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at the French court, and died in Paris about 1720. His
works were highly esteemed in his time, and he is
ranked among the reformers of German poetry.

Wernsdort wSRns'dpRf, [Lat. WKRNSDOR'FIUS,]
(GOTTLIEB,) a German theologian and philologist, born
in Saxony in 1668. He became professor of theology
at Wittenberg in 1698, and superintendent or Bishop of
the Lutheran Church in 1719. Died in 1729.

See COLBR, "De Wcmsdorfii Vita."

Wernsdort, (GOTTLIEB,) a philologist, born at Wit-
tenberg in 1710, was a son of the preceding. He was
professor of eloquence and history at Dantzic, and
published several learned works. Died in 1774.

His brother, ERNST FRIEDRICH, born at Wittenberg
in 1718, was a learned writer. He became a preacher and
professor of theology at Wittenberg. Among his works
isa " History of Queen Zenobia," (1742.) Died in 1782.

Wernsdorf, (JOHANN CHRISTIAN,) a brother of the
preceding, was born in 1723. He obtained the chair of
eloquence at Helmstedt in 1752, and published a good
edition of "Poetx Latini minores," (6 vols., 1780-99.)
Died in 1793.

Wernsdorfius. See WERNSDORP.

Werp, weRp, (CHARLES,) a benevolent Flemish priest
and. Latin poet, born near Huy in 1592; died in 1666.

Werth, von, fonwaiRt, Wert, or Werdt, ( JOHANN,)
sometimes called JEAN DE WEERT, a celebrated general,
born at Weert, in Brabant, in 1594. He served under
Maximilian of Bavaria in the Thirty Years' war, and
distinguished himself at the battle of Nordlingen ; but
he was defeated in 1638 and made prisoner by Bernard,
Duke of Saxe- Weimar, near Rheinfelden. After his
release he entered the Austrian service. Died in 1652.

See BARTHOLD, "Johann von Werth in Zusammenhange mil
Beiuer Zeil ;" BAVLH, " Historical and Critical Dictionary."

Wesenbeck, wa'zen-beV, (MATTHEW,) a Flemish
jurist, born at Antwerp in 1531. He became professor
of law at Jena, and removed thence to Wittenberg in
1569. He wrote several legal works, which were highly
esteemed. Died in 1586.

See A. RAUCHBAR, "Wesenbeck's Leben."

Wesenbeck, (PETER,) a jurist, born at Antwerp in
1546, was a brother of the preceding. He lectured on
law at Jena and Wittenberg, and died at Coburg m 1603.

Wes'ley, (CHARLES,) an English preacher and writer
of hymns, born at Epworth in December, 1708, was a
son of Samuel, and a brother of the celebrated John
Wesley. He was educated at Christ Church, Oxford,
where his strictness in religion procured for him ihe
name of Methodist and other names given in derision.
Having taken orders, he sailed for Georgia with his
brother John in 1735, and served as secretary to General

Oglethorpe. They returned to England about the end
of 1736. Charles became an able preacher, and co-
operated with John in many of his religious enterprises.
He married Sarah Gwynne in 1749, after which he
preached in London, Bristol, and other places, and
propagated the Methodist doctrines. He also gained
great distinction as a writer of hymns, and composed
many of those used in the Methodist Church. Died
in 1788.

See JACKSON, " Life of the Rev. Charles Wesley;" "Journal of
the Pev, Charles Wesley," a vols., 1849.

Wesley, (CHARLES,) a distinguished musician, born
in 1757, was a son of the preceding. He was a skilful
performer on the organ and harpsichord. Died in 1815.

Wesley, (Rev. JOHN,) an English nonconformist
minister, born about 1636, was the father of Samuel
Wesley, noticed below. He was ejected in 1662, after
which he preached at Preston and other places, and
was persecuted by imprisonment. Died about 1670.

