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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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1646 first court preacher at Dresden. His "New Greek
Grammar" ("Grammatica Graeca Nova") was highly
esteemed by his contemporaries. Died in 1664.

See REICHMANN, "Memoria J. Welleri," 1664.

Weller, wel'ler, [Lat. WELLE'RUS,] (JEROME or
HIERONYMUS,) a German theologian, born at Freyberg,
in Misnia, in 1499. He was in early youth a favourite
disciple of Luther, in whose house he lived eight years.
lie became professor of theology at Freyberg, and
propagated the doctrines of Luther by his sermons and
writings, which had a high reputation. Died in 1572.

See LEMMEL, " Wellerusredivivus;" HEMI-EL, " Life of Weller,"
in Latin verse.

Wellerua. See WELLER,

Welle8, wSlz, (EDWARD RANDOLPH,) D.D., an

American bishop, born at Waterloo, New York, January
lo, 1830, graduated in 1850 at Geneva College, New
York, and was ordained a presbyter of the Episcopal
Church in 1858. In 1874 he was consecrated Bishop of
Wisconsin. Died October 20, 1888.

Welles, we'lz, (GIDEON.) an American politician, born
in Hartford county, Connecticut, in 1802. He studied
law, and became about 1826 editor of the "Hartford
Times," a Democratic journal. He was elected to the
legislature of Connecticut in 1827, and was appointed
chief of one of the bureaus of the navy department in
1846. About 1854 he separated from the Democratic
party in regard to the extension of slavery, and joined
the Republicans. He was appointed secretary of the
navy in March, 1861, and, after the death of President
Lincoln, was retained in office by Johnson until the close
of his administration in March, 1869. Died Feb. n, 1878.


Wellesley, wglz'le, (Lord CHARLES,) the second son
of the first Duke of Wellington, was born in Dublin in
1808. He entered the army, and became a colonel about
1851. He was elected in 1842 a Conservative member
of the House of Commons. Died in 1858.

Wellesley, (RICHARD COLLEY,) Marquis Wellesley.
an able statesman, born in Dublin in 1760, was the eldest
son of Garret, first Earl of Mornington, and was a
brother of the famous Duke of Wellington. He studied
at Eton, and distinguished himself as a classical scholar.
At the death of his father, in 1781, he became Earl of
Mornington, and entered the Irish 1 louse of Lords. He
gained the favour of George III. by his course on the
subject of the regency in 1789, and at the next general
election was returned to the English House of Commons
for Windsor. In 1793 he was sworn in a member of the
British privy council. He was appointed Governor-
General of India in October, 1797, and raised to the
British peerage, as Baron Mornington.' In 1798 he
declared war against Tippoo Sahib, Sultan of Mysore,
who had given offence by intrigues or negotiations with
the French. The British army gained victories at Mai-
lavelly and Seringapatam, and Tippoo was killed in
battle in 1799. Lord Mornington was created Marquis
Wellesley in December, 1799. About 1803 he waged
war against the Mahrattas, from whom he conquered
the region between the Ganges and Jumna. He resigned
in 1805, became secretary of state for foreign affairs in
December, 1809, and retired from that office in January,
1812. On the death of Mr. Perceval, (1812,) the Marquis
Wellesley, at the request of the prince-regent, made an
unsuccessful effort to form a coalition ministry. He was
appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland in December, 1821.
Being a zealous friend of Catholic emancipation, he
resigned when his brother, the Duke of Wellington,
became prime minister, in 1828, because the duke
opposed the Catholic claims. He served as lord lieu-
tenant of Ireland for a short time in 1833-34. He died
in September, 1842, leaving no children, although he
was twice married.

Well'hausen, (JULIUS,) a German theologian,
born at Hameln in 1844. After filling several profes-
sorships, he became professor of Oriental languages in
the University of Gottingen. He wrote largely on Old
Testament history, sustaining vigorously the radical
views of the " higher criticism."

