. He gained a first medal
in 1819. Died June 19, 1866.

Wa't?r-house, (BENJAMIN,) M.D., an American
physician, born at Newport, Rhode Island, in 1754,
studied at London and Edinburgh, and graduated at
Leyden. After his return he became professor of the
theory and practice of physic in the medical school of
Harvard College, continuing to fill this post for thirty
years. Died at Cambridge in 1846.

Waterhouse, (JOHN WILLIAM,) an English
painter, born about 1840. He became a member of
the Royal Academy in 1895. Among his works are
" Mariamne," " Ulysses and the Sirens," and " The
Lady of Shalott."

Wa'ter-land, (DANIEL,) D.D., an English theolo-
gian, born in Lincolnshire in 1683. He studied at Mag
dalene College, Cambridge, and subsequently became
one of the chaplains-in-ordinary to George I. lie was
engaged in a controversy with Dr. Clarke and other
champions of the Arian party, and published " A Vin-
dication of Christ's Divinity," "Critical History of the
Athanasian Creed," "Scripture Vindicated," etc., and
other works. lie became Archdeacon of Middlesex lit
1730. Died in 1740.

'Waterloo, waw'ter-loo', [Dutch pron. wl'ter-lo',1
(ANTONI,) an eminent Dutch landscape-painter and
engraver, born near Utrecht about 1618. His etchings
are numerous, and are ranked among the best works
of the kind. Died in 1662.

Wa'terloo, (STANLEY,) an American author, born
in St. Clair county, Michigan, in 1846. He became
a journalist in St. Louis and later in Chicago, and
wrote "A Man and a Woman," "Armageddon,"
" The Launching of a Man," etc.

Wa'ters, (CLARA ERSKINE CLEMENT,) an American
author, born at Saint Louis, Missouri, August 28, 1834.
Her maiden name was CLEMENT. She was brought up,
and has for the most part resided, in Boston. Her books
are " Legendary and Mythological Art," " Painters,
Sculptors, Architects, Engravers, and their Works,"
Artists of the Nineteenth Century," " History of
Jgypt," "Life of Charlotte Cushman," "Eleanor Mait
and," a novel, "Outline History of Painting," etc.

Wa'ter-ton, (CHARLES,) an English naturalist and
raveller, born about 1782. He visited South America
n the early part of his life, and published in 1825
1 Wanderings in South America, the Northwest of the
United States, and the Antilles." He also wrote
' Essays on Natural History." Died in 1865.



Wathek-Billah, Al, al wa'thek bil'lah, written also
Vathek and Wathik, (Aboo Jaafar Haroon, (or
Harun,) i'boo ja'a-far ha'roon',) an Abbasside CaHph



e as / c as /,' g&arj;f>3&j; G, H, Y., guttural; N, nasal; R.tritltd; sasz; th as in this.



Explanations, p. 23.)



WATHIEZ



2436



WATSON



of Bagdad, was born in 811 A.D. He succeeded his
father, Motassem, in 842, and endeavoured to maintain
the literary splendour which had distinguished the reigns
of his predecessors ; but he is censured for cruelty and
intolerance. Died in 847 A.D.
See WEIL, "Geschichte der Chalifen."

Wathiez, vt'te-i', (FRANCOIS ISIDORE,) VICCWTE. a
French general, bom at Versailles in 1777.' He served
as captain at Austerlitz (1805) and Jena, (1806.) and
became a general of brigade in 1813. Died in 1855.

Watkins, wot'kinz, (CHARLES FREDERICK,) an Eng-
lish clergyman, born in Wiltshire about 1795. He pub-
lished several poems, an " Introduction to Geology,"
and other works. Died July 15, 1873.

Wats, wflts, (GILBERT,) an English translator, born
in Yorkshire about 1600, became a Fellow of Lincoln
College, Oxford. He translated Davila's "History of
the Civil Wars of France" and Lord Bacon's " De
Augmentis Scientiarum." Died in 1657.

