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great parties, the Whigs and Tories, and reserved to
himself the direction of foreign affairs. He was not
popular with his new subjects. His cold manners,
which presented a great contrast to the strength of his
emotions, gave almost universal offence.

In May, 1689, he declared war against the King of
France, by whose aid James II. was enabled to take
the field in Ireland with a considerable army. William
passed over to Ireland in June, 1690, and took command
of his land-forces. About this time his fleet was defeated
by the French near Beachy Head. On the 1st of July,
1690, he gained a decisive victory over the French ana
Irish at the famous battle of the Boyne, after which
James gave up the contest and fled to France. The

as/; casi,- ^hard; gas/';G, H,K., guttural; N, nasal: K, trilled: sasz: thasinMw.

Explanations, p. 2.5.1




allied English and Dutch fleets defeated the French a
La Hogue in May, 1692. The war between the allies
and the French continued in Flanders, where William
commanded in person. He was defeated at Steenkerke
by Marshal Luxemburg, in August, 1692. Hostilities
were suspended by the treaty of Ryswick, in 1697.

The reign of William III. was much disturbed by fac
tious intrigues and Jacobite conspiracies. He removec
fi jm command the Duke of Maryborough, who was sus
pected of being in a plot to restore one of the Stuarts
to the throne, in 1692. Soon after the peace of Rys
wick, William III. and Louis XIV. became parties to a
treaty to partition the Spanish dominions, and stipulatec
that the Elector of Bavaria should succeed to Spain anc
the Indies, while the French dauphin should reign over
the two Sicilies. In November, 1700, Charles II. of Spain
died, and bequeathed the throne to Philip of Anjou. Re-
gardless of the obligations of the partition treaty, Louis
XIV. accepted for his grandson the splendid legacy.
William then formed with the Emperor of Germany
and other powers a coalition against the Bourbons, anc
took the first steps towards the great war of the Spanish
succession. Before hostilities commenced, he died, with-
out issue, in London, in March, 1702, in consequence of
a fall from his horse. He was succeeded by Queen

" His name," says Macaulay, " at once calls up before
us a slender and feeble frame, a lofty and ample fore-
head, a nose curved like the beak of an eagle, an eye
rivalling that of an eagle in brightness and keenness. . . .
Nature had largely endowed William with the qualities
of a great ruler, and education had developed those
qualities in no common degree. ... If his battles were
not those of a great tactician, they entitled him to be
called a great man. . . . His defeats were repaired with
such marvellous celerity that before his enemies had
sung the 'Te Deum' he was again ready for conflict
. . .He was born with violent passions and quick
sensibilities, but the strength of his emotions was not
suspected by the world. From the multitude his joy
and his grief, his affection and his resentment, were
hidden by a phlegmatic serenity which made him pass
for the most cold-blooded of mankind."

F. DE BRUINE, " Leven en Dood van Willera III.," 1702; JAMES
VKRNON, "Court and Times of William III.," \ vols., 1841: VOL-
TAIRE, "SiMede Louis XIV."

William IV., King of England, the third son of
George III., was born in London on the 2ist of Au-
gust, 1765. He entered the royal navy as midshipman
in 1779, and obtained the rank of captain in 1786.
Having in several cases disobeyed the orders of his
superiors or violated the rules of discipline, he was not
permitted to command in active service ; but he was
promoted by successive steps until he received the title of
admiral of the fleet, in 1801. He had been created Duke
of Clarence and Saint Andrew's and Earl of Munster in
1789. In the House of Lords he generally acted with
the Whig party; but he supported Pitt after 1793. He
married in July, 1818, Adelaide, a daughter of the Duke
of Saxe-Meiningen. They had two children, who died
in infancy. On the death of his brother, the Duke of
York, in 1827, William became heir-presumptive to the
throne. He succeeded George IV. on the 26th of June,
1830, which was a critical time in the politics of Europe.
The French revolution of July, 1830, had great influence
in England. The friends of electoral reform had a ma-
jority in the new Parliament which met in October, but
the Duke of Wellington, who was prime minister, op-
posed reform, in terms which produced a violent excite-
ment. The ministry, having been outvoted in the House
of Commons, resigned in November, 1830, and were
succeeded by a Liberal ministry, of which Earl Grey
and Lord John Russell were the chiefs. The Reform
bill passed the House of Commons by a large majority
in September, but was rejected by the Lords on the
3d of October, 1831. A long and violent crisis fol-