Wel'Ung-tpu, (ARTHUR WELLESLEY,) first DUKE
OF, a celebrated British general and statesman, born in
Dublin or at Dangan Castle, in the county of Meath,
Ireland, on the 1st of May, 1769. He was the third son
of Garret Wesley, first Earl uf Mornington, and Anne
Hill Trevor, a daughter of Viscount Dungannon. The
original name of the family was exchanged for Wellesley
about 1797 by the subject of this article or by his eldest
bi other. He was educated at Eton and at a military
academy of Angers, in France. He received in March,
1787, a commission as ensign in the seventy-third regi-
ment of foot, became a lieutenant in December of that
year, and obtained the rank of captain in June, 1791.
Having been raised lo the rank of major in April, 1793,
he acquired by purchase that of lieutenant-colonel of
the thirty-third regiment of foot in September of the
same year. In 1794 he served in the Low Countries
under the Duke of York, whom the French general
Pichegru compelled to retreat to Bremen. During this
disastrous retreat Colonel Wesley commanded a brigade,
and distinguished himself by his skill and intrepidity.

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Having been promoted to the rank of colonel in 1796,
he was ordered to India, where he arrived in February,
5797. In 1798 his eldest brother, Lord Mornington,
became Governor-General of India, and declared war
against Tippoo Sahib. Colonel Wellesley contributed
to the victory of Mallavelly and the capture of Seringa-
patam, of which he was appointed governor in July,
1799. " During several years that he held the command
in Mysore," says C. MacFarland, " he was fully occupied
in organizing the civil and military administration of
the country ; and in the execution of this task he im-
proved his natural talents for business, and displayed
that quickness of perception and that sagacity and self-
command which have characterized him throughout the
whole course of his military career."

He obtained the rank of major-general in April, 1802,
was appointed to the chief command of all the British
and allied troops serving in the territories of the Peishwa
and the Nizam in 1803, and gained a decisive victory
over the Mahrattas at Assaye in September of that year.
In this battle he had two horses killed under him.
Having obtained in February, 1805, leave to return to
England, he arrived there in the ensuing September.
In the next November he was sent to Holland with
an army which was commanded by Lord Cathcart, and
which returned to England in February, 1806, without
having encountered the enemy.

In April, 1806, Sir Arthur Wellesley married Lady
Catherine Pakenham, a daughter of the Earl of Long-
ford. He was returned to the House of Commons for
the borough of Rye in 1806, and was appointed chief
secretary for Ireland in April, 1807. In August of that
year he commanded a division of the army which in-
vaded Denmark, and defeated the Danes at Kioge. He
was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general in April,
1808, and in the ensuing June was appointed com-
mander-in-chief of an army of about 10,000 men which
was sent to Spain to fight against the French. He
reached Corunna in July; but, as the Spanish Junta
declined the assistance of a British auxiliary force, he
landed at Mondego Bay, in Portugal, which country was
then occupied by a French army under Junot, The
British forces, marching towards Lisbon, defeated a divi-
sion of the French army at Roli9a in August, 1808. A
few days after this affair his army was largely reinforced,
but he was superseded in the command. The ministers
appointed Sir Hew Dalrymple commander-in-chief, Sir
Harry Burrard second in command, and Sir John Moore
third. Sir Arthur was thus reduced from first to fourth
in command. He repulsed the French who attacked
him at Vimeira, August 21. The French having evacu-
ated Portugal, in accordance with the Convention of
Cintra, in September, 1808, Sir Arthur Wellesley re-
turned to England, and resumed the place of chief
secretary for Ireland. In January, 1809, he received
the thanks of Parliament for his services in Portugal.

The victorious march of Napoleon to Madrid and the
defeat of Sir John Moore at Corunna induced the British
government to increase their forces in the Peninsula
and to aid both the Portuguese and Spaniards. General
Wellesley, having been appointed commander-in-chief,
arrived at Lisbon in April, 1809, and found himself at
the head of an army of about 25,000 men. On the I2th
of May he defeated Soult at Oporto. The passage of
the river Douro at this time, in the presence of 10.000
Frenchmen, is considered one of his most brilliant
achievements. About the end of June, 1809, he marched
into Spain, which was occupied by several French
armies, widely separated, and commanded by Soult,
Victor, Suchet, and others. A Spanish army undei
General Cuesta took the 6eld against the French and
joined the army of General Wellesley, who encountered
Marshal Victor on the 22d of July at Talavera. In the
battle which ensued at this place, the British claimed
the victory, but they did not pursue the retiring enemy.
Sir Arthur wrote, on the 24th of July, "I am not able
to follow the enemy as I could wish, . . . owing to my
having found it impossible to procure even one mule or
cart in Spain. My troops have been in actual want of
provisions for the last two days." Victor, having been
reinforced, attacked the British at Talavera on the 2?th

of July, renewed the fight on the 28th, and was repulsed
with heavy loss. The approach of several French armies,
superior in number to his own, induced Sir Arthur to
retreat by way of Badajoz towards Portugal. He after-
wards pursued a cautious Fabian policy. In September,
1809, he was raised to the peerage, with the titles of
Baron Douro of Wellesley and Viscount Wellington of

