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London, and a hospital. Died in 1623.

White, (THOMAS,) an English philosopher, was a
friend and correspondent of Descartes. Died in 1696.

White, (THOMAS,) an English divine, born in Kent
in 1630, was made Bishop of Peterborough in 1685. He
was one of the seven bishops imprisoned in the Tower
in 1688. Died in 1698.

See Miss STRICKLAND, "Lives of the Seven Bishops," London,

White, (WALTER,) an English author, born about
1811. He was for many years a secretary to the Royal
Society. He wrote many pleasant books, including
"Mont Blanc and Back," (1854,) "A Londoner's Walk to
the Land's End," (1855,) "On Foot through the Tyrol,"
(1856,) "A Holiday in Saxony," (1857,) "A Month in
Yorkshire," (1858,) "Northumberland and the Border,"
(1859,) " All Round the Wrekin," (1860,) " Eastern Eng-
land." (1865,) etc. Died July 21, 1893.

White, (WILLIAM,) D.D., a distinguished American
bishop, born at Philadelphia in 1748. He was ordained
priest in 1772, and subsequently became rector of Christ
Church and Saint Peter's Church, Philadelphia. He
was elected Bishop of Pennsylvania in 1786. He pub-
lished "Comparative Views of the Controversy between
the Calvinists and Arminians," and other theological
works. Died in 1836.

White, (WILLIAM HALE,) an English author,
writing under the nom-de-piume of Mark Rutherford.
He has written " The Autobiography of Mark Ruther-
ford, " " The Revolution in Tanner's Lane," (1887,)
"Spinoza's Ethic," "Clara Hapgood," (1896,) and
other works.

Whlte'field, (hwlt'feld,) (GEORGE,) an eminent and
eloquent English preacher, and the founder of the seel
of Calvinistic Methodists, was born at Gloucester in
December, 1714. He was a son of an inn-keeper, from
whom he inherited little or nothing. His mother, who
became a widow about 1716, sent him to a grammar-
school. In 1733 he entered Pembroke College, Oxford,
as a servitor. He had received from nature a good voice
and remarkable rhetorical talents. At college he became
an intimate friend of John and Charles Wesley, with
whom he entered into religious fellowship. He was or-
dained a deacon in 1736, and began soon after to preach
with great eloquence and power. In 1737 he preached
in London, and other places, to crowded congregations,
who listened to him with enthusiastic admiration. He
performed a voyage to Georgia in the early part of 1738,
instituted an orphan-house at Savannah, and returned
to England in September of that year. In 1739 he
was ordained a priest by Bishop Benson. Having been
excluded from the churches of Bristol, he adopted the
practice of preaching in the open air, for which his
powerful voice was well adapted. He propagated the
Methodist religion at various places with great success.
In the autumn of 1739 he again crossed the Atlantic to
America, where he spent more than a year in zealous
ministerial labours. Having traversed the provinces
from New York to Georgia, he returned to England
in 1741. Soon after this date Whitefield and Wesley
ceased to co-operate, in consequence of their disagree-
ment in doctrines. They differed especially in the doc-
trine of predestination, which Whitefield accepted, as a
disciple of Calvin. (See WESLEY, JOHN.) About 1742

he married a Welsh widow named Mrs. James. They
had one child, who died in infancy. He revisited the
American colonies in 1744, and laboured among them
several years. In 1748 he became acquainted with
Selina, Countess of Huntingdon, who appointed him
her chaplain. Among the persons who are said to have
heard and admired his sermons were Hume, Lord
Chesterfield, and Benjamin Franklin. He published a
journal of his life, (2d edition, 1756.) He sailed from
England in 1769 on his seventh visit to America, and
died at Newburyport, Massachusetts, in September, 1770.
A collection of his letters, sermons, etc. was published
in six volumes, (1771.)

