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in 1830, and Governor of that State in 1836. Died in 1851.
TTill, (Sir JOHN,) an English writer and literary quack,
born at Spalding in 1716. He obtained skill as a botanist,
made and sold quack medicines, and edited "The In-
spector," a journal which owed its success to the scandal
it contained. He was refused admission to the Royal

; 9 as*; gAard; g as/'; G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; H, trilled; sasz; th as in (to. (fl^'See Explanations, p. 23.)




Society on account of his doubtful character, and sought
revenge by writing a review of their works. His " Vege-
table System," in 26 vols., with splendid plates, sold
at one hundred and sixty guineas per copy. He was
knighted by the King of Sweden, to whom he had pre-
ented a copy of the last-named work. Died in 1775.

Garrick has defined his merits in the following epigram:
" For iiliysic and farces, his rival there scarce is ;
His farces are physic, his physic a farce is."

See DISRAHLI, " Quarrels of Authors."

Hill, (JOSEPH,) an English scholar, born near Leeds
in 1625, became minister of an English church at Mid-
delburg, Holland. He published an improved edition
of Schrevelius's "Greek Lexicon," (1676.) Died in 1707.
Hill, (MATTHEW DAVENPORT,) a brother of Sir
Rowland, noticed below, born in Birmingham about
1792, became a barrister. He was a member of the
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, and
laboured with zeal and success to procure amendments
of the laws. He was one of the chief promoters of
"juvenile reformatories." Died June 7, 1872.

Hill, (NATHANIEL P.,) an American Senator, born in
Montgomery, New York, February 18, 1832. He gradu-
ated in 1857 at Brown University, where he was professor
of applied chemistry, 1860-64. He studied metallurgy
in Europe, 1865-66, and in 1867 removed to Denver,
Colorado, as manager of a smelting company. From 1879
to 1885 he was United States Senator fiom Colorado.

Hill, (OCTAVIA,) an English reformer, born about
1838. She worked earnestly among the London poor,
and in 1864 began an important work of improving
the homes of workingmen in the London slums.
She wrote "Homes of the London Poor," (1875,)
"Our Common Land," (1878,) etc.

Hill, (Sir RICHARD,) born in 1733, a brother of Row-
land, was member of Parliament for Salop, and some-
times preached in the Calvinistic Methodist chapels. He
wrote a few religious works. Died in 1808.

Hill, (ROBERT,) a self-taught English linguist, born a;
Miswell in 1699, was a tailor by trade. He was master
of several ancient languages, and wrote " Criticisms on
Job," and a few other works. Died in 1777.

Hill, (Rev. ROWLAND,) a popular preacher and dis-
ciple of Whitefield, was born at Hawkstone, England,
in 1744. He was the son of a baronet, and uncle of
General Lord Hill. After leaving college he was
ordained a deacon of the Anglican Church, but soon
became a zealous and eloquent preacher among the Cal-
inistic Methodists. Addressing the people in the streets,
the open air, or wherever he could gain audience, he
made many converts in various parts of the kingdom.
In 1783 he built Surrey Chapel, London, in which he
preached about fifty winters. He was the author of " Vil-
lage Dialogues," and other works. Southey, in refer-
ence to a particular occasion, says, " His manner was
animated and striking, sometimes dignified and impress-
ive. The purport of his sermon was good, nothing
fanatical, nothing enthusiastic." Died in 1833.

Hill. (ROWLAND,) VISCOUNT, an English general, born
at Frees, Shropshire, in 1772, was the second son of Sir
John Hill, and nephew of the Rev. Rowland Hill. He
entered the army as ensign in 1790, and obtained the
rank of colonel in 1800. In 1806 he was made a major-
(reneral and appointed on the staff. In 1808 he served
n Portugal, under Sir Arthur Wellesley and Sir John
Moore, until the battle of Corunna. Promoted to the
rank of lieutenant-general in 1809, he was employed
several years in the Peninsular war, and gained a high
reputation in his profession. In 1814 he was raised to
the peerage, as Baron of Almarez and Hawkstone. He
took part in the battle of Waterloo in 1815, and after-
wards was second in command of the army of occupation
in France. Lord Hill was commander-in-chief of the
army from 1828 until 1842, when he resigned and was
created a viscount He died in 1842, and left the title to
his nephew, Sir Rowland Hill.

