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has pronounced it too artificial and elaborate to be ever
used as a model.

See BOSWELL, " Life of Johnson ;" review of CROKER'S edition
of BOSWELL'S "Life of Johnson," in MACAULAY'S "Essays;"
"Anecdotes of Dr. Johnson," by MADAME Plozzi, ^MRS. THRALE,)
( y86; ANDERSON, "Life of Johnson," 1795; THOMAS CARLYLE,
'Heroes and Hero- Worship;" SCOTT'S Miscellaneous Prose
Works; GARY, "Lives of English Poets from Johnson to Kirke
White ;'' "Quarterly Review" lor November, 1831, June, 1850, April,
1858, and January, 1859; "Westminster Review" for October, 1531 ;
see, also, the excellent and elaborate article in ALLI BONE'S " Dictionary
of Authors."

Johnson, (SAMUEL,) D.D., born in Guilford, Con-
necticut, in 1696, graduated at Yale in 1714. Having
become an Episcopalian, he took holy orders in England
in 1722, and on his return settled at Stratford. He was
chosen president of King's College in 1754. This posi-
tion he resigned in 1763. Died in 1772. He wrote,
besides other works, a " System of Morality."

Johnson, (SAMUEL,) an American author, born at
Salem, Massachusetts, October 10, 1822. He graduated
at Harvard College in 1842, and at the Cambridge Di-
vinity School in 1843. r ' e became a preacher of the
Free Religious movement. He was one of the compilers
of two collections of hymns for advanced Unitarian con-
gregations, and was himself the author of some fine
\ymns. He published "The Worship of Jesus," (1868,)
and a laborious work on "Oriental Religions," (1872
ft sty.) He was an able orator and writer, and a man of
pure and noble, but somewhat eccentric, life. Died
February 19, 1882.

Johnson, (SAMUEL FROST,) an American painter, born
in New York city, November 9, 1835. He studied art
in New York, Dusseldorf, (1860,) and Antwerp, (1863.)
After his return to New York he became a professor in
the art-schools of the Metropolitan Museum.

Johnson, (SAMUKL WILLIAM,) an American chemist,
born at Kingsborough, New York, July 3, 1830, was
educated in the scientific school at New Haven, and in
the German universities. In 1856 he became professor
of agricultural chemistry at Yale College. Among his
oooks are "Essays on Manures," (1859,) "Peat and its
Uses," (1866,) " How Crops Grow," (1868,) " How Crops
Feed," etc.

Johnson, (THOMAS,) a lieutenant-colonel in the roval
army, distinguished as a botanist, was born at Selby,
in Yorkshire. lie received from the University of Ox-
ford the title of M.I), lie was mortally wounded at
"he siege of Basinghouse, in 1644. He wrote several
botanical works.

Johnson, (THOMAS,) an English scholar, born in
Oxfordshire, was educated at Cambridge, where in 1692
he received the degree of M.A. He edited Sophocles,
(1705,) and other classical works. Died about 1750.

Johnson, (VIRC.INIA WALKS,) an American novelist,
born in Brooklyn, New York, December 28, 1849. Her
principal books are "Keltic Club Series," (1870,) " Joseph
the Jew," (1873,) " A Sack of Gold," (1874,) "The Cal-
derwood Secret," "Miss N .nicy's Pilgrimage," "The
Catskill Fairies," "A Foreign Marriage," "The Nep-
tune Vase," "The English Daisy Miller," etc.

Johnson, (WALTER ROGERS,) an American chemist
and geologist, born in Leominster, Massachusetts, about
1794. He graduated at Harvard in 1819; and, while
professor of mechanics, natural philosophy, etc. in the
Philadelphia High School, he contributed largely by
lectures and essays towards introducing an improved
system of common-school education in Pennsylvania.
He afterwards made important investigations in the

teology of that State, particularly the coal formations,
lied lor four years (1839-43) the chair of chemistry in
the Medical University of Pennsylvania, and in 1844
published, by order of Congress, his " Report on the
Different Varieties of Coal." Died in 1852.

