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which are esteemed much inferior to his earlier works.
In 1840 he set out on a tour to Egypt and Palestine ;
but his health, which had been long declining, grew
worse, and he died on the voyage home, off Gibraltar, in
June, 1841.

a, e, I, 6, u, y, lung; A, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, li, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon;




1866; "Quarterly Review" for September, 1843; " Eraser's Maga-
zine" for October, 1841, and September, 1842.

Wilkie, (WILLIAM,) D.D., a Scottish poet and
divine, born in Linlithgowshire in 1721, became pro-
fessor of natural philosophy at Saint Andrew's. He
was the author of a poem entitled " The Epigoniad,"
(on the sacking of Thebes by the Epigoni,) which en-
joyed for a time great popularity among some of the
Scottish literati, who, somewhat absurdly, styled Wilkie
" the Scottish Homer." It has since fallen into utter
neglect. Died in 1772.

Wil'kins, (Sir CHARLES,) a distinguished English
Orientalist, born at Frome, in Somersetshire, in 1749.
He went to India in 1770 as a writer on the Bengal
establishment, and learned Arabic, Persian, and other
languages used in the East Indies. He applied himself
to the study of Sanscrit with great success. In 1784,
in conjunction with Sir William Jones, he founded the
Literary Society of Calcutta. He appears to have been
the first European who made translations from the
original Sanscrit. He published in 1785 an English
translation of the "Bhagavat Gita," perhaps the most
interesting part of the great Hindoo epic entitled
" Mah&bharata," and two years afterwards gave to the
world a translation of the " Hitopadesa." He returned
to England about 1786, became librarian to the East
India Company in 1801, and published a "Sanscrit
Grammar," (1808.) Died in 1836.

Wilkins, (DAVID,) an English divine, born in 1685,
became Archdeacon of Suffolk. He published " Leges
Saxonicae," and other works. Died in 1745.

Wilkins, (JoHN,) a learned English bishop, born in
Northamptonshire in 1614. He studied at Magdalene
Hall, Oxford, and, having taken orders, was chosen in
1648 warden of Wadham College. He married about
1656 Robina, a sister of Oliver Cromwell, and was ap-
pointed in 1659 master of Trinity College, Cambridge.
He lost this office at the restoration, but he was made
rector of Saint Lawrence, Jewry, by Charles II. in 1662.
He became Bishop of Chester in 1668. He was one
of the founders of the Royal Society and the author
of several works. Died in 1672.

Wilkins, (MARY ELEANOR,) an American author,
born at Randolph, Massachusetts, in 1862. Her
stories of New England life have attracted much atten-
tion. They include "A Humble Romance," (1887,)
"Pembroke," (1894,) "Jerome," (1897,) and other

Wilkins, (WILLIAM,) a distinguished English archi-
tect, born at Norwich in 1778. He visited Italy and
Greece in 1801, and published, after his return, his
"Antiquities of Magna Grjecia." Among his best works
are the fa9ade of London University, now called Uni- '
versity College, Saint George's Hospital, Hyde Park
Corner, and the alterations of Corpus Christi, Trinity,
and King's Colleges, Cambridge. He also published
" Atheniensia, or Remarks on the Buildings and An-
tiquities of Athens." Died in 1839.

Wil'kins, (WILLIAM,) an American Senator, born
in Pennsylvania in 1779. He was elected a Senator of
the United States in 1831, was sent as minister to
Russia in 1834, and was secretary of war from February,
1844, to March, 1845. He resided in or near Pittsburg,
where he died, June, 1865.

Wil'kiuson, (HENRY SPENCER,) an English
author, born at Manchester in 1853. He became a
journalist, and was made dramatic critic of the " Morn-
ing Post" in 1895. He wrote " The Brain of an
Army," (1890,) " The Command of the Sea," (1894,)
"The Nation's Awakening," (1896,) etc.