Hill, (Sir ROWLAND,) an Englishman, known as the
author of the cheap postage system, was born at Kid-
derminster in 1795. In 1837 he wrote a pamphlet on
" Post-Office Reform, its Importance and Practicability."
Through his persistent efforts, a bill pn^-r d in the

session of 1839-40 to reduce the rate of postage and
render it uniform. The postage has since been further
reduced, and letters are now carried for one penny each
to any part of the United Kingdom. The people ex-
pressed their gratitude for this benefit by a present of
13,000 raised by subscription. He was appointed
secretary to the postmaster-general in 1846, and sole
secretary to the post-office in 1854. In 1864, his health
having failed, he retired from office, but the treasury
awarded him for life his salary of 2000 per annum, and
Parliament a grant of 20,000. Died August 27, 1879.

Hill, (THOMAS,) a mathematician and Unitarian min-
ister, born at New Brunswick, New Jersey, in 1818
graduated at Harvard in 1843. He published, besides
other works, "Geometry and Faith," and contributed
many articles to the " North American Review" and the
"Atlantic Monthly." In 1859 he succeeded Horace
Mann as president of Antioch College, Ohio. He was
president of Harvard University from 1862 to 1868.
Died November 21, 1891.

Hill, (THOMAS,) an Anglo-American painter, born in
England in 1829. When he was twelve years old he was
brought to the United States. He became a decorator,
first in Boston and then in Philadelphia, but in 1861
removed to San Francisco. Among his best pictures
are " White Mountain Notch," "The Yosemite Valley,"
"The Great Cafion," etc.

Hill, (THOMAS FORD,) an English antiquary and philol-
ogist, published "Ancient Erse Poems." Died in 1795.

Hill, (WILLIAM,) D.D., an American divine, born in
Cumberland county, Virginia, in 1769. He graduated
at Hampden-Sidney College in 1788. From 1800 to
1834 he was pastor of the Presbyterian church in Win
Chester, where he died in 1852.

Hil'lard, (GEORGE STILLMAN,) an eminent American
writer, lawyer, and orator, born in Machias, Maine, in
1808. While pursuing his collegiate course at Harvard,
(where he graduated in 1828,) he is said to have been
especially distinguished in declamation and English
composition. He was afterwards for some time asso-
ciated with George Bancroft in his Round Hill Seminary
at Northampton, Massachusetts, and in 1833 was ad-
mitted to the bar in Boston. Besides attending to
an extensive professional business, he afterwards twice
visited Europe, and was a member of both branches of
the Massachusetts legislature. He was author of a great
number of orations, lectures before the Lowell Institute,
and contributions to the "Christian Examiner," "North
American Review," etc. In 1852 he was selected by the
authorities of Boston to deliver the eulogy on the char-
acter of Daniel Webster. The next year appeared his
"Six Months in Italy," (in 2 vols. I2tno,) which had
reached the fifth edition in 1855. "Mr. Hillard's work,"
says a critic in the "Quarterly Review" for April, 1858,
"is that of a scholar and a gentleman, a man of sense
as well as of taste and feeling. His style is pointed and
lull of happy expressions and striking images." Among
other literary labours, Mr. Hillard edited the Poetical
Works of Spenser, (in 5 vols. 8vo.) He was for some
time associate editor of the "Jurist," and was for several
years one of the principal editors of the " Boston Courier."
He contributed several important articles to the "New
American Cyclopaedia," including those on Alexander
and Edward Everett and Rufus Choate. He died in

Hillebrand, hil'Ieh-bRanr/, (JOSEPH,) a German phi-
losophical writer, born near Hildesheim in 1788. He
Eublished, among other works, "The Philosophy of the
pint," (2 vols., 1835,) and "The German National
Literature since the Beginning of the Eighteenth Cen-
ury," (2 vols., 1845.) Died January 25, 1871.