lowed. In May, 1832, Earl Grey and his colleague!
resigned, and the king requested Wellington and Lynd-
hurst to form a ministry; but they failed, or quailed
before the storm, for the people were determined to
have reform, if they had to fight for it. Earl Grey
resumed the office of premier about the i8th of May,
and, the king having induced many of the Tory peers to
absent themselves and refrain from voting, the Reform
bill finally became a law in June, 1832. The king him-
self was no friend to reform, and was partial to the Con-
servatives, or Tories. After Earl Grey and several other
ministers had resigned, William IV., in November, 1834,
sent for the Duke of Wellington, who constructed a
new ministry, in which Sir Robert Peel was premier.
Peel and Wellington, however, could not command a
majority in the new Parliament which met in February,
1835. They resigned in April, and gave place to the
Whig ministry of Lord Melbourne. William died on
the 2oth of June, 1837, leaving no lawful issue, and was
succeeded by his niece, Victoria.

William, [Dutch, WILLEM, wil'lem ; Ger. WILHELM,
wil'hlm,] (FREDERICK,) Z, King of the Netherlands,
Grand Duke of Luxemburg, and Prince of Orange
Nassau, was born at the Hague in August, 1772. Ha
was a son of William V., Prince of Orange Nassau
and hereditary Stadtholder. He married, in 1791, Fre-
derica Louisa, a daughter of Frederick William, King
of Prussia. He commanded the Dutch army which
resisted the French invaders in 1793 and 1794. Hol-
land was conquered in 1795, and William Frederick
retired to Germany. He served with the rank of gene-
ral in the Prussian and Austrian armies between 1806
and 1813. A revolution restored him to royal power in
Holland about the end of 1813, after which the Congress
of Vienna decided that Belgium should be annexed to
the United Provinces, and that he should reign over the
whole. He was proclaimed King of the Netherlands in
March, 1815. The Belgians, who regarded the Dutch
with invincible antipathy, revolted in September, 1830,
and, after several battles, by the aid of France and Eng-
land, became a separate nation. In October, 1840, he
abdicated in favour of his son William, and died in
Berlin in 1843.

WUliam (or Willem) EL, King of the Netherlands,
and Grand Duke of Luxemburg, a son of the preceding,
was born in December, 1792. As aide-de-camp of the
Duke of Wellington, he served with distinction in the
Peninsula. He commanded the Dutch troops at the
battle of Waterloo, where he was wounded. About
1816 he married Anna Paulowna, a sister of Alexander,
Zzzr of Russia. He gained some victories over the
Belgian insurgents in 1831 ; but the intervention of a
French army compelled him to retire from that contest.
He began to reign in October, 1840. He died in March,
1849, leaving two sons, William and Henry.

William (or Willem) IIL, King of Holland, a son
of the preceding, was born in February, 1817. He mar-
ried Sophia, a daughter of the King of Wurtemberg, in
1839, and succeeded his father in March, 1849. Queen
Sophia died in 1877. His second wife was a daughter
of the Prince of Waldeck. Died November 23, 1890.