" Hume pronounced him, "says Robert Southey, "the
most ingenious preacher he had ever heard, and said it
was worth while to go twenty miles to hear him. But
perhaps the greatest proof of his persuasive powers was
when he drew from Benjamin Franklin's pocket the
money which that clear, cool reasoner had determined
not to give."* ("Life of John Wesley.'T

See J. GtLLlE-S, "Life of George Whitefield," 1772: "Genuine
and Secret Memoirs relating to that Arch-Methodist, G. Whitefield,'*
Oxford, 1742; SCHAFPSHAUSEN, " Historia Methodistarum el Via
Whitefield," 1743; ROBERT PHILIP, "The Life and Times of the
Rev. George Whitefield," 1838 : R. SOUTHEY, " Life of John Wea-
ley ;" " Fraser's Magazine" lor February, 1838.

White'hSad, (CORTLANDT,) D.U., an American
bishop, born in New York city, October 30, 1842, grad-
uated at Yale College in 1863, and at the Philadelphia
Divinity School (Episcopalian) in 1867, was ordained a
deacon in 1867 and a priest in 1868, was a missionary in
Colorado, 1867-70, and rector at South Bethlehem, Penn-
sylvania, 1870-82, and in 1882 was consecrated Bishop
of Pittsburgh.

White'hSad, (DAVID,) an English clergyman, born
in Hampshire, became chaplain to Queen Anne Boleyn.
He was appointed Archbishop of Armagh in 1552, went
into exile on the accession of Queen Mary, and preached
at Frankfort In 1558 he returned to England. Died
in 1571.

Whitehead, (GEORGE,) an English Quaker preacher,
born in Westmoreland in 1636, procured for the society
of which he was a member the allowance of an affirm-
ation in the courts of law, instead of the customary oath.
He was a personal friend of George Fox. Died in 1725.

Whitehead, (JOHN,) a Methodist divine and phy-
sician, who preached John Wesley's funeral sermon,
and afterwards published Memoirs of his life. Died
in 1804.

Whitehead, (PAUL.) an English satiric poet, bom
in London in 1710. His political satire entitled "The
State Dunces" was dedicated to Pope, and was followed
by "Manners," (1739,) "The Gymr.asiad," (1744.) an .d
" Honour," all of which were conspicuous for their
virulence and daring personalities. He was an associate
of Wilkes, Sir Francis Dashwood, and other profligate
wits of the time. Died in 1774.

Whitehead, (WILLIAM,) an English poet and drama-
tist, born at Cambridge in 1715. He studied at Cam-
bridge, and in 1757 succeeded Colley Gibber as poet-
laureate. He published tragedies entitled "The Roman
Father" and "Creusa, Queen of Athens," "The School
for Lovers," a comedy, and numerous odes, epistles,
etc. Died in 1788.

White'house, (IlENRY JOHN,) D.D., LLD., an
American bishop, born in New York city, August 19,
1803, graduated at Columbia College in 1821, and at the
General Theological Seminary in 1824. In 1827 he
entered the priesthood of the Episcopal Church. He
was consecrated Assistant Bishop of Illinois in 1851, and
in 1852 succeeded Bishop Chase as diocesan. Died
August 10, 1874. He was the author of several religious

White'hnrst, (JOHN,) an English mechanician of dis-
tinguished talents, born in Cheshire in 1713 ; died in 1788.

Whlte'locke, (hwlt'lpk,) (BULSTRODE,) an eminent
English statesman and lawyer, born in London in 1605,
was a son of Sir James, noticed below. His mother
was Elizabeth Bulstrode. About 1620 he entered Saint
John's College, Oxford, which he quitted, without a

* See Franklin's own account of this, in his " Autobiography."

i, e, 1, 6, Q, y, long; a, e, o, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 5, fi, y. short; a, e, j, o, obscure; fir, fill, fit; met; not; good; m<55n;