Hillebrand, (KARL,) a distinguished German histo
rian, a son of the preceding, was born at Giessen, Sep-
tember 17, 1829. Banished from Germany for political
causes, he became in 1863 a professor at Douai. His
"History of France since 1830," "France and the
French, "and a treatise on educational reform, were pub-
lished before his removal, in 1870, to Florence, where
he became the founder and librarian of the Circolo Fi-
lologico. He also published a volume on " England
and the English," and .n " History of German Thought."

a. e, 1,0 ft. y. long; a, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, \\, ^,sAor(:a.,e,\.<),of>sfHrt; fir, fall, fat; m?t; n At; pond; moon;




Most of his writings are in German. Died at Florence,
October 18, 1884.

Hillel, a famous Jewish rabbi, born at Babylon about
IIO B.C., was descended from King David. He went
to Jerusalem at the age of forty, acquired a thorough
knowledge of the law, and was chosen president of the
Sanhedrim about 30 B.C. The origin of the Talmud or
Mishna is asciibed to Hillel, who was the leader of a
numerous school or party. He died at the age of one
hundred and twenty years.

Hillel, a noted rabbi, supposed to have lived about
300 A.D., was a descendant of the preceding. He re-
formed the Jewish calendar by means of a cycle of nine-
teen years.

Hitler, hil'ler, (FERDINAND,) a celebrated German
composer, born of Jewish parents at Frankfort, October
24, 181 1. He published an oratorio of the " Destruction
of Jerusalem," (1840,) "The Musical Life of our Times,"
(1868,) and Lives of Beethoven and Mendelssohn. Died
at Cologne, May n, 1885.

Hil'ler, (JOHANN ADAM,) whose real name was
HULLER, a Prussian musician and composer, born at

Hiller, (MATTHAUS,) a German Orientalist, born at
Stuttgart in 1646, was professor of Oriental languages
and theology at Tubingen. He wrote a " Latin Hebrew
Lexicon," (1685.) Died in 1725.

Hiller, (PHILIPP FRIEDRICH,) one of the best of the
South-German religious poets, was born at Miihlhausen,
in Wurtemberg, January 6, 1699. He became a Prot-
estant pastor, and died at Steinheim, April 24, 1769.

Hiller, von, fon hil'ler, (JoHANN,) BARON, an Aus-
trian general, born at Neustadt, near Vienna, in 1754.
In 1809 he obtained command of the sixth corps of the
army of the archduke Charles. Although he was de-
feated by Napoleon at Landshut in April, he contributed
greatly to the success of the Austrians at Aspern in the
next month. Died in 1819.

See ERSCH und GRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie."

Hillern, von, fon hil'lern, (WILHELMINE,) a German
novelist, a daughter of Charlotte Birch- Pfeiffer, was
born March n, 1836. Among her stories are "Double
Life," "A Physician of the Soul," "The Geier-Wally,"

Hillerup, hil'leh-rup', (FREDERIK CHRISTIAN,) a
Danish poet, born at Vedelsborg in 1793, published a
work called " Italica," (1829,) and "New Poems," ("Nye
Digte,") in 1854. Died May 5, 1861.

Hill'house, (JAMES,) an American lawyer, born in
Connecticut in 1754. He was a Senator of the United
States from 1794 to 1810. Died in 1832.

Hiilhouse, (JAMES A.,) an American poet, son of the
preceding, born at New Haven in 1789. He removed
to New York City, and married Cornelia Lawrence in
1824. His first poem, "The Judgment, a Vision," ap-
peared in 1812. He also wrote the following admired
dramas : " Percy's Masque," " Hadad," and " Demetria "
Died in 1841.

See GRISWOLD, "Poets and Poetry of America;" DUYCKINCK,
" Cyclopedia ot" American Literature," vol. ii. ; CLEVELAND, "Com-
pendium of American Literature ;" " North American Review" for
January, 1840.

Billiard, (HENRY WASHINGTON,) LL.D., an Ameri-
can clergyman and statesman, born in Cumberland
county, North Carolina, August 8, 1808. He graduated
at South Carolina College in 1826, became a lawyer of
Athens, Georgia, in 1829, and was a professor in the
University of Alabama, 1831-34. In 1842 he went to
Belgium as United States minister, was several times
elected to Congress as a Whig, and served as a brigadier-
general in the Confederate service. After the war he prac-
tised law in Georgia, and was also a Methodist preacher.
In 1877 he was appointed United States minister to
Brazil. He published a volume of speeches, (1855,) and
" De Vane," a novel. Died in Atlanta, Dec. 17, 1892.