William (ur Wilhelm) I., King of Prussia and
imperor of Germany, was born March 22, 1797, a
son of Frederick William III. He married, in 1829,
tfaria Louisa Augusta, a daughter of the Duke of
Saxe-Weimar. During the violent commotions of

,8 he retired for safety to England, from which he
soon returned. He commanded the army which sup-
>ressed the insurrection in Baden in 1849. He
ascended the throne on the death of his brother,
r rederick William IV., January, 1861, and, soon
after his accession, appointed Count von Bismarck
minister of foreign affairs. To the superior states-
manship of this minjstei is chiefly attributed the great
nd sudden increase of Prussia in extent and power.
lam united with the Emperor of Austria in an aggres-
ive war against Denmark, which was compelled to cede
o the victors Sleswick and Holstein.

The fundamental idea of William's policy was to effect

>, e, T, o, u, y, long; a, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, J, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; n6t; good; moon




the union of all the German peoples into one nation
or federation, and the exclusion of the empire of
Austria from the same. Invoking the potent and in-
vincible spirit of nationality and devotion to the Father-
land, he declared war against Austria about the i8th of
June, 1866, having previously formed an alliance with
the King of Italy. The reigning princes of Bavaria,
Saxony, Hanover, Hesse, (Electoral,) and some other
states, took side with Austria, which had controlled a
majority of votes in the Diet. The Prussian armies,
whose movements were planned by General von Moltke,
dvanced rapidly into Bohemia, and, after several minor
victories, defeated the Austrians at the great and de-
cisive battle of Sadowa, near Koniggratz, on the 3d of
July, 1866. The victors are said to have taken at Sadowa
21,471 prisoners, (including about 74<x>wounded.) This
campaign is called the Seven Weeks' war. Peace was
restored by a treaty signed at Prague in August, 1866,
in accordance with which the Emperor of Austria re-
nounced his claim to be the head, or even a member, of
the new German Bund, called the North German Con-
federation, which was composed of all the states situated
north of the river Main. The area and population of
Prussia were considerably increased by the annexation
of several conquered states, among which were Hanover.
Holstein, and Electoral Hesse. By the terms of the
Bund the King of Prussia was to direct the foreign policy
and control the military power of the states which com-
posed it. A secret treaty of alliance, offensive and
defensive, was negotiated by Prussia with Bavaria and
Baden in August, 1866, and made public in April, 1867.

On a frivolous pretext, the emperor Napoleon III. de-
clared war against Prussia, July 16, 1870. The German
armies, commanded by King William in person, and by
his son, Frederick William, having crossed the frontier
early in August, defeated Marshal McMahon at Worth
(August 6) and Marshal Bazaine in a great battle near
Metz, (August 14-18.) Bazaine, having shut himself up in
Metz, was besieged by Prince Frederick Charles of Prus-
sia, while the king and his son, the crown-prince, pur-
sued Marshal McMahon, who had retreated to Chalons,
and, after he had collected there a large army, moved
northward to the valley of the Meuse. The German
army, amounting to about 240,000 men, attacked Mar-
shal McMahon near Sedan, and a great battle ensued,
which lasted several days, and resulted in one of the
niost decisive and momentous victories in universal his-
tory. On the 2d of September the emperor Napoleon,
and his army of 100,000 men, or more, surrendered at
Sedan as prisoners of war. A few days later, King Wil-
liam and the crown-prince marched against Paris, which
by strenuous exertions had been prepared for a siege,
and was now controlled by the republicans under a new
regime. The siege or investment of Paris began about
September 15. Marshal Bazaine surrendered Metz and
his army, the number of which was stated at 150,000
men, or more, to Prince Frederick Charles, on the 27th
of October, 1870. In the great battles of this war the
French were outnumbered, as well as outgeneralled, by
the Germans, whose movements were directed by Gen-
eral von Moltke. The French showed unexpected
vigour and obstinacy in the defence of Paris, con-
tinuing to fight though threatened with the extremities
of famine. In the end, however, they were obliged
to surrender their capital city. The alliance of the
German States in this war led to an end which Bis-
marck had long worked for, a permanent union of these
States as the Empire of Germany, with William as the
first emperor. He was proclaimed Emperor from the
palace of the French kings at Versailles, January 18,
1871. The remainder of his reign was peaceful, the
reins of power resting in Count Bismarck's hands.
He died March 9, 1888.