Johnson, (WILLIAM,) judge of the supreme court of
the United States, was born in Charleston, South Caro-
lina, in 1771. He was a brother of Joseph, noticed above.
He graduated at Princeton, with the highest honours of
his class, in 1790, rose to distinction at the bar of his
Dative State, and was appointed judge by Jefferson in
1801. He died, while undergoing a surgical operation,
in New York, in 1834. He published "The Life and

Correspondence of Major-General Greene," (2 vols.,

Johnson, (Sir WILLIAM,) a British military officer,
born about 1715, was employed in North America, and
had great influence over the Indians. He commanded
an expedition sent against Crown Point in 1755, and
defeated the French and their Indian allies. He wrote
a short work " On the Customs and Languages of the
American Indians." Died in New York in 1774.

See "Life and Times of Sir W.Johnson," by W. L. STONE, :86j.

Johnson, (WILLIAM B.,) a Baptist minister, born near
Charleston, South Carolina, in 1782. He presided over
the Baptist Convention of South Caiolina for twenty-five
years or more. He was the author of several religious
works. Died in 1862.

Johnson, (WILLIAM SAMUEL,) F.R.S., an eloquent
American lawyer and scholar, born at Stratford, Con-
necticut, in 1727, graduated at Yale in 1744. Having
been sent as a colonial agent to England in 1766, he
became an acquaintance of the celebrated Dr. Johnson,
with whom he corresponded for many years. He was
elected to Congress in 1785, was a member of the con-
vention which formed the Federal Constitution in 1787,
and was elected a United States Senator for Connecticut
in 1789. He was president of Columbia College, New
York, from 1791 until 1800. Died in 1819.

Johns'ton, (ALBERT SYDNEY,) an eminent American
general, born in Mason county, Kentucky, in 1803,
graduated at West Point in 1826. Having resigned his
commission in 1834, he enlisted as a private soldier in
the army of Texas in 1836. He soon became commander-
in-chief, in place of F. Houston, with whom he fought
a duel about 1837. He was secretary of war of the
republic of Texas, 1838-40, and served as colonel of
the army of the United States in the Mexican war,
(1846-47.) In 1849 he was appointed paymaster of the
army of the United States. Having been raised to the
rank of colonel, he commanded the expedition sent to
Utah against the Mormons in 1857. In 1860 he took
command of the department of the Pacific. He offered
his services to the secessionists in 1861, and was ap-
pointed commander of the department of Kentucky
and Tennessee. He occupied a fortified position at
Bowling Green in the autumn of 1861. The capture
of Fort Donelson, February 16, 1862, having rendered
this position untenable, he moved hastily southward
into Tennessee, and formed a junction with the army
of General Beauregard at Corinth. About six weeks
were spent in this disastrous retreat. He collected a
force of about 50,000 men at Corinth, and attacked the
army of General Grant at Shiloh on the 6th of April,
1862. He was killed about two P.M. on the first day
of this battle, by a ball, which cut an artery of his leg.
"A. S. Johnston," says Mr. Greeley, "was probably
the ablest commander at any time engaged in the rebel
service." ("American Conflict.")

See Life of A. S. Johnston in "Southern Generals," (anony-
mous.) 1865; TENNEY, "Military and Naval History of the Rebel-
lion," 1865.

Johns'ton, (ALEXANDER,) a Scottish painter, born in
Edinburgh in 1816. His works mostly represent scenes
of Scottish life, or Scottish history. Died in 1891.

Johnston, (ALEXANDER,) an American publicist, born
at Brooklyn, New York, April 29, 1849. He graduated
at Rutgers College in 1870, was admitted to the bar in
1876, and in 1883 was appointed professor of juris-
prudence and political economy in Princeton College.
Among his works are a " History of American Politics,"
(1879,) "The Genesis of a New England State: Con-
necticut," (1883,) and a small "History of the United
Stales," (1884.) Died J'v 10.


