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born in Deerfield, Massachusetts, August 30, 1817, grad-
uated in 1835 at Trinity College, Hartford, where he be-
came a professor, and of which he was president, 1848-53.
He was ordained a priest of the Episcopal Church in
1841, and in 1851 was consecrated Assistant Bishop of
Connecticut, becoming diocesan bishop in 1865. Among
his works is "The World's Testimony to Jesus Christ,"
(vol. i. of the Bedell Lectures.) Died February 7, 1^99.

Williams. (Mo.xiER,) an Oriental scholar, born at
Bombay, of English parentage, in 1819. He studied
in England, and, having taken his degree at University
College, Oxford, became in 1844 professor of Sanscrit
at Haileybury College, and in 1860 Boden Sanscrit pro-



a, e, i, o, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; fir, fill, fat; mJt; not; good; moonj



WILLIAMS



2477



WILLIS



fessor at Oxford, as successor to H. H. Wilson. He
published Sanscrit grammars, (1846 and 1860,) Eng-
lish-Sanscrit dictionaries, (1854 and 1872,) "Indian
Wisdom," (1875,) "Modern India," (1878,) "The
Holy Bible and the Sacred Books of the East,"
(1887,) " Buddhism," (1890,) etc. He was knighted
in 1886. Died in 1899.

Williams, (OTHO HOLLAND,) an American gen-
eral, bnrn in Prince George's county, Maryland, in 1748,
was adjutant-general to General Gates in 1780, and
distinguished himself at the battle of Camden. Died
in 1794.

Williams, (ROGER,) an English officer and writer,
born in Monmouthshire. He served with distinction in
Flanders, and wrote works entitled " Actions of the
Low Countries," and "Advice from France." Died
in 1595.

See MOTLEY, "United Netherlands," vol. i.

Williams, (ROGER,) the founder of Rhode Island,
was born probably in London about 1599. He was
educated at Cambridge, became master of several ancient
languages, and was ordained a minister of the Church
of England. In 1631 he emigrated to Massachusetts in
search of religious liberty, and preached for a short time
at Salem ; but he was banished from the colony in 1635
on account of his doctrines. He was censured by the
court because he taught that magistrates should not
punish the breach of the Sabbath or dictate on the sub-
ject of worship. He founded the city of Providence,
(1636,) and there opened an asylum in which men of all
creeds might enjoy full religious liberty. It is stated
that he became a Baptist in 1639, but that he soon
began to doubt the validity of baptism, and that he
continued to "neglect the ordinances of the gospel."
He made a voyage to England in 1643, obtained a
charter for the new colony, and returned in 1644. After
a second voyage to England, he was elected President
of Rhode Island in 1654. He lived in peace and amity
with the Indians, over whom he acquired much in-
fluence. In 1657 he ceased to be president of the
colony. He published, besides other works, a treatise
against persecution, (1644,) "The Hireling Ministry
none of Christ's," and " Experiments of Spiritual Life
and Health and their Preservatives," (1652.) Died at
Providence in 1683.

See JAMES D. KNOWLES, " Life of Roger Williams," 1833 : WIL-
LIAM GAMMELU "Life of Roger Williams," 1846; ROMEO ELTON,
" Life of Roger Williams," London, 1852.

Williams, (ROWLAND,) a Welsh clergyman, born in
Flintshire about 1817. He published, besides other
works, "Christianity and Hinduism," and a " Review
of Bunsen." Died in 1870.

Williams, (SAMUEL,) LL.D., a New England divine,
born at Waltham, Massachusetts, in 1743, was professor
of mathematics at Harvard College, and the author of a
"Natural and Civil History of Vermont," (1794.) Died
in 1817.

Williams, (SAMUEL,) an English designer and wood-
engraver, born at Colchester in 1788. Among his best
works are his illustrations of Thomson's "Seasons" and
of Scrope's "Days of Salmon-Fishing." Died in 1853.

'Williams, (SAMUEL WELLS,) LL.D., an American
philologist, born at Utica, New York, in 1812. He
visited China in 1833, and in 1841 published "Easy
Lessons in Chinese," followed by an " English-ana-
Chinese Vocabulary," (1843.) He also published, be-
sides other works, a " Tonic Dictionary of the Chinese,"
(1856,) a "Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese," (1874,)
and "The Middle Kingdom," (1848 ; new edition, 1883.)
He was lecturer on Chinese at Yale College, 1876-84.
Died February 16, 1884.