Billiard, hll'yard, (NICHOLAS,) an English painter,
born at Exeter in 1547, learned the trade of a jeweller,
and afterwards became eminent as a miniature-painter.
He executed an admired portrait of Mary Queen of Scots,

as /t; 9 as i; g hard; g asj; G, H, K., guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; as *; th as in j

and was patronized by Queen Elizabeth and James I.
Died in 1619.

Hil'precht, (HERMAN VOLRATTES,) an ar-
chaeologist, born at Hohenerxleben, Germany, in
1859. He studied in various German universities,
emigrated to the United States, and in 1886 became
professor of Assyrian and Semitic philology at the
University of Pennsylvania. He became curator of
the Semitic section of the museum, and was director
of the excavations at Nippur, Babylonia, 1888-99,
which added greatly to our knowledge of the antiquity
of Babylonian civilization. He is the leading au-
thority on cuneiform palaeography.

Hilton, (WALTER,) an English monk of the fifteenth
century, lived at Sheen, and wrote " The Ladder of Per-

Hilton, (WILLIAM,) a successful English historical
painter, born at Lincoln in 1786. About 1800 he became
a student in the Royal Academy, and in 1804 exhibited
his " Hector reinspired by Apollo." In 1819 or 1820
he was elected a member of the Academy, and in 1825
succeeded Fuseli as keeper of that institution. He at-
tained a high rank among the English artists of his time.
Among his best works are "Nature blowing Bubbles,"
and "The Graces teaching Cupid to play on the Lyre."
Died in 1839.

Hi-me'rI-us, ['1,0/piof,] an eminent Greek sophist ot
Prusa, Bithynia. He became master of a celebrated school
in Athens, and afterwards secretary of the emperor Julian
at Antioch about 362 A.D. He composed many orations,
of which about twenty are extant His style is rather
bombastic. Among his pupils were Gregory Nazianzen
and Saint Basil. He was always a pagan, but moderate
or friendly to the Christians.

Hl-mil'co or Hi-mil'cpn, a Carthaginian navigator,
the date of whose adventures is unknown. Pliny states
that he sailed northward from Gades on a voyage of dis-
covery about the time that Hanno explored the western
coast of Africa. R. Festus Avienus quotes him as his
authority for an account of the islands of the Hiberni
and Albioni.

Himilco or Himilcon, an able Carthaginian general,
who was joined with Hannibal in the command ofa large
army in the war against Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse.
He took Agrigentum after a long siege, during which
the death of Hannibal left him sole commander, (406
B.C.) He defeated Dionysius about 405, soon after which
peace was concluded. The war having been renewed in
397 B.C., Himilco raised an army of 100,000 men, with
which he marched victoriously to the gates of Syra-
cuse. While he was besieging this city, his army was
wasted by pestilence and defeated by the Syracusans.
He escaped to Carthage and killed himself.
See DIODORUS SICULUS, books xiiL, xiv.. and xx.
Himilco or Himilcon was commander of the fleet
of Carthage, on the coast of Sicily, in 214 B.C., while
Marcellus commanded the Romans in that island. He
landed an army in 213, gained some advantages, and,
having failed in an attempt to relieve Syracuse, died of
pestilence in 212 B.C.

Himly, him'lee, (KARL GUSTAV,) aGerman physician,
born at Brunswick in 1772, was professor of medicine at
Gottingen. He was distinguished for his skilful treat
ment of diseases of the eyes, on which he published a
valuable work. Died in 1837.

Himmel, him'mel, (FRIEDRICH HEINRICH,) a Ger-
man composer, born in the duchy of Brandenburg in
1765, was appointed chapel-master at Berlin about 1796.
Among his best works are the operas of " Fanchon" and
"The Sylphs." Died in 1814.

See FiTis, "Biographic Universelle des Musiciens."
Hinch'cliffe, (JOHN,) an English divine and orator,
born at Westminster in 1731. He became head-master
of Westminster School in 1764, and Bishop of Peter-
borough in 1769. Died in 1794.