Watson, wot'son, (ALFRED AUGUSTIN,) D.D., an
American bishop, born in New York city, August 21,
1818. He graduated at the University of the City of
New York in 1837, and became a lawyer. In 1845 he
took priest's orders in the Episcopal Church. After
holding various pastorates in North Carolina, he was in
1884 consecrated Bishop of East Carolina, a new diocese,
in the eastern part of North Carolina.

Watson, wfit'son, (CAROLINE,) a skilful English en-
graver, born in London about 1760. She engraved
many portraits. Died about 1812.

Watson, (CHARLES,) an English admiral, born in
1714. lie served with distinction against the Spaniards
in the campaigns of 1744 and 1747, and was made rear-
admiral of the blue in 1748. lie accompanied Colonel
Clive to India in 1754, and had a prominent part in the
capture of Chandernagore, in 1757. Died the same year.

Watson, wot'son, (I)AVip,) a Scottish classical
scholar, born in 1710. lie produced a prose transla-
tion of Horace. Died in 1756.

Watson, w&t'son, (ELKANAH,) a merchant, born at
Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1758. He resided many
years at Albany, and distinguished himself by promoting
various public works, and by his efforts in the cause of
education. He was the founder of the first agricultural
society in the State of New York. He wrote memoirs
entitled "Men and Times of the Revolution," (1856.)
Died in 1842.

Watson, (HENRY,) COLONEL, a British military
engineer and mathematician, born in Lincolnshire in
1737. He accompanied Lord Clive to India, and gained
distinction as chief engineer in Bengal and Orissa. He
died in England in 1786, or, as some say, in 1780.

Watson, (HEWETT C.,) an English botanist, born in
Yorkshire about 1804. He gained distinction as a
writer on botany, etc. Among his works is an able
treatise on the geographical distribution of plants, en-
titled "Cybele Britannica," (1847-55.) I )ie d in 1881.

Watson, (JAMES,) a Scottish printer, born at Aber-
deen about 1675. He published a newspaper in Edin-
burgh, a " History of the Art of Printing," and a Bible,
(1715.) remarkable for the beauty of the typography.
Died in 1722.

'Watson, (JAMES CRAIG,) LL.D., an American astron-
omer, born in Elgin county, in Canada West, January
28, 1838. He graduated at the University of Michigan
in 1857, and in 1859 became professor of 'astronomy in
that institution. In 1860 he was chosen to the chair of
physics and mathematics, and in 1863 was made director
of the observatory. He discovered twenty-two asteroids.
He wrote a " Popular Treatise on Comets," (1860,) and
"Theoretical Astronomy," besides many papers on sci-
entific subjects. Died at Madison, Wisconsin, November
23, iSSo.

'Watson, (JOHN,) REV., an English historian, born in
Cheshire in 1724, became rector of Stockport. His chief
work is a " History of Halifax," (1775.) Died in 1783.

Watson, (JOHN,) M.D., a distinguished physician,
born at Londonderry, Ireland, in 1807. Having emigrated
to America, he became in 1833 one of the physicians of
the New York Dispensary. He was one of the founders
of the American Medical Association and of the New



York Academy of Medicine, and published a number
of medical works. Died June 3, 1863.

'Watson, (JOHN,) a British novelist, born at
Manningtree, Essex, of Scotch parentage, in 1850.
Educated at Stirling and Edinburgh, he became a
Presbyterian minister, and accepted a pastorage in
Liverpool in 1880. Under the pen-name of Ian
Maclaren he became famous as an author by his highly
successful "Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush," (1894.)
This was followed by a rapid succession of works.
He lectured with success in the United States in 1896.

Watson, (JOHN CRITTENDEN,) an American ad-
miral, born at Frankfort, Kentucky, in 1842. He
served under Farragut in the civil war on the Missis-
sippi and Mobile Bay; afterwards held various com-
mands, and was made commodore in 1897 ; commanded
the blockading squadron on the North Cuban coast
May to June, 1898, and was appointed commander-in-
chief of the Eastern Squadron June 27, making the
Oregon his flag-ship on July 4. He was subsequently
made rear-admiral, and succeeded Admiral Dewey as
naval commander at Manila.

