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as pastor at Geneva, where he assisted in an English
translation of the Bible. He became Dean of Durham
in 1563. Dr. Sandys, Archbishop of York, in 1577
brought against him a charge of thirty-five articles, one
of which was that he was ordained at Geneva only.
Whittingham appealed to the queen, who appointed a
commission to try the case. Before the case was decided,
he died, in 1589.

Whittingham, hwit'ing-am, (WILLIAM ROLLINSON,)
D.D., an American divine, born in New York in 1805,
was elected in 1840 Bishop of Maryland. He published
a number of sermons, etc. Died October 16, 1879.

Whit'ting-ton, (Sir RICHARD,) a famous citizen of
London, was thrice elected lord mayor of the city. He
was distinguished as a benefactor to the public. Died
in 1423.

See "Life of Sir R. Whittington." London, 1811.

Whittington, (ROBERT,) an English grammarian and
Latin poet, born at Lichfield about 1480. He was the
author of " Epigrammata," and other Latin verses of
great elegance, and of several grammatical works.

Whittle, hwTt't'l, (FRANCIS MCNEECE,) D.D., LL.D.,
an American bishop, born in Mecklenburg county, Vir-

finia, July 7, 1823, graduated in 1847 at the Theological
chool near Alexandria, and in 1848 was ordained a
presbyter of the Episcopal Church. In 1868 he was
consecrated Assistant Bishop of Virginia, becoming
diocesan bishop in 1876.

Whit'tle-sey, ( FREDERICK, ) an American jurist,
born in Washington, Connecticut, in 1799. He settled
at Rochester, New York, in 1822, was elected a member
of Congress in 1831, and became a judge of the supreme
court of New York. Died at Rochester in 1851.

WrUt'tredge, (WoRTHiNGTON,) an American land-
scape-painter, born at Springfield, Ohio, May 22, 1820.
He began to study art in Cincinnati, went to Paris in
1849, and remained in Europe from 1849 to 1859, work-
ing in Paris, Dusseldorf, the Low Countries, and Rome.
He first exhibited in New York in 1845, a "d in 1859
was chosen to the National Academy. Among his best-
known works are "The Old Hunting-Grounds, " "Lake
Shawangunk, Twilight," "The Pilgrimage to Saint-
Roche," " The Rocky Mountains, from the Platte River,"
and "The Old House by the Sea."

Whit'ty, (EDWARD MICHAEL,) an English journalist,
born at Liverpool in 1827, has been associate editor of
"The Times," the "Daily News," and other prominent

Whit'worth, (CHARLES,) an English diplomatist,
born in Staffordshire in 1670. He was ambassador to
Russia in 1710, and was afterwards employed in im-
portant missions to Prussia and the Hague. He was
minister-plenipotentiary to the Congress of Cambray in
1722. He died in 1725, having been created Baron
Whitworth of Galway in 1721. His " Account of Russia
as it was in the Year 1710" was published after his
death, by Horace Walpole.

Whitworth, (CHARLES,) a relative of the preceding,
was born in Kent in 1754. He was sent in 1788 as envoy-
extraordinary and minister-plenipotentiary to Russia,
remaining in that country until 1800, when he was sent
on a mission to Copenhagen. He was ambassador-extra-
ordinary to the French court in 1802, appointed Viceroy
of Ireland in 1813, and in 1815 created Baron Aldbaston
and Earl Whitworth. Died in 1825.

Whitworth, (JOSEPH,) an English engineer and
mechanician, born at Manchester about 1805, invented
the rifle called by his name. He also made great
improvements in cannon and other ordnance. D. 1887.

Whym'per, (EDWARD,) an English traveller and
artist, born in London, April 27, 1840. His father was
an able engraver and painter. Edward Whymper won
early distinction as a mountain-climber. He was the
first to ascend the Matterhorn (1865) and Chimborazo,

(1879.) He travelled in Greenland and in South America,
and made valuable collections of zoological and geologi-
cal material. He published " Scrambles amongst the
"Alps," (1871,) "Travels among the Great Andes
of the Equator," (1892,) etc.

'Whymper, (FREDERICK,) an English traveller,
author of " Travel and Adventure in Alaska," (1868,)
" Heroes of the Arctic," ( 1875,) and " The Fisheries
of the World," (1884.)

