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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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vantageous peace with Ferdinand II. Died in 1656.

See KARL AUGUST MtiLLHR, "Kurfurst Johann Georg I., seine
Familie," etc.. 1838; SKBLIGMANN, " Dissertatio de Vita Joannit
Georgii I.," 1676.

John George IT, Elector of Saxony, born in 1613,
began to reign in 1656, and distinguished himself as a
legislator. Died in 1680.

See STOCKMANN, " Programma : Elector Joannes Georgius II.
Saxonix et Lusatiz Legislator," 1789.

John of Antioch, or John the Scholastic, [Lat.
cus; Fr. JEAN D'ANTIOCHE, zhON ddN'te-osh',] a Greek
canonist, born at Antioch, became Patriarch of Constan-
tinople in 565 A.D. He published a collection of canons.
Died in 578. (See MALALA.)

John of Bologna. See BOLOGNA.

Johu of Damascus. See DAMASCENUS.

John of Gauut or Ghent, Duke of Lancaster, a
younger son of Edward HI. King of England, was born
in 1340. His birthplace, Ghent, in Flanders, then called
in English Gaunt, (after the French GanJ,) gave him the
designation by which he is generally known. He served
in ear y youth under his eldest brother Edward the Black
Prince in the French wars, where he gained great dis-
tinction for his skill and bravery. He married Constance,
a natural daughter of Peter the Cruel, King of Castile
and Leon, and, on the death of that monarch, laid claim
to une sovereignty ot those kingdoms, but was defeated by
Henry of Trastamara. He subsequently gave his daughter
ir. marriage to the heir-apparent of the crowns of Castile
aod Leon, upon which he resigned his own claims. His
third wife was a sister-in-law of the poet Chaucer, to
whom he proved a liberal patron. Died in 1399. His
uon, surnamed Bolingbroke, afterwards ascended the
throne of England, with the title of Henry IV.

John of God, SAINT. See DIEU, DE, (JEAN.)

John of Leyden, sometimes called Johann Bock-
elson or Beccold, a notorious fanatic, born at Leyden
in 1510. Having joined the Anabaptists, he associated
himself with Matthys, and with his followers took pos-
session of the city of Minister. After committing the
greatest excesses and cruelties, he was taken prisoner
by the Bishop of Miinster, and executed in 1536.

See JOCHMUS, "Geschichte der Miinsterschen WiedertSufer :"
ROBERTSON, " History of Charles V.," book v. ; C. A. VULPIUS,
"Johann von Leyden," i 7 Q3 ; J. C. WALLMANN, "Johann von Ley
c3en, 1844: ERSCH und GRUBER, "Aligemeine Encyklopaedie."

John the Baptist, [Fr. JEAN BAPTISTE, zhftN bfp'-
test'; It. GIOVANNI BATTISTA, jo-van'nee bat-tis'ta,]
sion of Zacharias, a Jewish priest, and his wife Elisabeth.
1 1 was foretold of him that he should come in the spirit
a.nd power of Elias, to prepare the way of the Lord.
(Luke i. 17.) Our Saviour also said that no prophet
was greater than John the Baptist. (Luke vii. 28.) He
bt?gan to' preach and to baptize in the desert country
through which the Jordan flowed. It was here that
Jesus received baptism and was proclaimed by him as
the promised Messiah. He was subsequently cast into
prijson, and beheaded by the order of Herod.

15ee Mark vi. 16-30.

Johnes, j6nz, ? (THOMAS,) an English scholar and
bibliomaniac, born at Ludlow, in Shropshire, in 1748.
He was twice elected a member of Parliament. He
translated Froissart's "Chronicle," and other literary
works, from the French. Died in 1816.

Johns, (JOHN,) D.D., an American bishop, born in
Newcastle, Delaware, July 10, 1796. He graduated at
Princeton College in 1815, took orders in the Episcopal
Church, was appointed Assistant Bishop of Virginia in
1842, and in 1862 succeeded Bishop Meade as diocesan.
He was for some time president of William and Mary
College, and of the Theological Seminary of Virginia.
Died April 5, 1876.