William II., third Emperor of Germany and
ninth King of Prussia, was born at Berlin, January
27, 1859, son of the Crown Prince Frederick and the
Princess Victoria of England. He succeeded his
father, Frederick III., in 1888. As a monarch he has
shown great egotism and unusual energy, obliging
Bismarck to resign by his autocratic attitude, showing

intense interest in the increase and improvement of
the army and navy, and claiming to rule by divine
right. As the years passed he manifested more
wisdom and temperance, and the fears of war which
his early utterances had aroused subsided. He took
an active part, however, in the politics of Europe,
especially in the questions arising from the Turko-
Greek war and those which followed the Chinese out-
break of 1900.

"William (Willem or Wilhelm) OF HOLLAND, son
of Count Florent of Holland, was made Emperor of
Germany in 1247. through the influence of Pope Inno-
cent IV., in opposition to Frederick II. He was unable,
however, to assert his authority until after the death of
Conrad IV., the son of Frederick, in 1254. He was
killed in a war against the West Frisians in 1256.

William the Lion, King of Scotland, was a brother
of Malcolm IV., whom he succeeded in 1165. He in-
vaded England in 1174, was taken prisoner, and could
not obtain his liberty until he promised to be the vassaJ
or liegeman of Henry II. About 1190, Richard I., for a
pecuniary consideration, released Scotland from alle-
giance to himself and his successors. William died in
1214, and was succeeded by his son, Alexander II.

See BURTON, " History of Scotland," vol. ii. chap. xiii.

William (or Wilhelm) L, King of Wiirtemberg,
born in 1781, was a son of Frederick I., whom he suc-
ceeded in October, 1816. He granted a new constitu-
tion in 1819. In 1848 he made further concessions to
the growing desire of reform. He opposed the attempts
of the King of Prussia to acquire supremacy in Ger-
many in 1850. Died in 1864.

William II, (Stadtholder.) See ORANGE, (WILLIAM,

William III., (Stadtholder.) See WILLIAM III.,
(King of England.)

William I., Duke of Brunswick, a son of Duke Fred-
erick William, was born April 25, 1806. After the expul-
sion of his brother Charles, in 1830, William succeeded
as reigning duke. He never married, and on his (k-.uli
(October 18, 1884) the ancient and once illustrious ducaj
line of Brunswick became extinct. The royal family of
Great Britain is, however, descended from the house ot
Brunswick. The late duke was possessed of enormous
wealth. The question of the inheritance of the honours
and estates of the Brunswick dukes is still unsettled,

William, an Anglo-Norman prince, born in 1102, wzs
the only legitimate son of Henry I. of England. He
was drowned, with his sister Adele, in the passage from
Normandy to England, in U2O.

William of Champeaux. See CHAMPEAUX, DE.

William of Hesse-CasseL See HESSE, LAND-

William of Malmesbury. See MALMESBURY.

William de Nangis. See NANGIS, DE.

William of Nassau. See ORANGE, (WILLIAM,

William of Newburg or Newbury. See NEW-

William the Silent See ORANGE, (WILLIAM OF.)

William of Tyre, a prelate and historian, born
about 1130. He became Archbishop of Tyre in 1174.
He wrote, in Latin, a " History of Palestine or the
Crusaders from 1095 to 1184." Died before 1193.

William of Wykeham. See WYKEHAM.

Wil'liams, (wil'yamz,) (ALPHEUS S.,) an American
general, born at Saybrook, Connecticut, about iSic,
was a lawyer before the civil war. He commanded a
division at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863, and at Gettys-
burg, July 1-3 of that year. He served under General
Sherman in the campaign against Atlanta, 1864, and
commanded a corps of the army. He was in Congress
from Missouri in 1875-78. Died December 21, 1878.