Johnston, (ALEXANDER KEITH,) an eminent geog-
rapher, was born at Kirkhill, in Scotland, in 1804. In
order to be thoroughly informed upon geography, he
made himself acquainted with the French, Spanish,
Italian, and German languages. His first important
work, the "National Atlas," was issued in 1843. In
1848 he published a valuable "Physical Atlas," which
greatly extended the celebrity of its author. lie was
elected a member of the Geographical Societies of Ber-
lin and Paris, of the Geological Society of London, and

, e. I, o, u, y, la'if: a. e, o. same, iess prolonged; a, e, I, 6, u,y,sA0rt;z,e, \,<),06scurs;{%.r, fill, fit; met; not; good; moor;




the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Of the other worfe
of Mr. Johnston may be mentioned "A Dictionary of
Geography," (1850,) and an "Atlas of the Historical
Geography of Europe." He died July 9, 1871.
See " Blackwood's Magazine" for April, 1849.

Johnston, (Dr. ARTHUR,) a Scottish physician and
poet, eminent for his classical learning, was born in Aber-
deenshire in 1587. He pursued his studies mostly on
the continent, and in 1610 received the degree of M.D.
at Padua. He afterwards resided at Pari= several years,
and on his return to England, in 1632, was appointed
physician-in-ordinary to Charles I. Died in 1641. He
contributed to Sir John Scott's collection of Latin
poems, and composed, in Latin, "Poetical Paraphrases
of the Psalms of David," (1637.) "I am inclined to
think," says Hallam, "that Johnston's Psalms do not
fall far short of those of Buchanan, either in elegance
of style or in correctness of Latinity."

Johnston, (GEORGE,) a distinguished naturalist, was
born at Simprin in 1789, and graduated as a physician at
the University of Edinburgh in 1819. Among his inter-
esting and valuable contributions to science may be men-
tioned " History of British Zoophytes," (1838,) " History
of British Sponges and Lithophytes," (1842,) papers on
" British and Irish Annelides," a work on Conchology,
(1850,) and "Botany of the Eastern Borders," (1854.)
He practised medicine at Berwick-on-Tweed for many
years. Died in 1855.

Johnston, (Sir HENRY HAMILTON,) an English
traveller, born near London in 1858. His travels be-
gan in 1879, and embraced North Africa, Portuguese
West Africa, the Congo region, Mount Kilimanjaro,
Lakes Nyassa and Tanganyika. He held several
consulships in Africa, and in 1891 was made consul-
general for British Central Africa. He wrote several
books descriptive of his travels.

Johnston, (JAMES F. W.,) a noted agricultural chem-
ist, was born at Paisley, in Scotland, about 1796. He
studied in Sweden, under Berzelius. In 1833 he was
appointed professor of chemistry in the University of
Durham. He also visited America, where he became
distinguished as an agricultural chemist. Among his
works are the " Elements of Agricultural Chemistry and
Geology," (1842,) " Catechism of Agricultural Chemistry
and Geology," (1844,) a work which has been translated
into nearly every European language, "Contributions
to Scientific Agriculture," (1849,) "Notes on North
America," (1851,) and " Chemistry of Common Life,"
(2 vols., 1854-55.) Died in 1855.

Johnston, (JoHN,) an eminent physician and natural
philosopher, born in Poland in 1603. He graduated at
the Universities of Leyden and Cambridge. He wrote,
besides other works, in Latin, the " Wonders of Nature,
divided into Ten Classes," which was a natural history
of beasts, birds, fishes, and insects. Died in 1675.

Johnston, (JOHN,) LL.D., an American scientist,
born at Bristol, Maine, August 23, 1806. He graduated
at Bowdoin College in 1832, and was professor of natural
science in Wesleyan University, 1837-79. He wrote a

tific papers. Died at Clifton, New York, December 2

Johnston, (JOSEPH EGGLESTON,) an able American
general, born in Prince Edward county, Va., February 3,
1807. His mother, whose maiden name was Wood, was
a niece of Patrick Henry. He graduated at West Point
in 1829, gained the rank of captain in 1846, and served
with distinction in the Mexican war, 1846-47. In June,
1860, he was appointed quartermaster-general, with the
rank of brigadier-general. He resigned his commission
in April, 1861, and was immediately appointed a major-
general, or gexieral, by Jefferson Davis. He took com-
mand of a force at Harper's Ferry in May, 1861, and was
opposed in that vicinity by General Patterson. Having
eluded Patterson, he moved his army rapidly to Ma-
nassas, and effected a junction with the army of Beau-
regard on the 2oth or 2ist of July. General Johnston
was superior in rank to Beauregard, but he waived his