Wesley, (JOHN,) a distinguished religious reformer f
the founder of the Society of Methodists, was born at
Epworth, in Lincolnshire, England, on the 1 7th of June,
1703. He was the second son of Samuel Wesley, noticed
below, and Susannah Annesley. At an early age he
was sent to the Charter-House, from which he passed
in 1720 to Christ Church, Oxford. He was distinguished
at college for his attainments, and especially for his skill
in logic. His mother, who was a very intelligent woman,
and understood Greek and Latin, advised him to make
religion the business of his life. He applied himself to
the study of religion, began to change the form of his
conversation, and was deeply impressed by the perusal
of Jeremy Taylor's "Holy Living and Dying." He was
ordained a deacon in 1725, graduated as M.A. in 1726,
end was elected a Fellow of Lincoln College about that
date. He began about 1726 to record his actions,
thoughts, and experience in a diary, which he continued
to the end of his life. Eight months after his election
to a fellowship he was appointed Greek lecturer and
moderator of the classes. He was employed as curate
of his father at Wroote about two years, at the end of
which he was summoned to return to Lincoln College.
While he held the curacy at Wroote, he was ordained a
priest of the established Church, (1728.) On his return
to Oxford he found that his brother Charles and several
other students had associated together for religious
improvement, and by their strict and methodical habits
had obtained the name of Methodists. They were also
called, in derision, Bible Moths, the Godly Club, and
Bible Bigots. James Hervey, author of the "Medi-
tations," and George Whitefield were members of this
society, which recognized John Wesley as its directing
head. "The good intentions of Wesley and his asso-
ciates," says Southey, "could not be questioned; but
they were now running fast into fanaticism." By hard
study, fasting, and habits of austerity, he had reduces
himself to an alarming physical condition ; but, having
put himself under the direction of medical men, he soon
recovered his health.

In October, 1735, John and Charles Wesley accepted
an invitation to go to Georgia, to preach to the Indians
and the settlers of a colony which General Oglethorpe
had planted there. Among their fellow-passengers in
the voyage to Georgia were twenty-six Moravians, whose
simplicity and piety made a favourable impression on
Wesley. They arrived at Savannah in February, 1736.
As a preacher, John Wesley was not very popular
at Savannah. " He drenched his parishioners," says
Southey, "with the physic of an intolerant discipline."
He became intimate at Savannah with Sophia Causton,
the daughter of a magistrate at that place, and was in-
clined to marry her, but he was dissuaded by the elders
of the Moravian Church, with whom he was on intimate
terms. She afterwards married a Mr. Williamson, and
Wesley excluded her from the communion. For this act
her husband prosecuted him, and numerous persons
conspired to drive him from the colony. He departed
from Savannah in December, 1737, and arrived in Eng-
land in February, 1738. About this date he recorded
his conviction that " I, who went to America to convert
others, was never myself converted to God."

as t, 9 as a g hard; g as/; G, H, K,gjittural; N, nasal; B, trilieJ; s as z; th as in tkis. (g="iiee Explanations, p. 23.)




Soon after his return he met with Peter Boehler, a
Moravian, who, according to Southey, "became Wes-
ley's teacher." "By him," says Wesley, "in the hands
of the great God, I was clearly convinced of unbelief,
of the want of that faith whereby alone we are saved."
He dated his conversion on the 24th of May, 1738. In
the summer of that year he visited the Moravian brethren
at Herrnhul, and became acquainted with Count Zinzen-
dorf. Having returned to England, he followed the ex-
ample of Whitefield (who was then his fellow-labourer)
by preaching in the open air at Bristol, where the foun-
dations of the society of Methodists, as an independent
sect, were laid. He continued to profess the doctrines
of the Church of England after he ceased to conform to
its discipline. A difference between Wesley and the
Moravians resulted in a formal separation in 1740.
About 1741 he ceased to have fellowship with White-
field, in consequence of a disagreement on the doctrine
of predestination, which Wesley rejected with great
earnestness. They exchanged a number of letters on
this fertile topic of dispute. The respective followers
of Wesley and Whitefield then formed themselves into
separate organizations. " No founder of a sect or order,
no legislator, ever understood the art of preserving his
authority more perfectly than Wesley." (Southey, "Life
of Wesley.") " His restless spirit," says Southey, "had
now found its proper sphere, where it might move un-
controlled and enjoy a prospect boundless as his desire
of doing good, the ambition which possessed him." He
became an itinerant preacher, and adopted the system
of itinerancy. By this practice, combined with that of
field-preaching, he and his fellow-workers obtained free
access to the lower classes. Another innovation of
Wesley was the employment of laymen as preachers.
Applicants for membership were not required to sub-
scribe any creed or formula.