Wil'kin-son, (JAMES,) an American general of the
Revolution, was born in Maryland in 1757. He enlisted
in the army as captain in 1775, anc ' served under Gates
in 1777. In 1792 he obtained the rank of brigadier-
general, and in 1796 he became general-in-chief. He
ifterwards commanded at New Orleans, and opposed
the designs of Aaron Burr. In the summer of 1813 he

commanded on the Northern frontier with ill success.
He was removed from the command about February,
1814. Died in Mexico in 1825. He published "Me-
moirs of My Own Time," (3 vols., 1816.)

Wil'kin-son, (JAMES JOHN GARTH,) an English
writer on law, medicine, etc., was born in London about
1812. He edited several works of Swedenborg, and
wrote, besides treatises on law, "Emanuel Swedenborg:
a Biography," (1849,) which was long regarded as the
best memoir of Swedenborg that had appeared, " The
Ministry of Health," (1856,) " Improvisations from
the Spirit," (1857,) " Human Science," (1876,)
"The African," (1891,) "Epidemic Man and his
Visitations," (1892,) etc.

Wilkinson, (JEMIMA,) an American fanatic and re-
ligious impostor, born at Cumberland, Rhode Island, in
1753, removed to Western New York early in the present
century. She professed to be endowed with the power
of Christ, and attempted to work miracles. She died in
1819, and her sect was soon dispersed.

Wilkinson, (Sir JOHN GARDNER,) a learned Eng-
lish archaeologist, born in 1798. He studied at Exeter
College, Oxford, and subsequently spent twelve years in
Egypt in acquiring a knowledge of the language, cus-
toms, and antiquities of that country. He published,
besides other works, "Materia Hieroglyphica," (1828,)
the "Topography of Thebes," etc., (1835,) "The Man-
ners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, including
their Private Life, Government, Laws," etc., (5 vols. 8vo,
1840,) which is esteemed a standard work, "Modern
Egypt and Thebes," (1843,) intended as a hand-book
for travellers, "The Architecture of Ancient Egypt,"
etc., (1850,) and "The Egyptians in the Time of the
Pharaohs," (1857,) which rank among the most valu-
able and interesting compositions of the kind. He was
made a knight in 1840, and soon after elected a Fellow
of the Royal Society, and member of other learned
institutions. Died October 29, 1875.

Wilkinson, (THE RIGHT REV. THOMAS,) D.D., a
Roman Catholic bishop, was born at Harperley, April
5, 1825, and received his education at Harrow and at the
University of Durham. He at first intended to take
orders in the Church of England, but becoming unset-
tled in his religious belief, he was received into the
Roman Catholic communion in 1846, and after a course
of theological studies at Oscott, was ordained priest at
Ushaw College in 1848. In 1865 he was elected Canon
of the Chapter of Hexham, and in 1888 Vicar-General
and Provost of the Chapter. In 1890 he succeeded Dr.
O'Callaghan as Bishop of Hexham and Newcastle.

Wilkinson, (WILLIAM CLEAVER,) D.D., an Ameri-
can clergyman, born at Westford, Vermont, October 19,
1833, graduated in 1857 at the University of Rochester,
and in 1859 at the Rochester Theological School. In
1859 he was ordained a Baptist minister, and in 1872
was appointed professor of homiletics in the theological
department of Rochester University. Among his books
are "The Dance of Modern Society," (1869,) "A Free
Lance in the Field of Life and Letters," (1874,) "Web-
ster: an Ode," (1882,) and text-books in Greek and Latin
for schools.

Willamov, wil'll-mof, (JoHANN GOTTLIEB,) a Prus-
sian poet, born at Morungen in 1736, was the author
of a collection of poems entitled "Dithyrambics," and
"Fables in Dialogues." Died in 1777.

Willan, (ROBERT,) a distinguished English physician,
born in Yorkshire in 1757. He studied at Edinburgh,
where he took his medical degree in 1780, and in 1783
became physician to the Public Dispensary in Carey
Street, London. He published in 1801 his " Description
and Treatment of Cutaneous Diseases," (unfinished,)
esteemed the most valuable work that had appeared ow
the subject at that time. Dr. Willan was a Fellow of
the Royal and Antiquarian Societies. Died in 1812.