Whyte-Melvine, (GEORGE.) See MELVILLE,

Whytt, (ROBERT,) an eminent Scottish physician,
born in Edinburgh in 1714. He became professor of
medicine in the University of Edinburgh in 1746, first
physician to the king in Scotland in 1761, and president
of the Royal College of Physicians in 1764. He pub-
lished several medical works and Physiological Essays.
Died in 1766.

Wiarda, we-aR'da, (TlLEMANN DOTHIAS,) a Dutch
historical writer, born at Emden in 1746, was the author
of a " History of East Friesland," and other similar
works. Died in 1826.

Wibald, wee'balt, or Wibold, wee'bolt, written also
Guibald, [in Latin, WIBOL'DUS, WIBAL'DUS, or Gui-
BAL'DUS,] a celebrated monk, born at or near Liege
about 1097. He was employed in important affairs by
the emperor Lothaire and his successor Conrad. He
was elected Abbot of Corvey or Corbie, in Westphalia,
in 1147. Died in 1158.

Wiberg, vee'beRg,( ANDREAS,)D.D., a Swedish divine,
born in Helsingland in 1816, was originally a Lutheran,
but joined the Baptists in 1852. Having resided three
years in the United States of America, he became, after
his return, pastor of the Baptist church in Stockholm,
and editor of "The Evangelist."

Wibold or Wiboldus. See WIBALD.

Wicar, ve'kSK', (JEAN BAPTISTE JOSEPH,) a French
historical painter, born at Lille in 1762, was a pupil of
David. He passed the greater part of his mature life
in Italy, and made a valuable collection of the designs
of Italian masters. These are now in the Museum of
Lille. He died at Rome in 1834.

Wichern, ftte'eRn, (JOHANN HEINRICH,) D.D., an
eminent German philanthropist and divine, born at
Hamburg in 1808. He founded near that city, in 1833,
a Rauhes-Haus, or reformatory school for destitute and
vagrant children, and soon after established the Insti-
tute of Brothers, for the gratuitous training of teachers
for such schools. He was also chiefly instrumental in
organizing the association known as the Inner Mission
of the German Evangelical Church, of which he published
an account in 1849. Died April 7, 1881.

Wichmann, wlK'mln, (JOHANN ERNST,) a German
physician, born at Hanover in 1740. He studied atGot-
tingen, and, after having visited London and Paris, was
appointed court physician at Hanover. He wrote a
valuable work, entitled " Ideas on Diagnosis," and other
medical treatises. Died in 1804.

Wichmann, (KARL FRIEDRICH.) a German sculptor,
born at Potsdam in 1775, was a pupil of Schadow, and
afterwards studied in Italy. He executed a number of
portrait-busts and statues ; among the latter, that of the
Russian empress Alexandra is especially admired. Died
in 1836.

Wichmann, (LuowiG WILHELM,) a brother of the
preceding, was born about 1785. He acquired a high
reputation in the same department of sculpture. Among
his master-pieces are busts of Kb'rner, Schleiermacher,
Hegel, and Henrietta Sontag. Wichmann became pro-
fessor in the Academy of Arts at Berlin. Died in 1859.

Wick'er-sham, (JAMES PYLE,) LL.D., an American
educator, born in Newlin, Pennsylvania, March 5, 1825,
was principal of various important schools, superintendent
of public instruction for Pennsylvania, 1866-81, and in
1882 was appointed United States minister to Denmark.
Among his writings are "School Economy," "Methods
of Instruction," " History of Education in Pennsylvania,"
and some twenty-five volumes of official reports on
education. Died March 25, 1891.
Wickham. See WYKEHAM.
Wickliff or Wickliffe. See WYCUFFE.

c as k; c as s; g hard: g as/: G, H, K,gutturat; N, nasal; R, trilled; as z; th as in this. ( Jap=See Explanations, p. 23.)





Wiclef. See WYCLIFFE.