Hinckeldey, hink'kel-dl, (KARL LUDWIG FRIED-
RICH,) a Prussian administrator, born near Meiningen
in 1803. He became minister or prefect of police in
Berlin in 1848. He was killed in a duel in 1856.

Explanations, p. 23. '




Hinckelmanu, hink'kel-man', (ABRAHAM,) a Ger-
man Orientalist, born at Dobeln in 1652, published an
edition of the Koran, (1694,) said to be the first ever
printed in Arabic. Died in 1695.

Hinck'ley, (JoHN,) an English clergyman, bom 11
1617, was rector of Drayton. Died in 1695.

Hincmar, hink'mar, a learned French prelate, bom
in 806 A.D., entered the Abbey of Saint-Dems in child-
hood He acquired much influence, and became a fa-
vourite at the court of Charles the Bald. In 845 he was
elected Archbishop of Rheims. He distinguished him-
self by his firmness in defending the Church against
encroachments of the papal and royal power. He wrote,
besides other works, two treatises on Predestination, in

of Booddha, was born about 602 A.D. He travelled
in Hindostan and other countries, of which he wrote dt-
scriptions. He translated into the Chinese many Hindr-o


works on the religion of Booddha.
See "Nouvelle Biographic GeWrale."
Hip-par'ehus, [Gr.

Died in 664 A.D.


e'pSRk',] son of Pisistratus, an Athenian, who, in part-
nership with his brother Hippias, obtained the chief
power in the state in 527 B.C. He was assassinated by
Harmodius and Aristogiton in 514. Hippias survived;
but, having rendered himself unpopular by cruelty and
suspicious habits, (although it is said he was previously
mild and affable,) he was expelled from Athens in 511.
He afterwards passed many years at the court of the

one of which he attempts to refute the famous Erigena. | Persian king Darius, served as guide to the Persian
He is censured for his severity to Godeschalcus, who army which invaded Greece, and was at the battle of
was confined in a dungeon for his heretical opinions on Marathon, where, according to some writers, he was

the question of predestination. Died in 882 A.D.

See " Gallia Christiana ;" W. F. GESS, " Merkwurdigkeiten am
dem Leben und den Schriften Hincmar's," 1806; "Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Generate. "

Hiiicks, (Rev. EDWARD,) distinguished for his know-
ledge of Assyrian and Egyptian inscriptions, was bora in
Cork, Ireland, in 1791. Died December 3, 1866.

Hind, (JOHN RUSSELL,) an eminent English astron-
omer, born at Nottingham in 1823. He obtained in
1840 a situation in the Royal Observatory at Greenwich.
In 1845 he removed to another observatory in Regent's
Park, London, where he has had remarkable success as

killed, 490 B.C.

See HERODOTUS, books ii., v., vi., and viL ; THIRLWAU, " HU-
tory of Greece."

Hipparchus, [Gr. IOTTO^-DC; Fr. HIPPARQUE; It.
IPPARCO, 4p-paR'ko,] the founder of the science of as-
tronomy, and the greatest astronomer of antiquity, was a
native of Nicza, in Bithynia. He was of Greek extrac-
tion, and flourished about 150 B.C. Many of his obser-
vations were made at Rhodes. His writings are all lost,
except a " Commentary on Aratus," which is the least
important ; but the knowledge of his discoveries has been
preserved by Ptolemy in his " Syntaxis." The first who

1 * . . i y ._ c_ . _ _i ti__ *; _ i ,.,u..

an observer. He discovered, besides several comets, ten ma( j e systematic observations, he was also the first who
telescopic planets, namely, Iris, (1847,) Flora, (1847,) discovered that fundamental fact in astronomy, the
Victoria, (1850,) Irene, (1851,) Melpomene, Fortuna, pre cession of the equinoxes. A discovery so important
Calliope, and Thalia, (all in 1852,) Euterpe, (1853,) and wou |d have sufficed to immortalize him ; but he also
Urania, (1854.) He wrote several works, among which ' g rea tly enriched the science of mathematics, and was

The Solar System : a Descriptive Treatise on the
Sun, Moon, and Planets," (1852.) Died Dec. 23, 1895.