John'spn, (ALEXANDER B.,) an author and banker,
born in Gosport, England, in 1786. He settled in Utica,
New York, in 1801, and engaged in banking opetations
in that town. He devoted his leisure to the study of
the nature of human knowledge, or ideas irrespective of
the words by which they are expressed. The results of
his investigation are his " Philosophy of Human Know-
ledge, or a Treatise on Language," (1828,) a " Treatise on
Language, or the Relation which Words bear to Things,"
(1836,) and other publications on the same subject. His
"Physiology of the Senses" (1856) was highly com-
mended by the " Westminster Review." He also pub
lished a "Treatise on Banking." Died Sept. 9, 1867.

John'son, (ANDREW,) the seventeenth President ot
the United States, was born at Raleigh, North Carolina,
in 1808. He learned the trade of a tailor, which he fol-
lowed for many years at Greenville, Tennessee. He waa
self-educated, and, it is said, never attended any school
In 1828 he was elected alderman, and in 1830 mayor, of
Greerville. After he had served several terms in the
legislature of Tennessee, he was elected a member of
Congress by the Democrats in 1843, and continued in
that body for ten years. He was chosen Governor of
Tennessee in 1853, and again in 1855. In 1857 he was
elected a United States Senator for six years. Having
taken a decided stand against the disunion movement in
1860 and 1861, he was appointed Military Governor of
Tennessee by President Lincoln in 1862. He was elected
Vice-President of the United States by the Republicans
in November, 1864, and, on the death of Mr. Lincoln,
became President in April, 1865. On his accession to
office he displayed at first a spirit of great severity
against the rebels, but soon afterwards adopted a line of
policy in relation to the reconstruction of the seceded
Slates which was very favourable to them. His policy,
which tended to restore the domination of the secession-
ists and to reduce the freedmen again to many of the
:vils of slavery, was rejected by a majority of Congress;
ind a violent contest ensued between that body and the
President, who vetoed numerous acts passed by Con-
gress for the reconstruction of the Southern States, etc.
His vetoes, however, were overruled by a majority of
two-thirds in each House, and the policy of Congress
prevailed. In the course of a tour from Washington to
Chicago, in 1866, he made many undignified political
speeches, which rendered him very unpopular, and in
the next elections his opponents, the Radicals, obtained
large and increased majorities. He opposed impartial
suffrage, recommended repudiation, and co-operated with
the Democratic party. He pardoned a large number
of counterfeiters. In August, 1867, he suspended Mr.
Stanton, secretary of war, and appointed General Grant
secretary ad interim. The Senate of the United States
reinstated Mr. Stanton in January, 1868, and President
Johnson quarrelled with General Grant because he gave
up the war office to Mr. Stanton. Great excitement was
produced by the attempt of the President to remove Mr.
Stanton in February, and he was impeached of high
crimes and misdemeanours by a large majority of the
House of Representatives. Among the crimes charged
against him was the violation of the "Act regulating
the Tenure of certain Civil Offices," by the removal of
Mr. Stanton without the consent of the Senate. The
trial before the Senate bogan about March 13, and ended,
May 26, in his acquittal. Thirty-five Senators voted that
he was guilty, and nineteen voted not guilty. Among
the latter were seven Republicans. Died July 31, 1875.

See " Life of Andrew Johnson," New York, 1866.

casi; 9asj; gfard; gas;;G, H, Vi, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; th as in this.

Explanations, p. 23.)




Johnson, (BEN.) See JONSON, (BEN.)

Johnson, (CHAPMAN,) an eminent American lawyer,
born in Virginia in 1779. He began the practice of law
at Staunton, and rose to the first rank in his profession.
He served as aide-de-camp to General James Brecken-
ridge in the second war with Great Britain. Died in 1849.