claim to precedence in the battle of Bull Run, July 21.
He remained inactive at Manassas Junction during the
autumn of 1861 and the ensuing winter. About the 8th
of March, 1862, he changed his base and retired behind
the Rapidan. He soon moved his army to the peninsula
to oppose McClellan, and, having been repulsed at Wil-
liamsburg, May 5, retreated towards Richmond. On
the 3 1st of May he attacked a part of the Union army at
Fair Oaks, or Seven Pines. In this battle he received
a severe wound, which disabled him for several months.
In November, 1862, he was assigned to the command of
a department comprising Tennessee, Alabama, and Mis-
sissippi. He reported in April, 1863, that he was still
unfit for active service in the field. After General Grant
approached Vicksburg from the south, General Johnston
moved a small army to relieve that place, and reached
Jackson on the I3th of May. He was defeated on the
I4th, abandoned Jackson, and retreated to Canton. On
the 2gth of May he wrote to General Pemberton, "I am
too weak to save Vicksburg. Can do no more than
attempt to save you and your garrison." In December
1863, he took command in person of the army which had
recently been defeated by General Grant near Chatta-
nooga, and which was required to oppose the advance
of General Sherman towards Atlanta. He began this
campaign with about 55,000 men, occupying a strong
ind fortified position at Dalton, Georgia. This position
naving been turned by the Union army, Johnston fell
back to Resaca, where he was attacked on the I5th of
May. After a severe battle, he retreated in the ensuing
night, closely pursued, and reached Cassville, near the
Etowah River, on the igth. Having crossed the Etowah
under cover of the night, General Johnston made another
stand in the strong position of Allatoona Pass, to dis-
lodge him from which General Sherman ordered a flank
movement to Dallas. General Johnston attacked the
Federals at Dallas on the 28th of May, was repulsed,
and on the 4th of June retreated to Kenesaw Mountain.
On the 27th of June, General Sherman made an unsuc-
cessful assault on the works at Kenesaw, but he resorted
again to a flank movement, which compelled General
Johnston to abandon Kenesaw on the 2d or 3d of July,
and to retreat across the Chattahoochee. He was re-
moved from the command on the i8th of July, 1864.
Before this date he had attained the rank of general,
the highest in the service. He obtained command of
an army in South Carolina about February, 1865, and
on the i8th of March attacked the advance of General
Sherman's army at Bentonville, North Carolina. He
retreated to Smithfield on the 2ist of March, and
surrendered his army to General Sherman on the 26th
of April, 1865, on the same terms as were granted to
General Lee. He was elected to Congress in 1877,
and was made a commissioner of railroads. Died
March 21, 1891.

Johnston, (KEITH,) a Scottish geographer, a son of
A. K. Johnston, was born in Edinburgh, November 24,
1844. He travelled in Paraguay, published various maps
and geographical papers, edited and rewrote a work on
"Africa," (1878,) and one on general geography. In
1879 he started on an expedition from the east coast of
Africa into the interior, but died at Berobero, June 28,

Johnston, (RICHARD MALCOLM,) an American
author, born at Powelton, Georgia, in 1822. He was
professor of literature in the University of Georgia
1857-61, served in the Confederate army in the civil
war, and afterwards engaged in literary work. He
had much merit as a humourist and as a delineator of
Southern life. Among his works are "Georgia
Sketches," (1864,) "Two Gray Tourists," (1885,)
" Studies: Literary and Social," (1891,) "Old Times
in Middle Georgia," (1897,) " Pearse Amerson's
Will," (1898.) Died September 23, 1898.

Johnston, CROEERT,) a Scottish historical writer,
was the author of a " History of his Own Times,"
(1642, in Latin.) Died about 1636.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scots-

/ 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K., guttural; N, nasal; ^trilled; s as z; th as in this. (J^=See Explanations, p. 23.)