Wesley performed his mission with the greatest zeal,
and with entire devotion to the cause which formed the
great object of his life. He usually travelled on horse-
back, and very often preached several sermons in a day.
His biographers, Coke and Moore, express the belief
that "there could not be an instance found, during the
space of fifty years, wherein the severest weather hin-
dered him even for one day." Field-preaching was at
that time a dangerous service, and, in certain districts,
was frequently interrupted by mobs, which some of
the clergy encouraged and the magistrates did no:
restrain. In a few instances Wesley himself barely
escaped being killed. But these persecutions, far from
daunting his courage or abating his zeal, seemed only
to confirm him in the great work to which he had con-
secrated his life.

About 1750 he married a widow named Vizelle, who
possessed an independent fortune, but he took care that
it should be settled on herself. But the marriage was
not happy. She annoyed him by her jealousy, opened
his letters, revealed his secrets, and ran away from him
.several times. A final separation between him and his
wife took place in 1771.

Wesley published, besides many religious tracts, a
work called "Primitive Physic, or an Easy and Natural
Method of Curing most Diseases," and a " History of
England." His collected works were published, in 32
vols. 8vo, in 1774. He was favoured with a vigorous
constitution and a rare activity of spirit, which was not
impaired by old age. "Ten thousand cares," he said,
"were no more burden to his mind than ten thousand
hairs were to his head." He had no children. He died
in London in March, 1791.

Since the days of the apostles to the present time,
probably few, if any, religious teachers have been instru-
mental in effecting more good than John Wesley. A3
no hardships or dangers were too great for him to under-
take in the cause of Chr-st, so no portion of humam:y,
from the highest to the lowest, was beyond the scopf of
his all-embracing Christian zeal and sympathy. He not
only sought with particular care to gather into the fold
of Christ the lowest classes of the poor, but he was
among the first to see and feel the iniquity of African
slavery and to labour for its overthrow. The society
which he founded, and which owes in a great measure

its efficiency and its influence to the system which he
organized, embraces at present, in Europe and America,
nearly three millions of souls.

See DR. COKE and MR. MOORE, " Life of John Wesley." 1791,
J. HAMPSON, " Memoirs of J. Wesley," 1791 : JOHN WHITKHEAD,

Life of John Wesley," a vols., 1805; ROBPRT SOUTHHY, " Life
of Wesley, and the Rise and Progress of Methodism,* 1 1820 : ADAM
CLARKE, "Memoirs of the Wesley Family;" SCHMinT, " Des J.
Wesley Leben," 1849. For an interesting notice of Wesley as a

Reformer," see " Blackwuod's Magazine" for Oclober. t863.

Wesley, (Rev. SAMUEL,) an English clergyman and
poet, born at Preston about 1664, was the father of John
Wesley, the founder of Methodism. He was educated at
Exeter College, Oxford, and became a curate in London,
In 1688 he preached a sermon against King James's
Declaration of Indulgence. According to some writers,
he wrote a book in defence of the revolution of ifiSS, and
was rewarded with the living of Epworth, in Lincoln-
shire. He published, besides other poems, " Elegies on
Queen Mary and Archbishop Tillotson," (1695,) and
"The History of the Old Testament, in Verse," (1704.)
He also wrote a "Commentary on Job," (1735.) Died
in 1735.

See CLARKE, " Memoirs of the Wesley Family." 1823.