Watson, (JOHN FANNING,) an American antiquary
and historical writer, born in Burlington county, New
Jersey, in 1780. He published "Annals of Philadelphia,"
(1830,) "Historic Tales of the Olden Times in New
York," (1832,) and other similar works. He resided for
many years in Philadelphia. Died in 1860.

Watson, (RICHARD,) D.D., an English divine and
miscellaneous writer, born in Westmoreland in 1737.
He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, as a sizar in
1754, and in 1767 was appointed one of the head tutors.
Having taken his degree of M.A., he was chosen in 1764
to succeed Dr. Hadley as professor of chemistry, and
in 1771 became rcgius professor of theology. He rose
through various minor preferments to be Bishop of
Llandaff in 1782. lie had already published several
works of a political nature, one of which was entitled
"The Principles of the Revolution Vindicated." His
".Letter to Archbishop Cornwallis on the Church Reve-
nues" came out in 1783. Among his other writings
may be named his " Apology for Christianity, in a Series
of Letters addressed to Edward Gibbon, Esq.," (1776,)
"An Apology for the Bible," (1796,) in answer to Thomas
Paine, "Chemical Essays," and "Miscellaneous Tracts
on Religious, Political, and Agricultural Subjects," (1815.)
Died in 1816.

Watson, (ROBERT,) a Scottish historian, born at
Saint Andrew's in 1730. He studied at Glasgow and
Edinburgh, and became in 1777 principal of the united
colleges of Saint Leonard and Saint Salvador at Saint
Andrew's. He published the same year a good " His-
tory of Philip II. of Spain," which enjoyed considerable
popularity for a time ; but it has been eclipsed by the
more elaborate works of Motley and Prescott. He died
in 1780, leaving an unfinished "History of Philip III."

Watson, (SF.RENO,) an American botanist, born at
East Windsor Hill, Connecticut, December I, 1826. He
graduated at Yale College in 1847. He published a vol-
ume of government botanical reports, (1871,) and "Bib-
liographical Index of North American Botany," (1876,)
and was principal author of two volumes (1876, iSSo) of
the " Botany of California." Died in 1892.

'Watson, (THOMAS,) an English nonconformist min-
ister, became rector of Saint Stephen's, Walbrook, Lon-
don, in 1646. He was ejected about 1662, after which
he preached occasionally.- He wrote, besides other
works, a " Body of Divinity," (1692.) Died about 1690.

Watson, (THOMAS,) an English bishop and Roman
Catholic. He was appointed Bishop of Lincoln in 1557,
but on the accession of Elizabeth he was imprisoned.
He died in prison in 1582.

'Watson, (THOMAS,) an English poet, born in London,
probably about 1557: He was educated at Oxford, and
studied law. He published five small volumes of Latin
venfe, and three of English. Among his writings are a
Latin translation of the " Antigone" of Sophocles, (I^StJ
"The Hecatompathia, or Passionate Centurie of Love,"
(1582,) "Meliboeus," in Latin, with a translation into
English verse, and "The Teares of Fancy, or Love Dis-



a, e, 1, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fit; met; not; good; moon;



WATSON



2437



WATT



dained," in English sonnets. His verse is mostly amatory
in character, but pure in tone. Died in 1592. Watson
was greatly admired in his own day, but has ever since
been singularly neglected. He may be regarded as the
best example in English literature of the "amorettist,"
or writer of love-poetry of which the object is purely
imaginary or non-existent.

Watson, (Sir THOMAS,) BART., M.D., F.R.S., an
English physician and writer on medical subjects, born
at Kentisbeare, Devonshire, in 1792. He graduated with
honours at Cambridge, studied medicine, and rose to
great distinction as a practitioner. He published " Lec-
tures on the Principles and Practice of Physic," (51!)
edition, 1871,) "The Abolition of Zymotic Diseases,"
(1879,) etc. Died December H, 1882.