Wicquefort, de, deh wik'fort, (or vek'foR',) (ABRA-
HAM,) a Dutch diplomatist, born at Amsterdam in 159$.
He was appointed by the Elector of Brandenburg his
resident at the French court, which post he occupied
for upwards of thirty years. He was arrested in 1658
by order of Cardinal Mazarin, and imprisoned in the
Bastille on a charge of conveying secret intelligence
to the States-General. Being released after a year's
confinement, he was obliged to leave the country, and
on his return to Holland was made historiographer to
the States, and appointed minister to the Hague by
the Duke of Brunswick-Liineburg. In 1676 he was
sentenced to perpetual imprisonment on a charge of
unlawful correspondence with the enemies of his country.
He effected his escape in 1679, and died about 1682.
He wrote a work entitled " The Ambassador and his
Functions," (1681,) and a "History of the United Prov-
inces," etc., (both in French.)

See NictfRON, "Me'moires;" PAQUOT, "Me'moires,"

'Wicquefort, de, (JOACHIM,) a Dutch diplomatist,
born at Amsterdam, was a brother of the preceding.
He was employed in divers negotiations during the
Thirty Years' war by Bernard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar.
Died in 1670.

Wida. See WEIDEN.

Widmanstadt, wit'man-staf, (JOHANN ALBRECHT,)
a German Orientalist, born at Nellingen, near Ulm, in
the fifteenth century. He studied languages in Italy
and Spain, and returned to Germany in 1541. He was
appointed a member of the council of the Emperor of
Germany in 1552. He produced a New Testament in
Syriac, (1555.) Died before 1559.

See WALDAU. " J. A. Widmanstadt," 1796.

Widmer, wit'mer, (SAMUEL,) a Swiss inventor and
manufacturer, born in the canton of Aargau in 1767,
was a nephew of Oberkampf. He had a manufactory of
calico or painted muslins at Jouy, and invented the art
of printing muslins with engraved cylinders of copper.
He also invented a machine to engrave the cylinders.
Died in 1821.

Widnmann, wldn'man, (MAX,) a Bavarian sculptor,
born at Eichstadt in 1812, studied at Munich under
Schwanthaler. He afterwards visited Rome, where he
executed his " Shield of Hercules," which is ranked
among his master-pieces. Among his other works may
be named statues of Rauch and of Orlando di Lasso,
and the group of " A Hunter Defending his Family from
a Panther." In 1848 he became professor of sculpture
in the Academy of Art at Munich. Died in 1895.

Widukind. See WITTEKIND.

Wiebeking, wee'beh-king', (KARL FRIEDRTCH,) a
celebrated German engineer and scientific writer, born
at Wollin, in Pomerania, in 1762. He rose through
several offices to be general inspector of roads and
canals in Bavaria in 1805. He published several works
of great merit, among which we may name his " Theo-
retical and Practical Naval Architecture," ( Wasscr-
baukunst,) (5 vols., 1805,) " Theoretical and Practical
Civil Architecture," (4 vols., 1821, with 109 plates,) and
" Historical Analysis of the Monuments of Antiquity,"
etc., (1840,) the last-named in French. Died in 1842.


Wiedemann, wee'deh-man', (LuDWiG,) a German
tatuary and founder, born at Nordlingen in 1690 ; died
in 1754.

Wieden or Wida. See WEIDEN.

Wiegleb, weec'le'p, (JoHANN CHRISTIAN,) a Ger-
man chemist, born at Langensalza in 1732. He wrote,
besides other works, a " History of the Progress and
Discoveries in Chemistry among the Ancients," (1791.)
Died in 1800.

Wiegmann, weeo'man, (AREND FRIEDRICH AU-
GUST,) a German naturalist, born at Brunswick in 1802,
published, conjointly with Ruthe, a "Manual of Zoology,"
(1832,) and founded in 1835 a journal entitled "Archives
for Natural History." Died in 1841.

Wieland, wee'land, [Ger. pron. wee'lant; Lat. WIE-
LAN'DIUS,] (CHRISTOPH MARTIN,) a celebrated German
poet, born at Oberholzheim, near Biberach, in Wur-
temberg, September 5, 1733, was a son of a Protestant