Wesley, (SAMUEL,) a teacher and poet, born about
1692, was a son of the preceding. He was educated at
Oxford, took holy orders, and was usher of Westminster
School for many years. His preferment in the Church
was probably hindered by his zealous support of the
Tory party, or his intimacy with Atterbury and other
Jacobites. He became head-master of Tiverton School
in 1732. He wrote a number of poems, which have
some merit. Died in 1739.

Sec CLARKE, " Memoirs of ihe Wesley Family," 1823.

Wesley, (SAMUEL,) a composer of music, born in
1766, was a son of the Rev. Charles Wesley, noticed
above. He began to compose when he was about eight
years old, and was considered a great prodigy. He
acquired celebrity as an extemporaneous performer on
the organ, and composed sacred music, oratorios, etc.
Died in 1837.

Wessel, fteVsel, or Wesselus, w?s-sa'lus, (JOHN,)
sometimes called GANSEFORT or GOESEVORT, a Dutch
theologian and Reformer, born at Groningen about 1420.
He studied at Louvain, Heidelberg, and Paris, where
he acquired a high reputation for his knowledge of
philosophy and divinity. He was also surnamed MA
CISTER CONTRADICTIONUM, ("Master of Contradic-
tion,") from his skill in dialectics. He attacked with,
great boldness the prevailing abuses in the Catholic
Church, and was one of the principal Reformers before
the time of Luther. He died in 1489, leaving a numbei
of treatises in Latin, some of which were burnt as

See CARL ULLMANM. " Johann Wessel, ein VorcSneer T.uthers,'
1834: HODGSON, "Reformers and Martyrs," Philadelphia, 1867;
MUURLING, "Cornmentatio de J. Wesseli Gansforu'i Vita," 1831;
B. BAH RING, "J. Wessel," 1850.

Wesselenyi, wesh'she'-lan'yee, (MlKLOS,) a Hunga-
rianpatriot and statesman, born about 1795 ; died in 185*

Wesaeling, weVseh-ling', (PETER,) a German scholar,
born at Steinfurt in 1692. He became professor of elo-
quence at Franeker, (1723,) and of ancient literature at
Utrecht, (1735.) He published several critical treatises
on the classics, and valuable editions of Herpdotus, Dio-
dorus Siculus, and "Vetera Romanorum Itineraria."
He was esteemed one of the most learned men of his
time. Died in 1764.

See HIRSCHING, " Historisch-literarisches Handbuch;" SAXE.

Wes'sells, (HENRY "W.,) an American general, born
in Litchfield, Connecticut, about 1809, graduated at West
Point in 1833. He became a brigadier-general about
April, 1862, He commanded at Plymouth, North Caro-
lina, which was taken by the Confederates, after a brave
defence, April 20, 1864.

'Wesselus. See WESSEL,

Wessely, wes'seh-le, (NAPHTALI HARTWIG,) a Jewish
writer and Hebrew scholar, born at Copenhagen in 1723-
His most important work is a poem, the subject of which
is the vocation or mission of Moses. Died in 1805.

See MEI3EL, "Leben und. Wirken N. H. Wessely's," 1841

a, e. i, o, ii, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, stwit; a, e, j, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fit; mil; not; good; mc50rr;




Wessenberg, weVsen-bjRo', (!GNAZ HEINRICH I
KARI.,) BARON, a German Catholic theologian, born at'
Dresden in 1774. He was appointed in 1802 vicar-
general of the diocese of Constance, and was active in
promoting the use of the German language at mass, [
and various other reforms in the Church. Having been ;
nominated in 1814 by Archbishop Dalberg his coad-
jutor in the see of Constance, he was rejected by the
pope, who also wished him to resign his office of vicar-
general. This, however, he declined, being supported
by his sovereign, the Grand Duke of Baden. He was
the author of a treatise "On the Elementary Education
of the People," and other prose works; also a number
of poems. Died in 1860.

See "I. H. von Wessenbtirg.sein Leben und Wirken," by DR. J.
BECK ; " London Quarterly Review" for December, 1848.