Watson, (Sir WILLIAM,) F.R.S., an English phy-
sician and botanist, born in London in 1715- He ob-
tained the Copley medal in 1745 for his discoveries in
electricity. I le contributed to the " Philosophical Trans-
actions." Died in 1787.

Watson, (\VILLIAM,) an English poet, born at
Wharfdale, Yorkshire, in 1858. His first poem to
attract attention was " Wordsworth's Grave," (1890.)
Later ones were "The Father of the Forest" and
"The Purple East." He published " Excursions in
Criticism" in 1893.

Watson, (WILLIAM R.,) an American political
writer, born in Rhode Island in 1799. Died in 1864.

Watt, wot, (GREGORY,) a British geologist, born in
1777, was a son of the celebrated James Watt. He be-
came a partner in the firm of Boulton & Watt in 1794,
after which he studied in the University of Glasgow.
Having been advised by a physician to pass the winter
in the west of England for the benefit of his health,
he repaired in 1797 to Penzance, where he formed an
intimacy with Humphry Davy. He wrote, in 1804,
" Observations on Basalt, and on the Transition from
the Vitreous to the Stony Texture which occurs in
the Gradual Refrigeration of Melted Basalt." Died in
October, 1804.

Watt, (JAMES,) a Scottish engineer, philosopher, and
inventor of great merit and celebrity, was born at Green-
ock, on the Clyde, on the igth of January, 1736. He
was a son of James Watt, merchant, builder, and ship-
r ^, -..*'..- \\\s, mother's name was Agnes Muirhead or
Being a child of delicate constitution, he was
educated mostly at home. His favourite studies and
pursuits were the experimental sciences and practical
mechanics. Having adopted the trade of maker of
mathematical instruments, he went to London in 1755
and served an apprenticeship of one year with John
Morgan. In 1756 he returned to Scotland, with the
intention to settle at Glasgow ; but, as he was not a bur-
gess, the corporation of arts and trades would not permit
him to open a workshop in that city. The professors of
the University of Glasgow then offered him a place of
business wiihin their precincts, and gave him the title
of mathematical instrument maker to the University.
He employed his evenings in the profound study of
various sciences, learned most of the modern languages
of Europe, and formed intimate friendships with Robi-
son, Black, and other professors at Glasgow. In 1764
he married his cousin, Miss Miller, and, as his wife was
the daughter of a burgess, he was then permitted to open
& shop in Glasgow.

About 1764 he was employed to repair a model of
Newcomen's steam-engine which was used in the class-
room of the university, and perceived defects in it which
induced him to make experiments on the application of
steam-power. He discovered that water, when converted
into steam, is expanded to eighteen hundred times its
bulk. He ascertained that in the " atmospheric" engine
of Newcomen there was a great waste of the steam which
was condensed by the injection of cold water into the
cylinder, and that to prevent this waste the cylinder
must be continually kept as hot as the steam which enters
it. In 1765 the fortunate idea occurred to him of con-
densing the steam in a separate vessel, which should be
exhausted of air and always kept cool. "This capital
improvement," says Dr. Black, "flashed on his mind at



chandler.
Muirheid.



once, and filled him with rapture." (" History of Mr.
Watt's Improvement of the Steam-Engine.") Another
improvement which he invented about this time was the
use of the expansive force of steam to depress the piston,
instead of the pressure of the atmosphere.

He ceased to make mathematical instruments in 1768.
after which he pursued the business of land-surveyor and
civil engineer. He obtained a patent for his invention in
January, 1769, and was supplied with some capital requi-
site to reduce his improvements to practice, by Dr. John
Roebuck, who had a share in the patent. Before Watt
could realize any profit from his new engine, Dr. Roe-
buck became insolvent, or so embarrassed that he could
not advance any more funds. In a letter dated August,

1772, Watt writes, "I pursued my experiments ill I
found that the expense and loss of time lying wholly
upon me, through the distress of Dr. Roebuck's situa-
tion, turned out to be a greater burthen than I could
support, and I was obliged for a time to abandon my
project. Notwithstanding my natural despondence, I am
convinced that the machine may be made to answer in a
very considerable degree, and in more forms than one,
but that I am by no means the proper person to carry it
into execution."