See "Memoir of Dr. Willan," by DR. BATHMAN, in the "Edin-
burgh Medical and Surgical Journal," No. xxxii.

Wil'lard, (EMMA HART,) an American teacher and
educational writer, born at Berlin, Connecticut, in 1787,
became in 1821 principal of a female seminary at Troy,
New York. She published a " History of the United

as>6; 9 as/; gAarJ; gas/;c, H, K, guttural; ft, nasal; R, trilled: sasz; thasinMw. (JJ^^See Explanations, p. 23.)




States," (1828,) "Universal History in Perspective,"
(1837.) " Chronographer of English History," (1845,)
" Astronography, or Astronomical Geography," and
other works. Died in 1870.

Willard, (FRANCES ELIZABETH,) an American
reformer, was born at Churchville, New York, in 1839.
After some years spent in teaching, she became
secretary of the Women's Christian Temperance
Union in 1874, and its president in 1879, and was
made the first president of the World's Women's
Christian Temperance Union in 1891. She originated
a petition against the importation and manufacture of
alcohol and opium, which was signed by seven million
persons. She was an editor of the Chicago " Post"
and the " Union Signal," and wrote " Glimpses of
Fifty Years," etc. Died in 1898.

Willard, (JOSEPH,) D.D., LL.D., an American di-
vine, born at Biddeford, Maine, in 1738, was chosen
president of Harvard College in 1781. Died in 1804.
His son SIDNEY, born in 1780, was for more than twenty
years professor of Oriental languages at Harvard. Died
in 1856.

Willaumez, ve'yo'ma', (JEAN BAPTISTE PHILIBERT,)
COUNT, a French naval officer, born at Belle-Ile-en-
Mer in 1763. He served with distinction against the
English, became rear-admiral in 1804, and vice-admiral
in 1819. He published a "Dictionary of the Marine,"
(1820.) Died in 1845.

Will'de-now, [Ger. pron. wll'deh-no',] (KARL Lup-
\VIG,) a celebrated German naturalist, born at Berlin in
1765. He studied medicine at Halle, and settled as a
physician in his native city, where he became in 1798
professor of natural history and superintendent of the
Botanic Garden. His most important publication is his
new edition of the " Species Plantarum" of Linnseus,
with descriptions of all the species discovered since the
original work appeared, and arranged according to the
Linnsean system. This work, owing to his failing health,
he left unfinished ; but it was completed by Link and
Pchwagricher after his death, which occurred in 1812.
He also published "Elements of Botany," ("Grundriss
der Krauter-Kunde," 1792,) " Prodromus Flora Beroli-
nensis," "Catalogue of Butterflies in the Mark of Bran-
denburg," and other treatises.

See SCHLECHTENDAHL, " Leben Willdenow's ;" " Edinburgh Re-
view" for October and July, 1807.

'Wille, wil'leh, (JoHANN GEORG.) a distinguished Ger-
man engraver, born near Giessen in 1715. He studied
in Paris, where he acquired the highest reputation for
his prints after the Dutch and Flemish painters. He
was made a chevalier of the legion of honour by Napo
leon, and was elected to the Academy of Fine Arts in
Paris, where he died in August, 1806. Among his mas-
ter-pieces may be named Schalken's " Family Concert,"
" The Satin Gown," after Terburg, and portraits of the
Marquis de Marigny and Marshal Saxe. He numbered
among his pupils Bervic and J. G. von Muller. His son
PETER ALEXANDER rose to be a general in the Parisian
national guard.

See "Me'moires et Journal de J. G. Wille," Paris, 2 vols., 1857.
Wil'le-brod or Wille-brord, sometimes written
Willibrod and Wilbrord, [LaL. WILLEBROR'DUS,!
SAINT, the apostle of the Frisians, was born in the Saxon
kingdom of Northumbria about 657. Having spenl
many years in Ireland in preaching the gospel, he visited
Friesland, where he was successful in making many con-
verts to Christianity. He was made a bishop by Pope
Sergius I., under the name of Clemens, and founded a
number of churches in that country, and a monastery at
Echternach, near Treves, where he was buried, having
died in 738 A.D.