Wessenberg-Ampringen, ws'sen-b?RG / 5m'pRing-
$n, (JoHANN PHILIPP,) a German statesman, brother of
the preceding, was born in 1773. He was employed on
missions to Munich, Paris, and the Hague. Died in

WEst, (BENJAMIN,) an eminent American painter,
born at Springfield, Delaware county, Pennsylvania, on
the loth of October, 1738, was a member of the Society
of Friends. His talent and predilection for the art were
manifested at an early age, and, when seventeen, he began
portrait-painting at Philadelphia. He visited Rome in
1760, where he acquired the friendship of Raphael Mengs.
He soon after took up his residence in London, and. some
of his works having attracted the notice of George III.,
he was thenceforth liberally patronized by that monarch.
His " Death of Wolfe," in which he had the courage and
good taste to depart from the custom of clothing the
figures in classical costume, was greatly admired. His
next important work was " Christ Healing the Sick,"
now in the British National Gallery: a copy of it was '
presented by the artist to the Pennsylvania Hospital,
Philadelphia. He succeeded Sir Joshua Reynolds as
president of the Royal Academy in 1792. Among his
other pictures may be named the " Departure of Regu-
lus," the "Battle of La Hogue," and "Death on the
Pale Horse," now in the Academy of Fine Arts, Phila-
delphia. Died in London in 1820.

See TUCKERMAN, " Book of the Artists ;" DUNLAP, "History of
the Arts of Design in America ;" CUNNINGHAM, " Lives of Painters
and Sculptors."

West, (GILBERT,) an English writer, born about
1705. He studied at Christ Church, Oxford, and subse-
quently held several offices under the government. He
was the author of "Observations on the Resurrection,"
which won for him a high reputation, also a poetical
version of the Odes of Pindar, and several other
translations from the Greek. He was a relative of Pitt,
Earl of Chatham, and of Lord George Lyttleton, who
dedicated to him his " Dissertation on the Conversion
of Saint Paul." Died in 1756.

West, (JAMES,) an English antiquary, born probably
in Warwickshire. He took his degree at Oxford in
1726. He was elected president of the Royal Society
in 1738. He made a rich collection of manuscripts,
prints, medals, etc. Died in 1772.

West, (RICHARD,) an English jurist, born in the
seventeenth century, became chancellor of Ireland in
1715. He published several legal and miscellaneous
works. Died in 1726.

West, (STEPHEN,) D.D., an American Congregational
divine, born at Tolland, Connecticut, in 1735, became
pastor of a church at Stockbridge in 1759. He was the
author of an "Essay on Moral Agency," "An Essay on
the Scripture Doctrine of the Atonement," (1785,) "Life
of the Rev. Samuel Hopkins," and other theological
Works. Died at Stockbridge in 1819.

'West, (THOMAS,) an English writer, born in Lan-
cashire, published "A Guide to the Lakes," and other
topographical works. Died in 1779.

"West, (W. E.,) an American painter, distinguished
for the excellence of his portraits. He was a friend of
Washington Irving, and made illustrations of his " Pride
of the Village" and "Annette Delarbre." Died in 1857.

See TUCKERMAN, "Book of the Artists;" DUXLAP, "Rise and
Progress of the Arts of Design in America."

Wgst'all, (RICHARD,) a celebrated English painter
in water-colours, was born at Hertford in 1765. He
was elected a Royal Academician in 1794. Among his
works, which are esteemed master-pieces of the kind,
maybe named "The Storm in Harvest," "Sappho in
the Lesbian Shades," and "Jubal, the First Voice of
the Lyre." He also illustrated Moore's "Loves of the
Angels," and furnished designs for Boydell's "Shak-
speare Gallery." He was appointed, in the latter part of
his life, teacher of drawing and painting to the Princess
Victoria. Died in 1836.

Westall, (WILLIAM,) a landscape-painter, a brother
of the preceding, was born at Hertford in 1781. He
studied at the Royal Academy, and subsequently visited
India, China, and Australia. He was elected an Asso-
ciate of the Royal Academy in 1812. Among his most
admired works are a "View of Seaforth's Isle, in the
Gulf of Carpentaria," and a series of engraved designs
representing the lakes of Cumberland and Westmore-
land. Died in 1850.