Watt was employed as surveyor or engineer in th
construction of several canals, bridges, and other works
in Scotland during the period from 1769 to 1773. Roe
buck, who had advanced 1000 to the inventor, trans-
ferred in 1774 his share in the patent (/'./. two-thirds) to
Matthew Boulton, of Soho, an enterprising man of busi-
ness, who entered into partnership with Watt for the
manufacture of steam-engines at Soho, near Birmingham.
Boulton and Watt applied to Parliament for an ex-
tension of the term of their patent, and obtained the
exclusive right to make and vend the new engine for a
term of twenty-five years, (1775-1800.) A great saving
of fuel was effected by the improvements of Watt, whose
engines were soon extensively used to pump water out
of the mines of Cornwall. In 1782 he took out a patent
for the invention of the double-acting engine, in which
the reciprocating rectilinear motion was converted into
rotatory motion.

He afterwards invented several improvements, among
which are the governor or "regulator by centrifugal
force," the mechanism of parallel motion, the throttle-
valve, and the steam barometer or float. The manufac-
tory of engines at Soho was successful, and enriched
both of the partners.

In 1783 Watt made an important chemical discovery,
the composition of water ; but the honour of this dis-
covery is claimed for Cavendish by some writers. To
the substances which unite to form water, Watt applied
the terms "phlogiston" and "dephlogisticated air." Dr.
Dalton, in his "New System of Chemical Philosophy,"
(1810,) says, "The composition and decomposition ot
water were ascertained, the former by Watt and Caven-
dish, and the latter by Lavoisier and Meusnier." An-
other eminent chemist, Dr. Henry, wrote to James
Watt, Junior, "There is no room for doubt as to your
father's priority." The honour of this discovery wag
also ascribed to Watt by Sir D. Brewster, Lord Jeffrey,
and M. Dumas. (See a review of this controversy m
an article entitled " Watt or Cavendish," by Lord Jeffrey,
in the "Edinburgh Review" for January, 1848.) Watt
was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in
1785. He remained in partnership with Boulton until
1800, and then resigned his business to his two sons. In
1814 he was elected one of the eight foreign associates
of the French Institute. Having lost his first wife in

1773, ne married a Miss MacGregor a few years later.
He died at Heathfield, near Birmingham, in August,
1819. In the same year Lord Jeffrey composed a eulogy
on Watt, from which we quote as follows : " By his
admirable contrivances, it [the steam-engine] has become
a thing stupendous alike for its force and its flexibility,
for the prodigious power which it can exert, and the
ease and precision and ductility with which it can be
varied, distributed, and applied. The trunk of an
elephant, that can pick up a pin or rend an oak, is aa
nothing to it. It can draw out, without breaking, a
thread as fine as gossamer, and lift a ship of war like a



; cas/; ^hard gas/;G H, K. guttural; N, nasal; v.,trilled; sasz; thasinMif. (fc^p^See Explanations, p. 23.)



WATT



2438



WAUTERS



bauble in tlie air. . . . He had infinite quickness of
apprehension, a prodigious memory, and a certain recti-
fying and methodizing power of understanding, which
extracted something precious out of all that was pre-
sented to it. His stores of miscellaneous knowledge
were immense, and yet less astonishing than the com-
mand he had at all times over them. "I look upon
him," says the poet Wordsworth, "considering both the
magnitude and the universality of his genius, as per-
haps the most extraordinary man that this country evei
produced."*

See J. P MUIRHEAD, "Life of James Watt." 185?, and "The
Origin and Progress of the Mechanical Inventions of j. Watt, illus-



article on Watt in the " Edinburgh Review" for 1819; DR. HOEPRR,
article in the " Nouvelle Biographic GeWrale ;" J. FORBES, " Dis-
sertation" in the 8th edition of the " Encyclopedia Britannia :"
rricle in the " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale . J. FORBES, "Dis-
ertaiion" in the 8th edition of the " Encyclopedia Britannica."