degree, to study law in the Middle Temple. He wa
elected a member of the Long Parliament for Grea
Marlow in November. 1640, and opposed the arbitrar
measures of Charles I. He was chairman of the com
mittee whirh managed the impeachment of the Earl o
Strafford, but was more moderate and conservative tha
most of the leaders of the popular party. During th
civil war he preferred the part of mediator to that of
zealous partisan. He was one of the commissioner
appointed to treat with the king at Oxford in January
1642-43. About 1648 he was nominated one of th
commissioners of the great seal. He declined to tak<
any part in the trial of Charles I., which he character
ized as a "bad business;" but he accepted office unde
Cromwell, who had much confidence in his integrit
and judgment. In 1653 he was sent as ambassador ti
Sweden, negotiated a treaty with that power, and re
turned in 1654. He was a member of Cromwell'
second Parliament, and was chosen Speaker of the
House of Commons in 1656, soon after which he urgec
Cromwell to assume the title of king, and obtained a
eeat in the new House of Peers created by the Pro
lector. He was created a viscount in August, 1658, bu
he would not accept the title. After the death of Oliver
he became president of the council of sfate, in 1659
and keeper of the great seal, which he resigned ahou
December, 1659. At the restoration of 1660 his namt
was included in the Act of 'Oblivion. He died in 1676
leaving a valuable contribution to history, entitled " Me
morials of English Affairs from the Beginning of the
Reign of Charles I. to the Restoration of Charles II.,'
(1682,) also "Memorials of English Affairs from the
Supposed Expedition of Brute to this Island to the Em
of the Reign of James I.," which was published in 1709
by William Penn, who prefixed a notice of the author's
life. An Account of his Swedish Embassy was pub-
lished in 1772.

See GUIZOT, "Histolre de la Revolution d'Angleterre ;" HUME,
1 History of England;" ALLIBONE, " Dictionary of Authors/'

Whitelocke, (Sir JAMES,) an English judge, born in
London in 1570, was the father of the preceding. He
was elected to Parliament in 1620, and afterwards be-
came a judge of the common pleas. He had a good
reputation for fidelity to the duties of his office. Died
in 1632.

White'side, (JAMES,) LL.D., an Irish jurist and
conservative statesman, born in the county of Wicklow
about 1806. He studied at Trinity College, Dublin, and
subsequently obtained a high reputation as a lawyer
and orator. He was one of the leading counsel in the
defence of O'Connell in 1843, and also defended Meagher
and Smith O'Brien in the trials of 1848. He was elected
to Parliament for Enniskillen in 1851, and in 1859 was
returned for the University of Dublin. He became
about 1866 lord chief justice of the court of queen's
bench in Ireland. He published a work entitled "Italy
in the Nineteenth Century," (1849.) Died Nov. 25, 1876.

Whit'field, (JAMES,) D.D.,an Anglo-American arch-
bishop, born in Liverpool, England, November 3, 1770,
studied divinity at Lyons, and in 1809 became a Roman
Catholic priest. In 1817 he came to the United States,
and in 1828 he was consecrated Archbishop of Balti-
more^ Died October 19, 1834.

Whit'gift, (JOHN,) an Archbishop of Canterbury, and
learned Protestant theologian, born at Great Grimsby,
Lincolnshire, in 1530. lie entered Queen's College,
Cambridge, about 1548, and afterwards removed to 1
Pembroke Hall. In 1554 he took the degree of
bachelor of arts. He adopted the Protestant doctrines
at an early age, and, after the accession of Queen
Mary, he was protected from persecution by his friend
Andrew Perne. Having entered into holy orders in
1560, he gained distinction as a preacher at Cambridge,
where he resided many years after the date just named.
He became Lady Margaret professor of divinity in 1563,
master of Pembroke Hall in 1567, and chaplain of
Queen Elizabeth in the same year. About 1568 he was
appointed master of Trinity College and regius pro-
fessor of divinity. He appeared as a champion of the
Established Church and its liturgy in a controversy
against Cartwright, who was a Puritan. In 1571 he was

appointed Dean of Lincoln The constitution and lit-
urgy ol the Church of England having been attacked
in a Puritan work called "An Admonition to Parlia-
ment," Whitgift defended the Church with much ability
in his " Answer to the Admonition to Parliament,
(1572.) He was appointed Kishop ot Worcester i'n
1576, and gained the favour of the queen by his zeal and
severity against the Roman Catholics and Puritans. He
succeeded Grindal as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1583.
and initiated vigorous measures to enforce conformity to
all the doctrines, forms, and discipline of the Church.
He required all clergymen to subscribe to the Thirty.
Nine Articles, and to recognize the queen as the
supreme head of the Church. His intolerance and per-
secutmg spirit are said to have driven many persons
into dissent. " Honest and well-intentioned," says Gar-
diner, "but narrow-minded to an almost incredible
degree, the one thought which filled his mind was the
hope of bringing the ministers of the Church of Eng-
land at least to an outward conformity." Lord Burghley
remonstrated against his intolerant conduct, without
effect. Whitgift declined the office of lord chancellor
'n 1587. He founded a hospital at Croydon. On the
death of Elizabeth (1602) he sent Dr. Nevil to Scotland
to court the favour of James I. He took part in the
conference at Hampton Court in January. 1604 Died
n February, 1604.