Johii'aon, (CHARLES,) an English dramatic writer,
born in 1679, is mentioned in Pope's "Dunciad," particu-
larly on account of his obesity. The comedy of the
"Country Lasses" was the most popular of his plays.
Died in 1748.

Johnson, (CLIFTON,) an American author and
illustrator, born at Hadley, Massachusetts, in 1865.
He published "The New England Country," "A Book
of Country Clouds and Sunshine," "The Farmer's
Boy," etc., and has illustrated numerous works.

Johnson, (CUTHBERT W.,) an English writer on agri-
culture, born at Bromley, Kent, about 1800. He pub-
lished "The Farmer's Encyclopaedia and Dictionary of
Rural Affairs," (1842.) Died March 8, 1878.

Johnson, (EASTMAN,) an American painter of por-
traits and genre, born at Lovell, Maine, in 1824. Among
his works are " The Old Kentucky Home," " Savoyard
Be iv." "The Woodsman," "The Chimney-Corner," and
other admirable delineations of common life, and
numerous portraits of prominent statesmen and other
leading personages.

Johnson, (EDWARD.) one of the earliest historians of
New England, born in Kent, England, about 1600. He
emigrated to Charlestown, Massachusetts, in 1630. Died
in 1672. His valuable "History of New England from
the English Planting in 1628 till 1652" was published in
London in 1650, and afterwards in the Massachusetts
Historical Collections.


Johnson, (GKUKGE,) an English physician, born ai
Goudhurst, Kent, in November, 1818. He was educated
at King's College, London, and graduated in 1842 at the
London University. He was professor of materia medica
in King's College, 1857-63, of the practice of medicine,
1863-76, and in 1876 took a professorship of clinical
medicine. He was made physician extraordinary to
the queen in 1889, and knighted in 1892. Among his
works are "On Diseases of the Kidney," (1852,)
"The Laryngoscope," (1864,) " Lectures on Bright's
Disease," (1873,) etc. Died in 1896.

Johnson, (HELEN KENDRICK,) an American author,
daughter of Rev. Dr. A. C. Kendrick, and wife of Ros-
siter Johnson. She was born at Hamilton, New York,
January 4, 1843, an ^ was married in 1869. She is the
author of "The Roddy Books," (3 vols., 1874-76,) and
" Our Familiar Songs, and those who made them,"
(1881,) and has edited several -.ompilations.

Johnaon,(IsAAC,) one of the founders of Massachusetts
colony, came from England with Governor Winthrop in
1630. He and three others organized, July 30, the church
of Boston at Charlestown ; but, for the want of good
water, they removed to Shawmut, now Boston, which
was settled under Johnson's supervision. Died in 1630.

Johnson, (JOHN,) a learned nonjuring divine, born
in Kent, England, in 1662. He was the author of" Holy
David and his Old English Translation Cleared," written
in answer to one of the works of Baxter, "The Clergy-
man's Vade-Mecum," (1708,) and several other works
Died in 1725.

See THOMAS BRETT, " Life of John Johnson," 174$.

Johnson, (Sir JOHN,) a general, son of Sir William,
noticed below, was born in 1742. He was a royalist in
the Revolution, instigated the Indians to fight foi the
king, and conducted several raids from Canada against
the State of New York. Near the close of last century
he was appointed Governor of Upper Canada. Died in
1830. See his " Life," by J. W. de Peyster.

Johnson, (fosKi'M.) M.D., brother of Judge William
Johnson, was born in Charleston in 1776. He practised
as a physician in his native citv, and in 1807 was chosen
president of the Medical Society of South Carolina, He
took an active part in the literary and political move-
ments of Charleston, was long mayor of the city, and a

prominent leader of the party which opposed nullifica-
tion in 1832-33. He wrote a valuable work entitled " Tra-
ditions and Reminiscences of the Revolution," (1851.)