clergyman. About the age of twelve he began to
write verses in German and in Latin. He was sent to
the Academy of Klosterbergen, near Magdeburg, in his
fourteenth year, and became a good classical scholar.
Having returned to his father's house at Biberach in
1750, he fell in love with his cousin, Sophia von Guter-
mann, who was afterwards known as an authoress under
the name of Madame de Laroche. Inspired by this
passion, he wrote a didactic poem " On tne Nature
of Things, or the Most Perfect World," (1751.) He
entered the University of Tubingen as a student of law
about the end of 1750; but he gave his attention more
to classical literature and philosophy. He produced in
1752 "Ten Moral Epistles" in verse, which present the
first indication of that Socratic and Horatian irony in
which he afterwards excelled. His poem " Arminius"
or "Hermann" (1752) procured for him the friendship
of Bodmer, who invited him to Zurich. He accepted
the invitation, and passed several years in the house of
Bodmer, who exercised a temporary influence over his
literary character. Under this influence Wieland wrote
" The Trial of Abraham," (" Der gepriifte Abraham,"
1753,) and "Letters from the Dead to their Living
Friends," (1753.)

The religious enthusiasm of his youth was followed
by a reaction, and his imagination became more sober
as his reason was more developed. In 1754 he ceased
to reside in the house of Bodmer; but he remained at
Zurich about four years longer, as tutor in private
families. In 1757 he produced five cantos of "Cyrus,"
an epic poem, which he never finished. He afterwards
I wrote a beautiful poem entitled " Araspesand Panthea,"
(1758.) He resided a short time at Berne, from which
he removed in 1760 to Biberach, where he became inti-
mate with Count Stadion, and renewed his intimacy with
his cousin Sophie, who had been married to M. de La-
roche. Wieland was appointed a member of the council
of Biberach, or director of the chancery. He produced
a translation of Shakspeare's dramas, (8 vols., 1762-66.)
This was the first version of Shakspeare that had
appeared in th; German language. Wieland was not
specially qualified for this task, his genius being by no
means Shakspearian.

In 1765 he married a lady of Augsburg, with whom
he lived happily for many years. His works written
after 1760 are, unhappily, tainted with sensuality and
epicureanism. He published in 1766 his best novel,
" Agathon," which, said Lessing, " is one of the most
remarkable books of our age." His poem entitled
" Musarion" (1768) was admired for its graceful style
and ingenious irony. In 1769 he became professor of
philosophy at Erfurt. He produced numerous works in
rapid succession, and was much censured by the critics
because the tone of his later works was not so religious
as that of his first He defended himself with the
weapons of satire and humorous invective, in " Love
Accused," (" Der verklagte Amor,") and " The Manu-
script of Diogenes of Sinope," (1770.) On account
of his wit, combined with a certain levity, Wieland has
often been called "the German Voltaire."

Having been invited by the Duchess Amelia of Saxe-
Weimar to direct the education of her sons, he removed
to Weimar in 1772. He produced, in 1773, "Alceste,"
an opera, which had great success. About the same
date he founded the " Deutscher Mercur," a monthly
literary periodical, of which he was the chief or sole
editor until 1790, after which it was edited by Wieland
and Bottiger about fifteen years. He formed a friend-
ship with Goethe about 1775. In '773 he published a
humorous work called "The People of Abdera," (" Die
Abderiten,") and in 1780 the romantic poem of "Obe-
ron," which is his most celebrated poetical production,
and which was praised by Goethe as a master-piece. It
combines a variety of merits, originality of personages,
purity of language, refinement of irony, and profound-
ness of sentiment.

He afterwards produced a free translation of the
Epistles and Satires of Horace, (1782-86,) to which he
added valuable commentaries. He also translated Lu-
cian, (1788-91.) Among his later works is " Peregrinui
Proteus," (1791.) He published an edition of his com-

I, 6, u, y, long; a, e, i>, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 6, Ci, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; fir, fill, fat; met; nfttjgood; moon;




plete works, (36 vols. 410, 1794-1802.) Wieland was
the lather of fourteen children. In 1798 he purchased a
farm or country-seat at Osmanstadt, near Weimar. He
enjoyed in his later years a competent fortune, and the
society of Goethe, Schiller, and Herder. Died near
Weimar in January, 1813.

See GRUBKR, " C. M. Wieland," 4 vols., 1818: H. DORING, "C.
M. Wieland ; biographisches Denkmal," 1840 ; CANTO, " Wieland
ed i suoi Contemporanei," 1844 ; H. DORING, " C. M. Wieland's
Biographic," 1853 : CARL P. CONZ, " Laudatio Wielandii," 1820;
GBRVINUS, " Geschichte der Deutschen Dichtung :" LADOUCHTTH,
Notice sur la Vie de Wieland," 1820; " Nouvelle Biographic GtSne 1 -
rale:" " Foreign Quarterly Review" for June, 1828.