Willebrord. See BOSSCHAERI.
Wil'le-had, an Anglo-Saxon missionary, who con-
verted many Frieslanders and Saxons, was appointed
Bishop of Bremen in 787 A.D. Died in 789.

Willemet, vel'mi', (PIERRE RMI,) a French natu-
ralist, born at Norroy-sur-Moselle in 1735. He resided
at Nancy, and published, besides other works, a " Flora
of Lorraine," (3 vols., 1805.) Died in 1807.

WUlemin, vel'miN', (NICOLAS XAVIER,) a French
antiquary and engraver, born at Nancy in 1763. He
rendererl a useful service to the arts by a large illus-
trated work called " Unpublished French Monuments
illustrating the History of Arts, Costumes," etc.,
[" Monuments Francais inedits pour servir a 1'Histoire
des Arts, des Costumes," etc., 1806-39.) Died in Paris
n 1833.

Willems, wil'lems or ve'lSms', (FLORENT,) a Belgian
painter, born at Liege about 1812. He settled in Paris
about 1839, and gained a medal of the first class in 1855.
He excels as a painter of costume, especially of silk
jowns. Among his works are a "Musical Party," and
'The Coquette."

Willems, (JAN FRANS,) a distinguished Belgian
writer and philologist, born near Antwerp in 1793. In
1811 he won the prize offered for the best poem on the
battle of Friedland and the peace of Tilsit, and in 1818
published a poetic address to the Belgians, entitled
" Aen de Belgen," calling on his countrymen to main-
tain the Flemish language and nationality. Among his
other works we may name a " Dissertation on the Dutch
Language and Literature in Connection with the South-
ern Provinces of the Netherlands," (2 vols., 1819-24,)
and a Flemish version of the poem entitled " Reynard
the Fox." He was also editor of the " Belgisch Mu-
seum," the organ of the Society for the Promotion of
Flemish Literature. Died in 1846.

See P. DK DECKER, "Notice sur J. F. Willems," 1847; SNSL-
LABRT, " Korte Levensschets van J. F. Willems." 1847.

Willeram, wil'leh. rim, or Walram, wal'ram, a
German monk, born in Franconia, became Abbot of
Ebersberg. He wrote a paraphrase of Solomon's Song,
in Latin verse. Died in 1085.

Wil'let, (ANDREW,) a learned English divine, born
at Ely in 1562. He obtained a prebend at Ely about
1598. He wrote, besides other works, "Synopsis of
Popery," (" Synopsis Papismi,") which was reputed the
most able refutation of popery which had then appeared.
Died in 1621.

Wil'ley, (HENRY,) an American botanist, born at
Geneseo, New York, July 19, 1824. He was educated
at Geneseo Academy, and at the Normal School in
Bridgewater, Massachusetts, and in 1856 became editor
of a daily newspaper in New Bedford, Massachusetts.
He has published a " List of North American Lichens,"
(1872,) and a large number of papers on lichenography.
William (wll'yam) L, surnamed THE CONQUEROR,
CONQUERANT, ge'yom' leh koN'ki'roN',] King of Eng-
land, born at Falaise in 1025, was an illegitimate son of
Robert, Duke of Normandy. He succeeded his father
in 1035, as William II. of Normandy, and during his
minority gave proof of his energy and courage by re-
ducing to submission the rebellious Norman barons. He
gained the favour of his kinsman Edward the Confessor,
King of England, who, having no issue, formed a secret
intention to adopt William as his heir. His chief com-
petitor was Harold, a Saxon prince, whom a majority
of the people of England preferred to the Duke of
Normandy. On the death of Edward (January, 1066)
Harold ascended the throne, without opposition. (See