Johnstone, (BRYCE,) an eminent Scottish divine, born
in Dumfriesshire in 1747. He studied at the University
of Edinburgh, which in 1786 unanimously conferred upon
him the degree of D.D. Among his works may be men-
tioned " Commentary on the Revelation of Saint John
the Divine," (1794,) "Essay on the Influence of Religion
on Civil Society and Civil Government," and a treatise
on agriculture. Died in 1805.

Johnstone, Johnson, or Johnston, (CHARLES,) an
author, born in Ireland about 1720, was educated for the
bar. The most important of his productions was a po-
litical romance, entitled "Chrysal, or the Adventures of
a Guinea," (1760,) which met with a great sale. Besides
this, he wrote "The Reverie, or a Flight to the Paradise
of Fools," (1 762,) "Arsaces, Prince of Betlis," and other
works. Died in Calcutta in 1800.

See SIR WALTER SCOTT'S Miscellaneous Prose Works.

Johnstone, (CHRISTIAN ISOBEL,) a Scottish author-
ess, born in Fifeshire in 1781. Her second husband was
a Mr. Johnstone, whom she married in 1812. Her prin-
cipal works are the novels "Clan Albyn" (1815) and
" Elizabeth de Bruce," (1827.) She also wrote " Diver-
sions of Holycott," "Nights of the Round Table,"
many tales. Died in 1857.

Johiistone, (GEORGE,) a diplomatist and post-capta
in the royal navy, the son of a Scottish baronet. In 17*
he was made Governor of West Florida. During the
American Revolution he was appointed (in 1778) one of
the commissioners sent with Lord Carlisle to the United
States to treat with Congress. Died in 1 787.

Johnstone, (JAMES,) a distinguished Scottish physi-
cian, born at Annan in 1730, was educated at Edinburgh
and Paris. He was very successful in malignant fevers.

several hundred armed men from among his tenants and
accompanied Louis IX. in his first crusade to the Holy
Land. He soon became a great favourite with this
monarch. Joinville distinguished himself for bravery at
the capture of Damietta in Egypt, and was subsequently
with Louis, made prisoner at Mansoorah. He returned
to France with the king in 1254. He wrote a very in-
teresting work entitled "History of Saint Louis IX.,
King of France, by Jehan Sire de Joinville." "In this
history," says Ambrose Firmin Didot, "which is one of
the most precious monuments of ancient or modern
times, the Christian, the man of the world, the friend of
the king, and the naif historian, display themselves with
such naturalness, simplicity, and candour that the readei
can penetrate the inner heart of the author by the simple
recital which he has given us. ... His natural and
easy style has all the charm of conversation." ("Nou-
velle Biographic Gene'rale.") He is supposed to have
died about 1317.

See F. FRRIEL, " Notice sur Jean de Joinville," 1853 : CHEZJBAN,
Notice historique sur Sire de Joinville," 1853 : SAINT
Causeries du Lundi."


Notice historique sur Sire de Joinville," 1853:
" Causeries du Lundi."
Jokai, (MAURICE, or MAURUS,) (in Hungarian, J6KAI

MOR, yo'koi moR,) a very eminent Hungarian novelist
and dramatist, born at Comorn, February 19, 1825. He
for many years was prominent in political journalism, and
' is often been elected to public office. In the best of
s numerous works the style is brilliant, and many have
translated into other languages. Among his best
are"The Hungarian Nabob,""The White Rose."
and ' % The New Landlord." A jubilee edition in one
hundred volumes was published in 1894.
Joliet, zhole-A', (Louis,) a French traveller, was one
the first white men that explored the Mississippi

. w men

on which he wrote a treatise. He. s also said to have been the > d Quebec before

the first to recommend the use of mineral acids in those *

.!. ..i,,^...-...- ALEXANDRINE,)

See CHAMBERS," Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Si poetess, born at Bar-sur-Aube in 1756; died in 1830.