Johnson, (MANUEL JOHN,) an English astronomer,
born about 1805. He was astronomer of the Radcliffe
Observatory of Oxford, and published "Astronomical
Observations," (13 vols., 1845-55.) Died in 1859.

Johnson, (MARTIN,) an English landscape-painter
and seal-engraver of the time of Charles II. Died
about 1685.

Johnson, (MAURICE,) an English lawyer and antiqua-
rian, born in Lincolnshire. He founded an antiquarian
society at Spalding, and wrote several commentaries.
Died in 1755.

Johnson, (REVERDY,) an American lawyer, son of
Judge Johnson, was born in Annapolis, Maryland, May
21, 1796. He studied at Saint John's College, waa
admitted to the bar in 1815, and followed his profession
with great success in Baltimore. He was also extensively
engaged in cases before the supreme court of the United
States. In 1845 ne was elected by the Whigs to the
United States Senate. This position he resigned in 1849
to accept the attorney-generalship of the United States,
tendered him by President Taylor. On the death of Gen-
eral Taylor, in July, 1850, Mr. Johnson resumed his pro-
fession in Baltimore. In connection with Thomas Harris,
he published seven volumes of reports of the Maryland
court of appeals, (from 1800 to 1826.) He was elected
a Senator of the United States for six years, (1863-69,)
and appointed minister to England in June, 1868. He
negotiated in relation to the Alabama claims a conven-
tion which the Senate of the United States rejected al-
most unanimously. He was recalled early in 1869. Died
February IO, 1876.

Johnson, (RICHARD,) a commentator and gramma-
rian, born in England. Among his works are "Noctes
Nottinghamics," and "Grammatical Commentaries."
Died in 1721.

Johnson, (RICHARD MENTOR,) ninth Vice- President
of the United States, was born near Louisville, Kentucky,
in 1780. He studied at Transylvania University, and
practised law with success. Elected a representative
to Congress in 1807, he zealously supported the admin-
istration of President Madison, and was regularly re-
elected for a period of twelve years. On the breaking
out of the war of 1812, he raised and commanded a
regiment of mounted riflemen on the Indian frontier. In
1813 le again took the field, and contributed greatly to
Harrison's victory of the Thames, (October 5, 1813.)
The Indian chief Tecumseh, who fell in this battle, is
generally believed to have been killed by Colonel John-
son, who was dangerously wounded. In 1819 he visa
transferred to the Unitea States Senate, of which he
! was a member for ten years. He was again returned to
the House of Representatives in 1829, and was regularly
re-elected till chosen Vice- President in 1837, Van Buren
being the President. None of the candidates for Vice-
President having on that occasion received a majority
of votes in the electoral college, Colonel Johnson was
elected by the United States Senate. He was again
the candidate for the Vice-Presidency on the ticket with
Van Buren in 1840, but was defeated. Died in 1850.

Johnson, (RICHARD W.,) an American general, bora
in Kentucky about 1827, graduated at West Point in
1849. He commanded a division at the battle of Stone
River, December 31, i862-January 2, 1863, and at Chick
amauga, Sept. 19 and 20, 1863. He served under Sher-
man in Georgia in 1864. He was professor of military
science in the Missouri State University 1868-69 ano
in the University of Minnesota 1869-71. Died in St.
Paul, April 21, 1897.

Johnson, (ROBERT,) an English composer of sacred
music, who flourished in the middle of the sixteenth cet-
tury. Little is known of his life beyond the fact that hr
was an ecclesiastic. There was another Robert Johnson,
who composed music for the London theatres from abeut
1610 to 1621.

Johnson, (RossiTF.R,) an American author, born at
Rochester, New York, January 27, 1840, graduated at
Rochester University in 1863. He is the author of
"Phaeton Rogers," (1881,) "Idler and Poet," poens,

a, e, 1, 5, u, y, l~mg; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; i, e. ' ", "., y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fit; mSt; not; good; mon;



(1882,) " History of the War of 1812," (1882,) " His-
tory of the Old French War," (1883,) etc., editor of
various books and series and of several cyclopaedias,
and associate editor of the " Standard Dictionary."