See STRVPE, "Life and Acts of John Whitgift," 1718- SIR
JEORCE PAULK, " Life of Whitgift," 1699: GARDINER, ' History
>f England from 1603 to 1616." vol. i. ch. iii.

Whi'ting, (HENRY,) an American general of the
United States army, was born at Lancaster, in Massa-
chusetts. He wrote various articles for the " North
American Review." Died at an advanced age in Saint
Louis, Missouri, in 1851.

Whiting, (WILLIAM,) an American lawyer, born at
-oncord, Massachusetts, March 3, 1813. He gradu-
ated in 1833 at Harvard College, and at the Dane Law
School in 1838. He was solicitor to the United States
war department, 1863-65, and was elected to Congress
n 1872. Died at Boston, June 29, 1873. His principal
vork is "The War Powers of the President, and the
-egislative Powers of Congress," (1862.)
Whit'lpck, (ELIZABETH,) an English actress, born
n 1761, was a sister of the celebrated Mrs. Siddons.
she was married in 1785 to Mr. Whitlock, manager of
he Newcastle Theatre. Died in 1836.
Whit'man, (SARAH HELEN POWER,) an American
oetess, born at Providence, Rhode Island, in 1813, pub-
'shed " Hours of Life, and other Poems," (1853,) and
work entitled "Edgar Poe and his Critics," (1860.)
Vith her sister, Anna M. Power, she wrote " Fairy Bal-
ads." She died June 27, 1878.

"Whitman, (WALT.) an American poet, born at West
lills, Long Island, May 31, 1819. Educated in public
chools, he learned first the printer's and then the car-
enter's trade, and for some time was a journalist of
Jew York. He published " Leaves of Grass," (1855 j
luch enlarged, iSSi,) "Drum-Taps," (.1865,) "Two
tivulets," (1873,) and "Specimen Days and Collect,"
1883.) His poetry was written without regard to
nyme and metre, and was given to the task of bring-
ng life in all its details within the poetic sphere, noth-
)g being concealed. The result was fatal to his
access financially, and he was supported in his last
ays by some of his admirers. Died March 26, 1892.
Whit'more, (WILLIAM HENRY,) an American anti-
uary, born at Dorchester, Massachusetts, September 6,
^36. Among his works are " Hand-Rook of American
enealogy,"(iS62,)"The Cavalier Dismounted," (1865,)
Elements of Heraldry," (1866,) "The American Gene-
ogist," (iS66.) and many genealogical lists, eic.
Whit'ney, ( ADELINE D. Train.) a popular American
ritcr, born in Boston in 1824. Among her works are
" Mother Goose for Grown Folks," (1860,) " Faith Gart-
ney's Girlhood," (1863,) "The Gayworthys," (1865,)
" Patience Strong's Outings," (1868,) " Hitherto : a
Story of Yesterday," (1869,) "Daffodils" and " Bird-
Talk," poems, (1887,) "Ascutney Street," (1890,)
and " A Golden Gossip," (1891. )

Whitney, (ELI,) the inventor of the cotton-gin, was

as k: 5 as s: g nard: g as_; c. H, K.,u[tunil; N, nasal; R ; trilltd; as z. th as in this. (

Explanations, p.