"William," says Hume, "by his power, his courage,
and his abilities, had long maintained a pre-eminence
among the haughty chieftains" of Western Europe.
Having resolved to invade England, he soon assembled
a fleet of 3000 vessels and an army of 60,000 men.
Several powerful barons of adjoining countries, with
their retainers, were attracted to his standard by the
grandeur and audacity of the enterprise. The Norman
army landed at Pevensey, in Sussex, about the 28th of
September, and defeated the English, commanded by
Harold, at Senlac, near Hastings, on the I4th of October,
1066. Harold was killed in this battle, which was one
of the most decisive and important that occurred in the
Middle Ages. According to Hume, William lost nearly
15,000 men. He followed up his victory with celerity
and vigour, encountered little opposition in his march
to London, and was crowned in Westminster Abbey on
the 2<;th of December. Edgar Atheling, who had been

a, e, 1,6, u, y,/ong; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, u, ^^short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; n6t; good; mc5on




proclaimed king at the death of Harold, renounced
his claim and submitted to William.

The Conqueror appeared at first willing to conciliate
his new subjects by mildness; but he confiscated the
estates of those partisans of Harold who had been killed
at Hastings, and took care to place all real power in the
hands of the Normans. While he was absent on a
visit to Normandy, in 1067, conspiracies were formed
against him, and hostilities began in many places. Hume
expresses a suspicion that he left England in order that
the revolts provoked by his licentious soldiery might
furnish him with a pretext for severe and tyrannical
measures. According to the same writer, " this measure
was the immediate cause of all the calamities which
England endured during this and the subsequent reigns."
William returned about the end of 1067, and maintained
his power by acts of excessive cruelty. He ordered his
army to lay waste by fire the extensive tract between the
Humber and the Tees. The majority of the proprietors
of land were deprived of their estates by confiscation,
and all the natives were reduced to a state not much
better than slavery. During a visit of William to the
continent, in 1074, several Norman barons revolted
against him, and were defeated.

He had become the most powerful sovereign of Europe,
when Pope Gregory VII. wrote him a letter, requiring
him to do homage for the kingdom of England to the
see of Rome, and to send the tribute which his prede-
cessors had been accustomed to pay to the pope. By
the tribute he meant Peter's pence. William replied
that the money should be remitted as usual, but he
refused to pay homage. About 1078 his son Robert
levied war against William in Normandy. During this
wai Robert happened to encounter the king, whom he
wounded and unhorsed. Struck with remorse on dis-
covering that he had wounded his father, Robert asked
his pardon, and made peace with him. In the latter
part of his reign he ordered a general survey of all the
lands in the kingdom, their extent in each district, their
proprietors, tenure, and value. "This monument, called
'Domesday Book,'" says Hume, "is the most valuable
piece of antiquity possessed by any nation." He had
married Matilda, a daughter of Baldwin, Earl of Flan-
ders. On the approach of death, he discovered the
vanity of all human grandeur, and was filled with re-
morse for his cruelties. He died at Rouen in 1087,
caving three sons, Robert, William, and Henry.

See HUMS, " History of England," vol. i. chaps, iii. and iv. ,
AUG. THIERRY, " Histoire de la Conquete de 1'Angleterre ;" JOHN
HAYWARD. " Lives of the Three Norman Kings of England, William
I.," etc., 1613 : FREEMAN, " History of the Norman Conquest,"
vol. iii. chaps, xii.-xvi. ; SAMUEL CLARKE, " Life and Death of
William the Conqueror," 1660; THOMAS ROSCOE, "Life of William
the Conqueror," 1848 ; ANDREW HENDERSON, " Life of William the
Conqueror," 1764; P. M. SAUNIER, "Vie de Guillaume, Due de
Normandie," 1804.