West'all, (WILLIAM,) an English novelist, born at
White Ash, Lancashire, in 1834. He engaged in
journalism, travelled as a correspondent, and wrote a
large number of novels, largely of adventure.


West'cott, (BROOKE Foss,) D.D., an eminent
English scholar and Biblical critic, was born near
Birmingham in January, 1825. He graduated in 1848
at Trinity College, Cambridge, and in 1851 took orders
in the Established Church. He was made a canon of
Peterborough in 1869, regius professor of divinity at
Cambridge in 1870, canon of Westminster in 1883,
and Bishop of Durham in 1890. He wrote various
works on the Bible, and, with Dr. Hort, spent twenty-
eight years on " The New Testament in Greek." He
was one of the revisers of the New Testament.

Westcott, (EDWARD NOYES,) an American
novelist, born at Syracuse, New York, in 1847. His
one work, "David Harum: A Story of American
Life," attained a very wide circulation through its
humour and skilful characterization. He died March
31, 1898, before its publication.

Westenrieder, von, fon weVten-ree'der, (LpRENZ,)
a German educational writer, born at Munich in 1748,
became professor of rhetoric in his native city. He
published a "History of Bavaria for Youth and the
People," and other historical and geographical works.
Died in 1829.

Westergaard, veVter-goRd', (NIELS LUDWIG,) a
distinguished Danish Orientalist, born at Copenhagen
in 1815. Having studied at Bonn and visited London
and Paris, he made a tour to India and Persia. After
his return he was appointed, in 1845, professor of Ori-
ental philology at Copenhagen. His principal works
are his " Radices Sanscritae," (1841,) and a critical edition
of the " Zendavesta," (1852.) Died Sept. 10, 1878.

Westerhof, wes'ter-hof, (ARNOLD HEINRICH,) a
German scholar, who gained distinction by a good edi-
tion of Terence, (2 vols., 1729.)

Westermann, weVter-man', (ANTON,) a German
scholar, born at Leipsic in 1806, became professor of
antiquities in his native city in 1834. He published a
"History of Eloquence in Greece and Rome," (2 vols.,
1833-35,) also editions of the Orations of Lysias, the
works of Philostratus, and other classics. Died in 1870.

Wes't?r-mann, [Fr. pron. v5s'tSR'mSn',| (FRANC.OIS
JOSEPH,) a French Jacobin and general, born in Alsace
about 1760. He became a violent revolutionist, and a
friend of Danton. He took a prominent part in the riol
in Paris of the loth of August, 1792. In September of
that year he was appointed adjutant-general, and sent to
the army of Dumouriez. He became a general of brigade
in May, 1793, obtained command of the vanguard of the
army in Vendee, and defeated the royalists near Chatil-
Ion. He attacked and routed the Vendeans at Mans and
Savenay in December, 1793. He was executed with
Danton in April, 1794.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rak ;" THIEKS, " History of lh
French Revolution."

c as *; 9 as s; g hard; g as./'; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as metis. ( J^=See Explanations, p. 23.)



West'field, (THOMAS,) an English theologian, born
at Ely. He became Bishop of Bristol in the reign of
James I., and was noted as a pathetic preacher. Died
in 1644. Two volumes of his sermons were pub-

West'ing-house, (GEORGE,) an American in-
ventor, born at Central Bridge, New York, in 1846.
He invented a rotary engine at fifteen. In 1865 he
invented a device to replace railroad cars on the track,
and in 1868 the well-known Westinghouse air-brake.
This was succeeded by other useful inventions. He
has been honoured with the decorations of royal orders
by the kings of Belgium and Italy.

Wgst'ma-cott, (Sir RICHARD,) an eminent English
sculptor, born in London in 1775. He studied at Rome
under Canova, and was elected a member of the
Academy of Florence in 1795. After his return he
executed a number of works which established his
reputation as one of the first English sculptors of the

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