born at Westborough, Worcester county, Massachusetts,
December 8, 1765. He displayed great mechanical in-
genuity in his early youth, graduated at Yale College in
1792, and went to Georgia to teach school. He became
an inmate in the household of General Greene's widow,
near Savannah, where, about the end of 1 792, he indented
the cotton-gin for separating the cotton from the seed.
In May, 1793, he formed with Phineas Miller a partner-
ship for the manufacture of the gins. liefore he had
obtained a patent for his invention, some persons broke
open his premises by night and carried off his model
machine. He was thus defrauded of his just reward,
and was involved in much trouble by the infringements
of his patent. "The South," says Horace Greeley,
"fairly swarmed with pirates on the invention, of -11
kinds and degrees." When he prosecuted those who
infringed his patent, the juries of Georgia decided for
the defendants. The legislature of South Carolina paid
him fifty thousand dollars for his patent-right about
1804. Despairing of gaining a competence by this in-
vention, he engaged in the manufacture-of fire-arms near
New Haven in 1798. He made great improvements in
the construction of fire-arms, and acquired an inde
pendent fortune in that business. He married in 1817
a daughter of Judge Pierpont Edwards. " We cannot
express," says Judge Johnson, (in 1807,) "the weight of
the obligation which the country owes to this invention,"
(the cotton-gin.) Robert Fulton expressed the opinion
that "Arkwright, Watt, and Whitney were the three
men that did most for mankind of any of their contem-
poraries." He died at New Haven in January, 1825.

flict," vol. ii. pp. 58-66.

Whitney, {JostAH DWIGHT,) an American scientist,
was born at Northampton, Massachu3etts, November
23, 1819. He gradualed at Yale College in 1839. In
1842-3, and 1846, he studied in Europe under Elie de
Beaumont, Rammelsberg, lleinrich Rose, Liebig, and
others He was employed, as assistant, on the geo-
logical survey of New Hampshire in 1840; in 1847-50,
on that of the Lake Superior region, as assistant and
principal ; in 1855-60, partly on that of Iowa and Wis-
consin ; and in 1860 he was appointed State geologist
of California, being at the same time professor of prac-
tical geology in Harvard College and head of its mining
school. Apart from the reports of the surveys in which
he was engaged, he published a translation of " Berzelius
on the Blowpipe," (Boston, 1845.) a work "On the
Metallic Wealth of the United States, described and
compared with that of other Countries," (Philadelphia,
1854,) and many scientific papers in "Silliman's Jour-
nal," the " North American Review," etc. He was one
of the original members of the National Academy of
Sciences, established by Congress in 1863. He re-
ceived the degree of LL.D. from Yale College in 1870.
Died August 19, 1896.

Whitney, (WILLIAM DWIGHT,) a distinguished phi-
lologist and Oriental scholar, brother of the preceding,
was born February 9, 1827. He graduated at Williams
College in 1845. He studied at Berlin and Tubingen
in 1850-53, and published, (Berlin, 1856,) in conjunction
with Professor R. Roth, the Sanscrit text of the Atharva-
Veda, from a collation of all the known manuscripts in
Europe. In 1854 he was appointed professor of San-
scrit and comparative philology at Yale College, and
subsequently was corresponding secretary of the Ameri-
can Oriental Society, and a principal editor of its Journal,
his most important contributions to the latter having
been a translation, with notes, of ihe "Sfirya-Siddhanta,"
fully illustrated editions of two of the " PraticaUhyas,"
criticisms on the Standard Alphabet of Lepsius, and On
the views of Biot, Weber, and Miiller on the Hindoo
and Chinese Asterisms, etc. He also furnished many
articles to other periodicals, as the " North American
Review," "New Englander," aud "Nation," and lo the
*' New American Cyclopsedia." He contributed valuable
material to the great Sanscrit Dictionary of Ilohtlingk
and Roth. His other published works are a volume o(
"Lectures on Language and the Study of Language,"

(1867,) a "Compendious German Grammar," (1869,) a
"German Reader," (1870,) and a " Compendious Ger-
man and English Dictionary," (1877.) He received th.
honorary degree of Ph.D. from the University of Breslau
in 1861, and that of LL.D. from Williams College in

1868, and from William and Mary College, Virginia, in

1869. In 1870 his "Taittiriya-Praticakhya" received the
Bopp prize from the Berlin Academy. As a critic and
philologist he was distinguished alike for clear in-
sight and sound judgment and for profound and varied
learning. He was editor-in-chief of the tl Century
Dictionary" 188991. Died in 1894.