Wieling, wee'ling, (ABRAHAM,) a German jurist,
born in Westphalia in 1693. He became professor of
law at Utrecht in 1739. Died in 1746.

Wienbarg, ween'baRG, (LuDOLF,) a German littt-
ra/fur and journalist, born in 1803, was successively
associate editor of the " Deutschen Revue," at Frank-
fort-on-the-Main, the "Hamburger Neue Zeitung," and
other periodicals. He also published " Holland in the
Year 1831 and 1832," and other works, on various sub-
jects. Died January 2, 1872.

Wieniawaki, we-ne-av'ske, (HENRI,) a Polish vio-
linist, born at Lublin, June 10, 1835, was educated in the
Paris Conservatory. He early won eminence as a concert-
player and composer. He came to the United States in
1872, and was afterwards a professor in the Brussels
Conservatory. Died at Moscow, March 31, 1880

Wier, van, vjn wseR, written also Weier, (JOHN,)
a distinguished physician, born in North Brabant in 1515,
is said to have been the first to oppose the belief in
witchcraft, in condemnation of which he published a
work entitled " De Prasstigiis Daemonum et Incanta-
tionibus ac Veneficiis," (1563.) Died in 1558.

See FOPPENS, " Bibliotheca Beigica. "

Wiertz, weerts or veeRts, (ANTCHNE,) an eminent
Belgian painter, born at Dinant in 1806, was a pupil of
Van Bree. He painted large historical and religious
pictures, among which are "The Revolt of the Angels"
and " The Triumph of Christ." The government built
for him a large atelier, always open to the public. He
invented a new and secret method of painting, which, it
is said, unites the advantages of fresco- and oil-painting.
Died in 1865.

Wieeelgren, vee'sel-gRen', (PETER,) a distinguished
Swedish writer and philanthropist, born near Wexib in
1 800. He studied at the University of Lund, and in
1834 settled as pastor at Westerstad, in Scania. He
became a zealous advocate of the temperance reform
and of the Inner Mission, and published, besides several
religious works, a history of Swedish literature, entitled
" Sveriges Skona Litteratur," (3 vols., 1833.) He was a
principal contributor to Palmblad's "Biographical Lexi-
con of Celebrated Swedes." Died October n, 1877.

Wietersheim, von, fon wee'teRs-him', (EDUARD,) a
German statesman, born in 1789, filled several offices
tinder the Saxon government, and was appointed in 1840
minister of public instruction. Died April 16, 1865.

Wif'fen, (BENJAMIN BARRON,) an English Quaker
poet, a brother of J. H. Wiffen, was born near Woburn
in 1794. He was a good Spanish scholar, and was one
of the editors of the " Reformistas antiguas espanoles."
His published works include a posthumous volume of
" Poems," also a " Life of Juan Valdez," etc. Died
March 3, 1867.

'Wiffen, (JEREMIAH HOLMES,) an English writer and
translator, born at Woburn in 1792. Among his original
works are poems entitled "Aonian Hours," "The Luck
of Eden Hall," a ballad, "Julia Alpinula, the Captive
of Stamboul," and other poems, and " Historical Memoirs
of the House of Russell," etc. His translation in the
Spenserian stanza of Tasso's "Jerusalem Delivered"
came out in 1830. lie also translated the poems of
Garcilasso de la Vega from the Spanish. He held for
many years the office of private secretary and librarian
to the Duke of Bedford. Died in 1836.

See ALLIBONE, "Dictionary of Authors;" "Westminster Re-
view" for 1827; " Monthly Review" for June, 1821.

Wig'an, (ALFRED,) a popular English actor, born in
Kent in 1818. Died November 29, 1878.
Wigand, wee'gant, written also Vigand, QOHANN,)

a German Lutheran minister, born at Mansfeld in 1523.
He wrote several religious works. Died in 1587.

Wigand, (JUSTUS HEINRICH,) a German physician,
but more particularly distinguished as an accoucheur
and writer on obstetrics, was born in 1769; died at
Mannheim in 1817.