'William IL, King of England, surnamed RU'FUS,
[Fr. GUILLAUME LE Roux, ge'yom' leh roo,] from the
colour of his hair, was born in Normandy in 1056. He
was the second of the surviving sons of William the
Conqueror. His education was directed by the famous
Lanfranc. According to some historians, William I.,
just before his death, wrote a letter to Lanfranc, desiring
him to crown his son William as King of England, and
at the same time he left Normandy and Maine to Robert.
William was crowned in September, 1087. The Anglo-
Norman barons, who owned estates both in England
and Normandy and would be required to pay allegiance
to two masters, favoured the claim of Robert to both
thrones. They took arms against William, but were
ioon reduced to submission. In 1091 he invaded Nor-
mandy with an army to wage war against Robert, who
prevented hostilities by a treaty, according to which
William obtained the towns of Aumale, Fescamp, etc.
He afterwards instigated the Norman barons to rebel
against Robert, and passed over to Normandy in 1094
to support his partisans. He was prevented from push-
ing his advantages by an incursion of the Welsh, which
obliged him to return to England. Robert, having
enlisted in the first crusade, sold or mortgaged his
dominions to William for the small sum of 10,000 marks,
(1096.) William did not partake of the general enthu-
siasm for the crusade. "It is likely," says Hume, "that

he made the romantic chivalry of the crusaders the objec*
of his perpetual raillery." He was found dead in the
New Forest in August, iioo. Hume adopts the popular
account that Walter Tyrrel, while hunting with the
king, discharged an arrow which glanced from a tree
and killed William. He had never married, and was
succeeded by his brother Henry. "He seems," says
Hume, "to have been a violent and tyrannical prince ;
a perfidious, encroaching, and dangerous neighbor ; an
unkind and ungenerous relation."

See HUME, " History of England," vol. i. chap. v. ; Miss STRICK-
LAND, "Lives of the Bachelor Kings of England," 1861; JOHN
HAYWARD, " Life of William II.," 1613.

William in., or William Henry, King of England
and Stadtholder of Holland, was born at the Hague on
the I4th of November, 1650. He was the eldest or
only son of William II., Prince of Orange, and Mary
Stuart, a daughter of Charles I. of England, and was
styled Prince of Orange before his accession to the
throne of Great Britain. At the death of his father
(1650) the party opposed to the house of Orange deter-
mined that there should never be another Stadtholder.
On the death of De Witt, in 1672, the young prince
became the chief of the government, and took strenuous
measures to defend the state against the French armies
which had invaded it. He opened the dikes and inun-
dated the seat of war, exclaiming that he would die in the
last ditch rather than witness the ruin of the republic.
The invaders were forced to save themselves by a hasty
retreat. In 1674 he was defeated at Senef by the Prince
of Conde. The war was ended by the peace of Nymwe-
gen, in 1678. He married in 1677 Mary, a daughter of
James, Duke of York, afterwards James II. of England.
Besides his native Dutch, he spoke and wrote the
French, English, and German languages fluently, though
not elegantly nor exactly. "The tenet of predestina-
tion," says Macaulay, " was the keystone of his religion."
From a child he had been weak and sickly, and in man-
hood he was subject to painful and depressing maladies.

Before he had reached the age of twenty-five, he was
renowned throughout Europe as a soldier and diplo-
matist, and was the master-spirit of a powerful coalition
against Louis XIV. of France. He became about 1686
the head of the English opposition which the perverse
and infatuated course of James II. had provoked. In the
summer of 1688 he was invited by Russell, Sidney, and
other conspirators to come with an army for the defence
of liberty and the Protestant religion in England.
William issued a declaration, in which he abjured all
thought of conquest, and pledged himself to leave all
questions to the decision of a free Parliament. In
November, 1688, he landed at Torbay with an army of
about 14,000 men. He was joined by numerous peers,
and was favoured by a general defection in the army
of King James, who threw the great seal into the
Thames and absconded on the nth of December, 1688.
The revolution was thus accomplished without much
bloodshed. He called a convention, composed of peers
and the surviving members of the former House of
Commons, which in February, 1689, voted that James
had abdicated, and that William and Mary should be
declared King and Queen of England. Amidst the gen-
eral joy, the ill humour of the clergy and the army was
very conspicuous. The position of William was beset
with great difficulties. The deposed king had many
adherents in Ireland and Scotland, who supported his
cause by arms, and he was assisted by Louis XIV.
William selected for his ministers members of both the

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 401 of 425)