Whi'tcin, (JAMES MORRIS.) Ph.D., an American cler-
gyman, born in Boston, April n, 1833, graduated at Yale
College in 1853, entered the Congregational ministry,
,was at the head of important schools in New Haven,
(1854-64,) and in Easthampton, Massachusetts, (1876-78,)
and held pastorates in Lynn, Massachusetts, (1865-75,)
and in Newark, New Jersey. He has published "The
Gospel of the Resurrection," " Is Eternal Punishment
Endless ?" " From Seers to Prophets," etc., and prepared
several Greek and Latin text-books, and an edition of
the Orations of Lysias.

Whit'ta-ker. (FREDERICK,) a writer, born in London,
England, December 12, 1838. He came to the United
States in 1850, and served as a soldier and cavalry officer
in the war of 1861-65. He has published a " Life of Gen-
eral Glister," (1876,)"" Cadet Button," (1878,) and many
popular tales.

'Whittemore, hwlt'mor, (AMOS,) a mechanician,
born at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1759. was the in-
ventor of a machine for sticking cards. Died in 1828.

Whittemore, (THOMAS,) D.D., an American Uni-
versalist divine, born at Boston in 1800, was for many
years editor of "The Trumpet," a religious journal.
He published a " History of Universalism," "Songs of
Zion," and a "Life of Hosea Ballou," (3 vols., 1854-55-)
Died in 1861.

Whittier, hwit'te-er, (JOHN GREENtEAF,) a distin-
guished American poet, was born at HayerhiU, Massa-
chusetts, December 17, 1807. He was educated by
his parents in the principles of the Friends or Quakers,
with which denomination he always remained in con-
nection. He did not have the advantage of a classical
education. In 1830 he became editor of the " New Eng-
land Weekly Review," and in 1831 published his "Le-
gends of New England," a collection of Indian traditions.
Having early identified himself with the anti-slavery
party, he assumed about 1838 the editorship of the
"Pennsylvania Freeman," one of the organs of the
American Anti-Slavery Society, and in which many of
his finest lyrics first appeared. He was for a time cor-
responding editor of the "National Era," published at
Washington. In addition to the above-named works.
he published "Songs of Labour, and other Poems,"
(1851,) "The Chapel of the Hermits," etc., (1853,)
"Home Ballads and Poems," (1859.) "In War-Time,
and other Poems," (1863.) "National Lyrics," (1865,)
"Snow-Bound; a Winter Idyl," (1866,) "The Tent on
the Beach," (1867,) "Among the Hills, and other
Poems," (1868,) "Ballads of New England," (1869,)
"Miriam, and other Poems," (1870.) "The Pennsylvania
Pilgrim, and other Poems," (1872.) " Hazel Blossoms,"
(1874,) " Mabel Martin," (1875.) " The Vision of Echard,
and other Poems," (1878,) "The King's Missive, and
other Poems," (iSSl,) and "The Bay of Seven Islands,"
(1883.) "At Sundown" was published after his
death. Nearly all the productions of Whittier in his
happier hours are characterized by intense feeling
and by all the spirit of the true lyric poet. His nature-
poetry is faithful and beautiful, and his " Barclay of
Try" and " Barbara Frietchie" rank high among bal-
lads of moral heroism ; but it is when he enters the
realm of the mystic and spiritual, as in " My Psalm,"
that his notes come clearest and truest. Died Sep-
tember 7, 1892. (For some excellent remarks on
the characteristics of Wbittier, see the " Fable for
Critics," by Lowell.)

Whittingham, hwit'ing-am, (Sir SAMUEL FORD,) a
British general, who served in the Peninsular war,

4. 6, same, less prolonged; a,e,T,6,u.y. *Ao; a, e iQ.ektrurt. fir. fill, (at; met, noi; good; moon;




(1809-13.) He became in 1839 commander-in-chief at
Madras, where he died in 1840 or 1841.

Whittingham, (WILLIAM,) an English Puritan min-
ister, born at Chester in 1524. He visited France in
1550, married a sister of Calvin at Orleans, and returned
home in the reign of Edward VI. After the accession
of Mary he went into exile, and succeeded John Knox

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 398 of 425)