Watt, (JAMES,) the eldest son of the preceding, was
born in February, 1769. He studied natural philosophy,
chemistry, and mineralogy, and learned to speak the
French language fluently. About 1790 he went to
Paris, became inflamed with enthusiasm for liberty and
equality, and took an active part in the Revolution. " He
was for some time," says Muirhead, "in company with
Thomas Cooper and Wordsworth the poet, in the habit
of associating with many of those men who afterwards
attained a dreadful celebrity, and, as Southey has men-
tioned, was at that time the means of preventing a duel
between Danton and Robespierre." (" Life of James
Watt") Robespierre having in 1792 insinuated that
Watt was an emissary of Pitt, Watt sprang on the
tribune of the Jacobin Club and defended himself in a
brief and impassioned speech, after which he instantly
quitted Paris. In 1800 he became a partner of Boulton
the younger in the manufacture of engines at Soho. He
rendered some services to the cause of steam-navigation
by experiments on marine engines. In 1817 he made a
voyage to Holland in the steamboat Caledonia, which
he owned, and which was the first that crossed the
Channel. He died, unmarried, at Aston Hall, in 1848.

Watt (JAMES HENRY,) an eminent English engraver,
born in London in 1799, was a pupil of Charles Heath.
Among his master-pieces we may name "The High-
land Drover's Departure" and " Horses at the Fountain,"
after Landseer, and "Christ Blessing Little Children,"
after Eastlake. Died in 1867.

Watt, (ROBERT,) a Scottish physician and medical
writer, born in Ayrshire in 1774. He was president of
the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons at Glasgow,
and published, among other works, a "Treatise on the
History, Nature, and Treatment of Chin-Cough." He
also compiled the " Bibliotheca Britannica, or a General
Index to British and Foreign Literature," (4 vols., 1820.)
Died in 1819.

See CHAMELBRS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Watteau or Wateau, vi'to', (ANTOINE,) a French
painter, born at Valenciennes in 1684. He studied under
Gillot and Audran, and acquired great celebrity in his
peculiar department of the art His favourite subjects
were rural festivals, balls, masquerades, and military
encampments, and in these he was perhaps unsurpassed.
Horace Walpole observes, "Watteau's shepherdesses
nay, his very sheep are coquet ; yet, though he fell
short of the dignified grace of the Italians, there is an
easy air in his figures, and that more familiar species of
the graceful which we call genteel." His works are very
numerous, and the greater part have been engraved.
They were greatly admired by Frederick the Great of
Prussia, and many of the best are to be seen at Berlin.
Died in 1721.

See WA LPOLE, " Anecdotes of Painting :" LEON DUMONT. " An-
toine Watteau," 1866 ; A. DINAUX, "Notice sur A. Watteau," 1834 :
CHARLES BLANC, "Histoire des Peintres ;" "Nouvelle Biographic
C^nerale."

Watteville, de, deh viYvcl', ( ADOLPHE du Grabe
dii grSb,) BAKON, a French economist, born in Paris in



Quoted in Muirhead's " Life of WatU"



1801. He wrote several works on charitable institutions,
etc. Died November 18, 1866.

Wattier, vt'te-A', (CHARLES F.Mii.E,)a French paint-
er, was born in P~ans in 1800 ; died November 22, 1868.

'Watts, wits, (ALARIC ALEXANDER,) an English
journalist and litttmteur, born in London in 1799. He
edited successively the "Leeds Intelligencer," "Man-
chester Courier," "The Literary Souvenir," and "The
United Service Gazette." He also published "Lyrics


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 389 of 425)