John'son, (SAMUEL,) an English divine, memorable
for his undaunted support of the Protestant cause, was
born in Staffordshire in 1649. Soon after he had taken
orders he removed to London. He became an earnest
advocate of the bill of exclusion against James, Duke
of York, and published a tract entitled "Julian the
Apostate," (1682,) in which he refuted the arguments in
favour of passive obedience. For writing this article he
was tried and imprisoned ; but during his confinement he
issued several treatises against popery. In 1686 he wrote
"An Humble and Hearty Address to all the English
Protestants in the Present Army." For the production
of this essay he was sentenced to stand three times in
the pillory, to pay a fine of five hundred marks, and to
be publicly whipped from Newgate to Tyburn. He bore
all these sufferings with great firmness. He subsequently
wrote in favour of the Revolution, and also of William
of Orange, on whose accession he was rewarded with
a present of ^1000 and an annuity of ^300. Died in

Johnson, (SAMUEL,) an eccentric English dramatic
writer, born in Cheshire about 1705. He wrote, besides
other comedies, " Hurlothrumbo, or the Supernatural."
Died in 1773.

Johnson, (SAMUEL,) one of the most eminent Eng-
lish writers of the eighteenth century, a son of Michael
Johnson, a bookseller, was born at Lichfield, September
18, 1709. He commenced his studies in his native town,
and subsequently continued them at a school in Stour-
bridge. In 1728 he entered Pembroke College, Oxford.
From boyhood he had been afflicted with the scrofula,
which greatly impaired his eyesight and weakened his
constitution. To this may be attributed the natural in-
dolence which he never fully succeeded in overcoming.
Notwithstanding these obstacles, he acquired such stores
of knowledge that, when he was examined at Oxford,
one of the officers pronounced him to be the best pre-
pared among all those who had entered since his re-
membrance. Three years afterwards he was under the
necessity of leaving college, on account of the narrowness
of his resources. The same year, his father dying under
pecuniary embarrassments, he obtained employment as
usher to a school in Market-Bosworth. The duties of
this office, however, soon became so irksome that he
threw it up and removed to Birmingham, where he had
made an engagement to contribute to a newspaper. It
was there, also, that he produced his first book, an
abridged translation from the French of " Father Lobos'
Voyage into Abyssinia," for which he received the small
compensation ot five guineas. In 1736 he married Mrs.
Porter, the widow of a mercer. This lady is described
as being nearly twice his age, and as having vulgar
manners, a loud voice, and florid complexion. Johnson
said, however, that it was a love-match on both sides.

Not long after, he attempted to establish an academy at
Edial Hall, where he obtained only three pupils, one of
whom was David Garrick. In 1737 he went to London,
accompanied by Garrick. In a short time he produced,
in imitation of the third Satire of Juvenal, a poem on
London, which attracted great attention. Pope remarked
"that the author, whoever he was, would not be long
concealed." It was in the metropolis that Johnson
formed a friendship for the poet Savage, with whom he
frequently walked the streets at night because they were
too poor to procure lodgings. In 1740 he wrote the
parliamentary speeches for the "Gentleman's Magazine,' 1
nd in 1744 published the "Life of Richard Savage."
Three years latei he commenced his English Dictionary.
In March, 1749, the first number of the " Rambler" was
issued. Johnson coi.titjued this periodical until his wife's
death, in 1752, which affected his mind so deeply that he
suspended many of his literary labours. In 1762 George
III. granted him a pension of .300 per annum; and
from that time he was enabled to live in ease and inde-
pendence. He became a member of the famous literary-
club to which Burke, Goldsmith, Reynolds, and many
other celebrated men belonged. He received the degree

of LL.D. in 1765 from the University of Dublin, but did
not assume the title until several years later, when the
same honour was conferred on him by the University of
Oxford. He was also treated with marked attention by
the king, to whom he was introduced at the library in
Buckingham House. In 1773 he made an excursion to
the Western Islands of Scotland, of which he wrote
j an account, and two years later visited Paris. In 1781
he finished the " Lives of the British Poets," the last of
his literary works. He died in 1784, from the effects
of dropsy and asthma.