The battle of Talavera was the last action of the
British army in the campaign of 1809. A large Spanish
army was routed, with great loss, at Ocafia in Novem-
ber, and about the same time the French defeated
another army of 20,000 Spaniards. On learning these
events, Lord Wellington wrote, " I lament that a cause
which promised so well a few weeks ago should have
been so completely lost by the ignorance, presumption,
and mismanagement of those to whose direction it was
intrusted." He prepared for the campaign of 1810
by the construction of the celebrated lines of Torres
Vedras, near Lisbon, and fixed his head-quarters at
Viseu in January. His army, including the Portuguese,
amounted to about 54,000 men. A large French army,
commanded by Massena, approached Portugal from the
northeast in the summer of iSio. The French having
taken Almeida in August, after a short siege, Lord Wel-
lington fell back to the valley of the Mondego, and took
a strong position near Coimbra, along the ridge of
Busaco. Here he was attacked on the 27th of Septem-
ber by the French, who were repulsed, with a loss which
the English writers estimate at 4000 killed and wounded.
A few days after this battle, Lord Wellington was com-
pelled to retreat towards Lisbon, His army entered
the strong defences of Torres Vedras about the 8th of
October. Massena made several unsuccessful attacks
on these lines, lost many men by disease, and retired in
November to Santarem, where he passed the winter.
Thus ended the campaign of 1810. Lord Wellington
complained that he was not efficiently supported by the
Portuguese regency, some members of which perversely
endeavoured to thwart his plans. In a letter dated
October 6, addressed to Mr. Stuart, he says, " As for
Principal Souza, I beg ypu to tell him, from me, that I
have had no satisfaction in transacting the business of
his country since he has been a member of the govern-
ment . . . Either he must quit the country, or I will."

During the months of January and February the
hostile armies in Portugal remained stationary. Mar-
shal Soult, who commanded in Andalusia, was ordered
to act in concert with Massena by attacking Portugal
south of the Tagus. Massena, whose position was ren-
dered untenable by want of provisions, began about the
4th of March to move his army northward, and was
followed by the British. On the nth of March the
strong fortress of Badajoz was taken by Marshal Soult.
The British army defeated that of Massena on the 3d
of April, at the battle of Sabugal, which Lord Welling-
ton described as " one of the most glorious actions that
British troops were ever engaged in." On the 6th the
French crossed the Agueda into Spain, and thus ter-
minated their invasion of Portugal. They left a garrison
in Almeida, which was blockaded by the British. In
order to relieve this garrison, Massena marched back
from Ciudad Rodrigo and attacked the enemy at Fuentes
de Onoro. After a pitched battle, which ended on the
5th of May, the French were repulsed, and abandoned

In the mean time an allied army under General
Beresford invested Badajoz about the 4th of May, and
Marshal Soult moved, with inferior numbers, to relieve
that place. The armies met at Albuera on the i6th of
May, and a severe battle ensued, in which the allies
claimed the victory, but admitted that they lost about
7000 men killed and wounded. Soult retired to Seville
and Lord Wellington, who arrived at Albuera about the
20th of May, ordered the siege of Badajoz to be re-
sumed. Having failed in several attempts to take that
place by assault in June, he retired towards the nonh
of Portugal, and remained on the defensive, in a position
on the Coa, during the autumn of iSn. "Wellington
was aware," says Jules Maurel, " that Fortune could not
change sides at a leap, and that it was only after repeated

3,6, 1, 6, u, y, long. a, e,o, same, less prolonged; a, 6, 1, 5, ii, y, short: a, e, i, o, obsenri; far, fill, fat; m?t; n6t;go6tl; nifion;




trials that you could win her favours ; . . . and that
before acquiring the art of gaining great victories it was
necessary to begin by learning to avoid defeats, and for a
time to decline all engagements." Having gained the
confidence of his troops by his extraordinary success
while acting on the _ defensive, he at length assumed
the offensive, and showed, when those qualities were
demanded, that his enterprise and promptitude were
not infe r ior to his prudence.