Wil'liams, (ANNA,) an English writer, who, having
become blind, was taken by Dr. Johnson into his house
and supported for the remainder of her life. She died
in 1783.

See BOSWEU, "Life of Johnson."

: c.asj; ghard: gas;.- G, H, Y., g-jttural ; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; thasinrtu.

Explanations, p.




'Williams, (Sir CHARLES HANBURY,) a distinguished
English writer and diplomatist, born in 1709, was the
son of John Hanbury, Esq., and assumed the name of
Williams in compliance with the wishes of his godfather,
Charles Williams. Having travelled on the continent,
he was elected, after his return, member of Parliament
for the county of Monmouth, (1733,) and in 1749 was
minister-plenipotentiary to Berlin, having been previ-
ously made a knight of the Bath. He was afterwards
employed on an important embassy to Russia. He was
the author of a collection of odes, also political ballads
and satires in verse, which enjoyed great popularity.
He was an intimate friend of Horace Walpole, and a
supporter of the measures of Sir Robert Walpole, to
whom he rendered effective service by his satirical verses.
Died in 1759.

See "George Selwyn and his Contemporaries," by J. H. JESSB.

"Williams, (CHARLES KILBORN,) an American jurist,

born at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1782, was a son

of Samuel Williams, noticed below. He was elected

Governor of Vermont in 1851. Died in 1853.

Williams, (CHANNING MOORE,) D.D., an American
bishop, born at Richmond, Virginia, July 18, 1829, grad-
uated at William and Mary College in 1853, went as an
Episcopalian missionary to China, was consecrated a
bishop in 1866, and in 1874 was transferred to Japan as
Bishop of Yeddo.

Williams, (DANIEL,) D.D., an English Presbyterian
divine, born at Wrexham, in Denbighshire, in 1644. He
wrote "Gospel Truth Stated and Vindicated," and a
number of religious and controversial treatises. He
died in 1716, leaving numerous bequests for chari
table and educational purposes. Among the most im-
portant of these was one for the establishment of a
public library in Red-Cross Street, London, opened
in 1729.

Williams, (DAVID,) a British writer, born in Cardi-
ganshire, Wales, in 1738, was the founder of the Literary
Fund Society. He published " Lectures on Political
Principles," (1789,) a "History of Monmouthshire,"
(1796,) and other works. Died in 1816.

Williams, (EDWARD,) a Welsh poet, also called IOLO
MORGANWG, (mor-ga'noog,) born in Glamorganshire
about 1747, was a stone-mason by trade. He published
a collection of hymns in Welsh, and two volumes of
lyric and pastoral poems in English, (1794.) He was
one of the editors of the "Myvyrian Archaiology."
Died in 1826.

Williams, (ELEAZAR,) born at Caughnawaga, New
York, about 1787, resided as a missionary among the
Indians in the vicinity of Green Bay, Wisconsin. He
pretended to be the dauphin, son of Louis XVI., and his
claims were supported by J. H. Hanson, of New York,
in a work entitled "The Lost Prince." A series of
articles also appeared in " Putnam's Magazine" for Feb-
ruary, April, and July, 1853, and February, 1854, main-
taining with much ability and zeal his title to be regarder 1
as the heir of the Bourbons. Died in 1858.

Williams, (EPHRAIM,) an American officer, born at
Newton, Massachusetts, in 1715, was mortally wounded
in an engagement near Lake George with the French
and Indians in 1755. He had bequeathed the princi-
pal part of his property towards founding a free school
in Massachusetts, which afterwards became Williams

Williams, (FREDERICK SIMS,) an English barrister,
horn in 1812. He published several legal works, and
"The Wonders of the Heavens," (1861.) Died in 1863.

Williams, (GEORGE,) an English divine and historian,
born in 1814. He published " History of the Holy City,"
" Notices of Jerusalem," (1845,) etc. Died in 1878.