Johnson's intellect was incisive, comprehensive, and
profound ; and, when free from the influence of prejudice
or passion, his judgments are, generally speaking, re-
markably just. He seemed to seize, instantaneously and
without effort, the essential features of the subject undei
discussion, and his decisions are often expressed with a
clearness and force that make a vivid and indelible im-
pression upon the minds of his readers. He was pre-
eminently distinguished for his conversational powers ;
in society he was original, pointed, logical, and fond of
argument, in which no one but Burke could successfully
encounter him. Much of the intolerance and ill temper
which he too often betrayed on such occasions must be
ascribed to distressing and deep-rooted bodily infirmi-
ties, which powerfully reacted upon his mind. If his
disposition was irritable, his heart was essentially kind
and generous. Few persons, with means so limited as
his, ever spent more for charitable or benevolent pur-
poses. " He loved the poor," says Mrs. Thrale, " as I
never yet saw any one else love them. . . . He nursed
whole nests of people in his house, where the lame, the
blind, the sick, and the sorrowful found a sure retreat."
Francis Barber, the servant and friend of Dr. Johnson,
was originally a Jamaica slave. It is related that John-
son, on making his will, asked his physician what would
be a sufficient annuity for a faithful servant. Being told
that fifty pounds a year would be regarded as adequate
in the case of a nobleman, "Then," he said, "I shall
be nobilissimus; for I mean to leave Frank seventy pounds
a year." "That, with all his coarseness and irrita-
bility," says Macaulay, (who will scarcely be accused of
any undue partiality to Johnson,) " he was a man of
sterling benevolence, has long been acknowledged. But
how gentle and endearing his deportment could be was
not known till the 'Recollections of Madame D'Arblay'
were published." Although certainly not wanting in a
proper respect for dignities, he possessed a true Saxon
independence of character, of which his well-known letter
to Lord Chesterfield furnishes a fine illustration. He
was a sincere and humble believer in the great truths
of Christianity, which he ably upheld and defended.

Johnson was great in all the branches of literature to
which he devoted his attention. Few men have exerted
so great an influence while living, an influence which
will probably be felt far into the future. His poems,
which are chiefly descriptive and satirical, have been
greatly admired by some of the most eminent critics.
" I have had," said Sir Walter Scott, " more pleasure
in reading 'London' and the 'Vanity of Human Wishes'
than any other poetical composition that I can mention."
Of the latter Byron remarks, " 'Tis a grand poem, all
the examples and mode of giving them sublime." His
romances and plays attracted less attention. He was
particularly unsuccessful with his female characters.
Burke aptly remarked that among his dramatis personae
"all the ladies introduced were Johnsons in petticoats."
His excellence in literary criticism lies in his strength,
perspicuity, and originality of thought. His critical
observations are generally extremely just (as already
intimated) when not biased by prejudice. He had not,
however, that nice discrimination or sensibility requisite
in order to appreciate poetical beauties of a delicate or
subtle kind. His most important critical works are the
" Preface and Notes to Shakspeare," and " The Lives
of the British Poets." His English Dictionary, upon
hich he bestowed vast labour for several years, is
probably the most remarkable work of the kind ever
produced by a single person. His style, precise and
stately, was much admired and imitated during his
lifetime ; but at present the prevailing taste in literature

as k: c as s: g hard: g as;'; G, H, K.,gitttnrjt; N, nasal; R, triiled; s as z; %h as in this.


Explanations, p. 23.)

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 39 of 425)