Hmd'mau, (THOMAS C.,) an American general, born
in Tennessee about 1818. He lived in Arkansas before
the civil war, and was a member of Congress. He com-
manded the rebel forces at Prairie Grove, Arkansas, in
December, 1862, and served as major-general at the
battle of Chickamauga. Died September 27, 1868.

Hinds, (SAMUEL,) D.D., a British author, born in
Barbadoes in 1793. He graduated at Queen's College,
Oxford, in 1815, and in 1849 was consecrated Bishop of
Norwich. He published a " History of Christianity,^
(1849, often reprinted,) "Sonnets and Sacred Poems,"
and various theological works. Died February 7, 1872.

Hinojosa y Carbajal, e-no-Ho'sa e kaR-Bi-Hll',
(ALVARO DE.) a Spanish poet, who lived about 1620.

See LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe."

Hinrichs, hln'riKs, (HERMANN FRIEDRICH Wn.-
HELM,) a German philosopher, born in Oldenburg in
1794, published "The Genesis of Science," ("Genesis
des Wissens," 1835,) and other works. Died in 1861.

Hina'dale, (BuRKE AARON,) an American educator,
born at Wadsworth, Ohio, March 31, 1837. He was
educated at Hiram College, of which he was president,
1870-83. In 1883 he was appointed superintendent of
public schools in Cleveland, Ohio. His principal books
are "President Garfield and Education," (1881,)
" Schools and Studies," (1884,) etc. He edited General
Garfield's " Works," (1883,) etc.

Hin'ton, (JAMES,) a noted English surgeon, a son of
J. II. Hiiiton, was born at Reading in 1822. Among his
works are " Man and his Dwelling- Place," (1858,) " Life
in Nature," " Thoughts on Health," (1871,) "Atlas of
Diseases of the Membrana Tympani," "Questions of
Aural Surgery," " The Mystery of Man," and " The Place
of the Physician." He was the most skilful aural sur-
geon of his day, and a very suggestive writer on ethical
subjects. Died December 16, 1875.

Hin'ton, (JOHN HOWARD,) an English writer on his-
tory and theology, was born March 24, 1791. He became
minister of a Baptist congregation in Devonshire Square,
London. He published, besides other works, "The
History and Topography of the United States of North
America," (2 vols., 1832.) Died December 17, 1873.
Hiob, the German of JOB, which see.
Hiooen- or Hiouen-Thsang or Vouen-Thsang,
yoo'en-tsang, a celebrated Chinese traveller and priest

the first who understood trigonometry, both plane and
spherical. He invented the planisphere and the stereo-
graphic projection, and gave rules for the calculation of
eclipses, by means of which he determined the longitude.
According to Pliny, who calls him the confidant and
interpreter of nature, Hipparchus, having perceived a
new star that suddenly appeared in his time, was stimu-
lated by it to form his Catalogue of one thousand and
eighty stars, which is preserved in the "Almagest" of
Ptolemy. In this operation he used the astrolabe, which
was probably invented by him. He originated a more
complete system of geography, and the mode of de-
termining the position of towns by circles drawn on
the earth corresponding to those of the celestial sphere.
Among his lost works were "On the Magnitudes and
Distances of the Sun and Moon," " The Movement of
the Moon in Latitude," and " On the Retrogradation of
the Equinoctial and Solstitial Points."

See PLIKV, "Natural History;" MONTUCLA, "Histoire de
Maih^matiques ;" DELAMBRE, " Histoire de |'Astronomie ancienne ;"
DR. HOEFKR'S article in the "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'nerale ;' J
A. SCHMIDT. "Dissertatio de Hipparcho." etc., 1689.

Hipparchus, an Athenian comic poet, who lived
probably about 300 B.C.

Hipparque. See HIPPARCHUS.

Hip'pa-sus, [Gr. '\mtaao(,\ a Pythagorean philoso-
pher, born at Metapontum, held, it is said, the doctrine
that fire was the origin of all things.

Hippeau, e'po', (CiLESTiN,) a French IMrattur,
born at Niort in 1803, published a " History of Ancient
and Modern Philosophy," (1833,) etc. Died in 1883.

Hippel, von, fon hip'pei, (THEODOR GOTTLIEB,) a
German humorist and original thinker, born at Gerdauen,
in Prussia, in 1741. He studied law, and became in 1780

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 4 of 425)