'Williams, (GEORGE HUNTINGDON,) an American
geologist, born at Utica, New York, in 1856. He
became professor of inorganic geology at Johns Hop-
kins University in 1892. He wrote much on the
geology of Maryland, also " Elements of Crystal-
lography," etc. Died in 1894.

Williams, (HELEN MARIA,) a writer and translate],
born in London in 1762. While residing in Paris, in
1790, she published her " Letters from France," favouring

the doctrines of the Girondists, in consequence ofwhicfe
she was imprisoned for a time. Among her other works
are two poems, entitled "Peru" (1784) and "The Slave-
Trade," (1788,) "Julia, a Romance," (1790,) "Narrntiva
of Events in France," (1815,) and a translation of the
" Personal Narrative" of Humboldt and Bonpland. Died
in 1827.

Williams, (ISAAC,) a British theologian, born in Wales
in 1802. He graduated at Trinity College, Oxford, in
1826, and became an associate of Newman and the early
tractarians. Among his numerous works are " Hymns,"
(1839,) "Harmony and Commentary on the Gospels,"
(S vols., 1842-45,) "The Psalms interpreted of Christ,"
(3 vols., 1864-65,) etc. Died May I, 1865.

Williams, (JOHN,) a distinguished prelate and states-
man, born in Carnarvonshire, Wales, in 1 582. He studied
at Saint John's College, Cambridge, and, having taken
orders, became in 1611 chaplain to the lord chancellor
Egerton. He soon after acquired the favour of King
James I., who made him successively one of his chap-
lains-in-ordinary, Dean of Salisbury, Bishop of Lincoln,
and lord keeper of the great seal, (1621.) He was de-
prived of the last-named office on the accession of
Charles, and, having been charged by his enemy Laud
with betraying the king's secrets, was condemned to
several years' imprisonment and a fine of ^10,000. He
was released in 1640, and soon after created Archbishop
of York. Died in 1650.

See PHILLIPS, "Life of John Williams," and " Memorial offered
to the Great Deservings of John Williams," by JOHN HACKKT.

Williams, (JOHN,) an English clergyman, born in
1634, became successively chaplain to William and
Mary, prebendary of Canterbury, and Bishop of Chi-
Chester, (1696.) Died in 1709.

'Williams, (JoHN,) an American divine, born at
Roxbury, Massachusetts, in 1644, was made prisoner,
together with his wife and six children, by a party of
French and Indians in 1704. He was afterwards re-
deemed, and published an account of his adventures,
entitled "The Redeemed Captive." Died in 1729.

Williams, (Rev. JOHN,) a Welsh dissenter, born at
Lampeter about 1726. He published, besides other
works, a "Concordance to the Greek Testament" Died
in 1798.

W illiams, (Rev. JOHN,) a Welsh scholar and archae-
ologist, born in Denbighshire in 1811. He wrote on
Welsh antiquities, etc. Died in 1862.

'Williams, (Rev. JOHN,) a celebrated English mis-
sionary and dissenter, sometimes called "the Apostle of
Polynesia," was born at Tottenham in 1796. Being sent
in i"8i6 by the London Missionary Society to the Society
Islands, he devoted himself to the acquisition of the
Tahitian language, and to the instruction of the natives
in the arts of civilized life, as well as in the duties ot
religion. In 1823 he visited the Hervey Islands, and
discovered Rarotonga, an island of that group, in which
he established a mission. To convey himself from
Rarotonga to Raiatea and Tahiti, he built a vessel about
1828, although he was destitute of proper tools. He
returned to England in 1834, and published a "Narra-
tive of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands,"
(1837.) In 1838 he sailed on another voyage to the
South Sea, with many other missionaries. He was killed
by the natives of Erromanga, one of the New Hebrides
in November, 1839.

See PROUT, " Memoirs of John Williams," 1843 ; J. CAMPBKL.,
"The Martyr of Erromanga," 1842.

Williams, (JOHN,) D.D., LL.D., an American bishop,

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