"Wigand, (PAUL,) a German jurist and historian, born
at Cassel in 1786. He published a treatise "On the
Secret Tribunal of Westphalia," and various other
works on German history, law, and antiquities. Died
in 1866.

Wigard, wee'gaRt, (FRANZ,) born at Mannheim, in
Germany, in 1807, studied law and forest-science, and
various other branches, at Munich, and afterwards
became principal of the Stenographic Institute at Dres-
den. In 1848 he was a member of the National As
sembly at Frankfort, where he sat on the left. He
published a "Manual of Stenography," (1852,) and
other works. Died September 25, 1885.

Wigbode, wic'bo-deh, a German poet of the eighth
century, enjoyed great consideration at the court of

Wig'gin, (KATE DOUGLAS,) an American author,
born at Philadelphia in 1857. She was the daughter
of R. N. Smith, and married Mr. Wiggin in 1880,
and, after his death, C. N. Riggs in 1895. ^ ne engaged
in kindergarten work on the Pacific coast, and wrote
a series of highly popular juvenile tales, including
"Timothy's Quest," "The Story of Patsy," "The
Birds' Christmas Carol," etc.

Wight, wit, (ORLANDO WILLIAMS,) an American lit-
tiraftiir, born in Alleghany county, New York, in 1824,
He translated from the French Cousin's " History of
Modern Philosophy," (2 vols., 1852,) and Pascal's
"Thoughts," (1859,) and wrote several original works,
among which is a " Life of Abelardand HeJoise," (1853.)
Died October 19, iS88.

Wight, wit, (ROBERT,) M.D., a Scottish botanist, born
about 1796. He went to India about 1820 as a surgeon
in the service of the East India Company. He pub-
lished " Illustrations of Indian Botany," (2 vols., 1838-
50,) and " Figures of East Indian Plants," (" Icones
Plantarum India? Orientalis," 6 vols., 1838-56.)

Wightman, wit'man, (Sir WILLIAM,) a British judge,
born in Scotland about 1784. He practised law with
some distinction, and was appointed a judge of the court
of queen's bench in 1841. Died in 1863.

'Wightman, (WILLIAM MAY,) an American
preacher, born at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1808.
He became president of Wofford College in 1854, and
a bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church South in
1866. Died in 1882.

Wignerod or Vignerod, de, deh ven'yeh-rpd',
(FRANCOIS,) a French general, a nephew of Cardinal
Richelieu, defeated a Spanish fleet near Genoa in 1638.
He died in 1646, aged thirty-seven. He was grand-
father of Marshal Richelieu.

Wikstrom or Wikstroem, vik'stRbm, (JoHAN
EMANUEL,) a Swedish botanist, born at Wenersborg in
1789. He became professor of botany at Stockholm in
1822, and wrote several botanical works. Died in 1856.

Wil'ber-force, (EDWARD,) a writer, was born
in England about 1836. He published "Brazil
viewed through a Naval Telescope," " Social Life in
Munich," a " Life of Schubert," various novels, etc.

WUberforce, (ERNEST ROLAND,) D.D., a son of
Samuel Wilberforce, was born at Brixton, Isle of Wight,
January 22, 1840, graduated at Exeter College, Oxford,
in 1864, became in 1878 a canon of Winchester, and in
1882 was consecrated as bishop of the new diocese of

'Wilberforce, (ROBERT ISAAC,) an English divine
and writer, son of the celebrated William Wilberforce,
was born at Clapham Common in 1802. He studied at
Oriel College, Oxford, and was made Archdeacon of the
East Riding of Yorkshire in 1840. Among his principal
works are a historical compendium, entitled "The Five
Empires," (1840,) " Doctrine of the Incarnation," (1848,)
and a "History of Erastianism," (1851.) In 1854 he

e as k; 9 as f g hard; g as// G, H. K. guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. \

anations, p. Xl.\




resigned his office, and became a member of the Roman
Catholic Church. Died in Italy in 1857.

Wilberforce, (SAMUEL,) a brother of the preceding,
was born in 1805, studied at Oriel College, Oxford, and
subsequently rose through various preferments to be
Bishop of Oxford, (1845,) lord high almoner of the queen,
(1847,) and Bishop of Winchester, (1869.) He published
"Sermons at Oxford," (1839,) "Eucharistica," (1839,)

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 399 of 425)