Johnstone, (ToHN.) son of the preceding, was born g),e wro t c "New Fables in Verse," etc.
m 1768, and educated at Oxford. He was equally j ou 'vet, de, deh zho'le'vj', (JEAN BAPTISTE MOYSE,)
celebrated as a skilful physician and an accomplished c OUNTl a French advocate, born in 1754, was elected
scholar. He wrote the "Life of Dr. Parr," (1828,) with m ,yg, to the Legislative Assembly, in which he boldly

denounced the Jacobins. On the accession of Napoleon
tie was created councillor of state. Died in 1818. He
wrote various works on political economy.

Jollivet, zho'le'vi', (ADOLPHE,) a French politician,
oom in 1799, wrote many works against the abolition of
slavery. He was killed in Paris during the revolution
of February, 1848.

Jollivet, (PIERRE JULES,) a French painter of history,
born in Paris in 1803, gained a medal of the first class
in 1835. Died September 7, 1871.

Jollois, zhoHwa', (JEAN BAPTISTE PROSPER,) a French
antiquary and engineer, born in Burgundy in 1776. He
was chief engineer of the department of Seine, (Paris.)
He published many works on French antiquities. Died

whom he was very intimate ; also several medical works.
He practised in Birmingham about forty years. Died
in 1836.

See a notice of J. Johnstone in the "Gentleman's Magazine" for
May, 1837.

Johnatone, (JOHN HENRY,) a celebrated comic actor
and vocalist, born in Ireland in 1750; died in 1828.

Johnstone, jons'tpn, de, CHEVALIER, a native of
Edinburgh, entered in 1745 the army of the Pretender, to
whom he soon became aide-de-camp. He served at the
battle of Prestonpans and in subsequent engagements.
After the battle of Culloden he escaped to Paris, and re-
ceived an appointment in the French army. He wrote,
in French, " Memoirs of the Rebellion in 1745 and 1746,"
which was translated and published in London in 1820.
Died in France at an advanced age.

Joinville, zhwin'vel', (EnMOND,) a French landscape-
painter, born in Paris in 1801 ; died in 1849.

Joinville, de, deh join'vi! or zlnvaN'vel', (FRANC.OIS
PRINCE, the third son of King Louis Philippe, was born
in 1818. He served in the navy, and obtained the rank
of captain for his conduct at the attack on Vera Cruz in
1838. In 1840 he was sent to Saint Helena to bring the
remains of Napoleon to France. He commanded the
naval division which bombarded Tangier in 1844, and gave
an impulse to the construction of steam ships of war by
his "Note sur les Forces navales de la France," (1844.)
He served for a time on McClellan's staff during the
civil war. In 1886 he was expelled from France, as a
member of the former royal house. Died in 1900.

Joinville, de, (JEAN or JEHAN,) SIRE, a French noble-
man and chronicler of high reputation, born in Cham-
pagne in 1224. He grew up at the court of Thibaut, King
of Navarre and Count of Champagne, and in 1248 raised

in 1842.


1 Notice sur la Vie et les Ouvragea de J.

P. Jollois," 1846; "Nouvelle Biographic Generate."

Joly, zho'le', (BfeMGNE,) a French religious writer,
born at Dijon in 1644, wrote a number of devotional
works. Died in 1694.

Joly, (CLAUDE,) a French writer and ecclesiastic, born
in Paris in 1607, wrote "A Collection of True Maxims
for the Education of a King, against the Pernicious
Policy of Cardinal Mazarin," (1652.) a copy of which
was burnt by the common executioner. lie became a
canon of the Church of Paris in 1631. Died in 1700.

See MORBRI, " Dictionnaire Historique."

Joly, (CLAUDE,) a French preacher, born in Lorraine
in 1610, became Bishop of Agen, and left several volumes
of sermons, (1692-94.) Died in 1678.

Joly or Jolly, zho'le', (FRANCOIS ANTOINE,) a French
comic poet, born in Paris in 1662. He wrote several
comedies, and published accurate editions of Moliere
(6 vols., 1734) and Corneille, (5 vols.) Died in 1753.

Joly, (GUI,) a French writer, a nephew of Claude Joly,

a, e, i, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; n6t; good; moon;



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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 40 of 425)