In January, 1812, he made a rapid march to Ciudad
Rodrigo, which he took by storm on the igth of that
month. He also took Badajoz in April, before the
French army could come to relieve that place. In the
assault of Badajoz the allies lost 1000 killed and 7786
wounded. On the 2zd of July Lord Wellington gained
an important victory over Marshal Marmont at Sala-
manca. He entered Madrid in triumph on the I2th of
August, soon after which Soult raised the blockade of
Cadiz and concentrated his forces at Granada. Leaving
two divisions at Madrid, Wellington moved his army
northward, entered Valladolid on the 7th of September,
and marched thence to Burgos, the castle of which was
defended by a garrison of 2000 Frenchmen. He spent
nearly five weeks in the siege of this place, which he
could not take, and about the 2ist of October he began
to retreat towards Portugal through Salamanca, closely
pursued by General Souham. The campaign of 1812
closed without any other battles. The British general
was rewarded for his victory at Salamanca by the title of
Marquis of Wellington. About the end of 1812 he was
appointed commander-in-chief of the Spanish armies by
the regency of Spain.

The campaign of 1813 opened in May, by the march
of the allies across the Douro to Valladolid. The
French army, abandoning Burgos on the I2th of June,
retired across the Ebro, and were overtaken at Vitoria,
where Wellington gained a decisive victory over Mar-
shal Jourdan on the 2ist of June. The allies took here
an immense quantity of booty.

When Napoleon received' tidings of the disaster at
Vitoria, he sent Soult to Spain as commander-in-chief.
Soult attacked the allies near Pampeluna on the 2Sth
and 30th of July, but was repulsed. These actions are
sometimes called "The Battles of the Pyrenees." Thus
was terminated the French occupation of Spain.

Wellington's success in the wars of the peninsula
must be ascribed in no small measure to the character
which he established for probity and truthfulness. With
true moral heroism, he refused to indulge in the slightest
misrepresentation, even to save his own fame. In this
respect his character presents a striking contrast to that
of his great antagonist, Napoleon. In one of his de-
spatches he says, " I see a disposition exists to blame
the government for the failure of the siege of Burgos.
The government had nothing to say to the siege ; it
was entirely my own act." When his allies in Portugal
and Spain became at length acquainted with his charac-
ter, they believed with implicit confidence whatever he
told them, and he thus acquired a moral power equal to
the force of mighty armies. Afterwards, in carrying out
a policy as wise as it was humane, he refused even in an
enemy s country (in France) to allow his own troops, or
those of his Spanish allies, to support themselves by
plunder, for his object was not merely to maintain his
army, but to conciliate the people. He had been among
the first to perceive how an opposite policy towards the
nations he had conquered was gradually, but surely, un-
dermining the colossal power of Napoleon ; the plainest
dictates uf common sense, as well as motives of a higher
character, preserved Wellington from the commission of
a similar error.

About the loth of November Lord Wellington marched
across the frontier into France. He fought with success
several battles near Bayonne between the gth and 131(1
of December, 1813. On the 271(1 of February, 1814, he
defeated Soult at Orthez, from which the French retreated
to Toulouse. The allies gained another victory at Tou-
louse on the loth of April, but they lost in this battle
about 4600 men. The report of the abdication of Na-
poleon arrived at Toulouse on the I2th, and hostilities
were suspended on the i8th of April. Wellington was

rewarded with the title of duke on the 3d of May, and,
after visits to Paris and Madrid, took leave of his army
on the I4th of June. Having returned to England, he
took his seat in the House of Lords on the 28th of June.
The House of Commons voted ^400,000 for the support
of his dignity. In August, 1814, he was sent as ambas-
sador-extraordinary to the court of France. With sev-
eral colleagues, he represented England at the Congress
of Vienna, which assembled in January, 1815. He was
at Vienna when he received intelligence that Napoleon
had returned to France.

In April Wellington was appointed commander-in.
chief of the army in Flanders, consisting of about 76.000
men, mostly British and Dutch. A Prussian army under
General Blucher, who had about 80,000 men, was ready to
act in concert with Wellington. To oppose these armies
Napoleon raised about 115,000 men. On the nth of
June the French emperor quitted Paris to open the cam-
paign, and exclaimed, " I go to measure myself with this
Wellington," ("Jevais me mesurer avec ce Villainton.")
Wellington attended a ball at Brussels on the eveningof
the I5th of June, and his army began to march on the
morning of the l6th. The Prussians were defeated with
severe loss at I.igny on the afternoon of the l6th, and
about the same time an indecisive battle was fought
between Marshal Ney and the allies at Quatre-Bras. Blii-
cher is said to have lost about 12,000 killed and wounded
at Ligny. On the morning of the 17th, Wellington made
a retrograde movement on Waterloo, where he was at-
tacked by the French about ten A.M. on the iSthof June.
According to J. Maurel, Wellington had then 70,000
men, of whom 37,890 were British ; and Napoleon had
75,000, excluding the detachment of Grouchy. It was
the object of Napoleon to drive the enemy from his
position before the arrival of the Prussian army. He
had made several obstinate attacks, without success, when
General Bulow reached the field with 16,000 Prussians,
at four P.M., and decided the victory. Blticher arrived
about seven o'clock, and pursued the retreating French.
The loss of the victors on this day was immense. The
British and Hanoverians alone lost 2432 killed and
9528 wounded.

Wellington and the allied armies entered Paris with-
out resistance about the 7th of July. He restrained the
excesses of Bliicher, who was about to blowup the bridge
of Jena and to commit other acts of vengeance. His
first thought after the victory of June 18 was to favour
the restoration of Louis XVIIt. and to oppose the dis-
memberment of France. The allied powers resolved to
maintain an army of occupation in France for five years,
and gave the command of that army to the Duke of
Wellington. By his advice, the period was shortened,
and the allied army evacuated France about the end of
iSiS. He became master-general of the ordnance and
i member of the cabinet in January, 1819, represented
England at the Congress of Verona in 1822, and was
sent on a mission to Russia in 1826. He succeeded the
Duke of York as commander-in-chief of the forces in
January, 1827.

In politics Wellington was a staunch Tory. It is not
improbable that the long contest which he maintained in
order to preserve Europe from the revolutionary or in-
novating spirit of the French may have contributed to
strengthen those principles of rigid conservatism by
which his political career was distinguished. When
Canning became premier, in April, 1827, Wellington
resigned his place in the cabinet, and succeeded Lord
Goderich as prime minister in January, 1828. The new
ministry opposed the motion of Lord John Russell to
repeal the test and corporation acts, but were defeated
by a majority of forty-four in the House of Commons.
Wellington then yielded, and procured its passage in the
House of Lords. He was an opponent of free trade
and electoral reform, both of which were demanded by
an ever-growing majority of the nation. He at first
resisted the effort to emancipate the Roman Catholics
from civil and political disabilities, but at length deemed
it expedient to yield to the popular will. The bill for
the relief of Roman Catholics was passed by large
majorities in both houses in March and April, 1829.

The strength of the Tory party was impaired by the

e as , c as s; g hard; g asyV G, H. v.,<Miiral; N, nasal; R, trilled; as z; th as in this.


Explanations, p. 23.*




death of George IV., June, 1830, and the French revo-
lution of the ensuing month gave an impetus to the cause
of reform in England. In the new Parliament, which
met in October, 1830, the friends of reform had a
majority, but the duke assumed an attitude of obstinate
resistance to the movement. He declared that "the
country already possessed a legislature which answered
all the good purposes of legislation ; that the system of
representation possessed the full and entire confidence
of the country." Having provoked a violent excitement
by such language, and rendered himself extremely
unpopular, he resigned in November, 1830. He was
hooted by the populace of London on the iSth of June,
1832. In December, 1834, Sir Robert Peel became
prime minister, and the Duke of Wellington secretary
Sot foreign affairs. They resigned in April, 1835. He
had a seat in the cabinet formed by Peel in 1841, but
was not charged with official functions. Although he
had opposed the repeal of the corn-laws, his influence
decided the House of Lords to consent to the repeal
after it had passed the House of Commons in May, 1846.
He died at Walmer Castle on the I4th of September,
1852, leaving his title to his eldest son, Arthur Richard,
who was born February 2, 1809, and died August 13,
1884. The third duke is Henry, a grandson of the first
duke, and a nephew of the second of the title. He was
born April 5, 1846.

Comparing the Duke of Wellington with Napoleon,
General William F. P. Napier says, " Firm, tranquil,
and stubborn in resistance, vehement and obstinate in
attack ; bold, when there was a call for daring ; more
inclined to operate by a flank than by a front attack in
all these things they resembled and matched each other;
but in the art of following up his point and of making
the most of victory, the English general was far behind

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