Williams, (SETH,) an American general, born at
Augusta, Maine, about 1822. He graduated at West
Point in 1842. He seived as adjutant-general of the
army of the Potomac in 1862, and as acting inspector-
general of the same in 1864 and 1865. He took part in
the battle of Gettysburg, July, 1863, and in many actions
in Virginia. Died in March, 1866.

Williams, (THOMAS,) an American lawyer, born at
Greensburg, Pennsylvania, in 1806. He settled in Pitts-



burg, and was elected a member of Congress in 1862.
He also represented the twenty-third district of Penn-
sylvania in Congress for two subsequent terms, and was
one of the managers to conduct the impeachment of
President Johnson, March, 1868. Died in 1872.

"Williams, (THOMAS,) an able American general,
born in the State of New York in 1818, graduated at
West Point in 1837. He attacked Vicksburg in June,
1862, and commanded a small force which was attacked
by General Breckinridge at Baton Rouge, August 5 of
that year. He was killed in this action, but his army
gained the victory.

See TENNEY. "Military History of the Rebellion," p. 732.

Williams, (THOMAS SCOTT,) an American jurist,
born at Wethersfield, Connecticut, in 1777, was noted
for his beneficence. He was a member of Congress
from 1817 to 1819, and was chief justice of Connecticut
from 1834 to 1847. He resided at Hartford, where he
died in December, 1861.

Williams, (WILLIAM,) an American patriot and
signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born in
Windham county, Connecticut, in 1731. He was elected
to the Continental Congress in 1775. Died in 1811.

See SANDERSON, " Biography of the Signers to the Declaration of
Independence," 1848.

Williams OF KARS, (Sir WILLIAM FENWICK,)
K.C.B., a distinguished general, born at Halifax, Nova
Scotia, in 1800. He was educated at the Woolwich
Military Academy, in England, and afterwards served
in Ceylon and Turkey, attaining the rank of lieuten-
ant-colonel in 1847. He was appointed in 1854 British
commissioner with the Turkish army in the East, and
soon after was created a brigadier-general, having his
head-quarters at Kars. In September, 1855, he severely
repulsed the Russian general Mooravief, (Mouravieff,)
who had besieged that city, but, owing to the suffering
of his troops by famine, was obliged to capitulate in
November of that year. After his return to England
he was elected to Parliament for Calne, was made a
baronet, and obtained other distinctions. In 1860 he
became commander-in-chief of the forces in British
America. Died July 26, 1883.

Williams, (WILLIAM R.,) D.D.,an American Baptist
divine, born in New York in 1804. He published "Mis-
cellaneous Addresses," (1850,) "Lectures on the Lord's
Prayer," (1851,) and other religious works. Died in
New York, April I, 1885.

Wil'liam-son, (ALEXANDER WILLIAM,) an English
chemist, born at Wandsworth, May i, 1824. He studied
at Dijon, Wiesbaden, Heidelberg, Giessen, and Paris,
and in 1849 was appointed professor of practical chemistry
in University College, London, and in 1855 full pro-
fessor of chemistry. He has made important discoveries
in chemistry, and contributed largely to scientific litera-
ture, chiefly in reports and professional papers.

Wil'liam-son, (HuGH,) M.D., LL.D., an American
physician, born at West Nottingham, Pennsylvania, in
1735, studied at Edinburgh and in Holland, and was
appointed after his return a surgeon in the Revolutionary
army. He was several times elected to Congress from
Edenton, North Carolina. He published "Observations
on the Climate of America," (1811,) and other works.
Died in 1819.

Wil'liam-son, (Sir JOSEPH,) an English statesman,
who in 1674 became secretary of state. He died in 1701,
leaving 6000 and many manuscripts to Queen's Col-
lege, Oxford, also a bequest for founding a mathematical
school at Rochester.

Wiriiam-spii, (WILLIAM CRAWFORD,) F.R.S., an
English naturalist, born at Scarborough in November,
1816. In youth he attained a reputation as a zoologist
and geologist. He studied at University College, Lon-
don, and became a medical practitioner at Manchester.
From 1851 to 1892 he was professor in Owens College,
fossil botany being his specialty. He published "On
Recent Foraminifera," (1858,) and many scientific me-
moirs. Died June 23, 1895.

Willibrod. See WILLEBROD.

Willis, (FRANCIS,) an eminent English physician,
born in Lincolnshire about 1720. He studied at Brazen-
nose College, Oxford, and in 1740 entered holy orders ;



cas *, c as s; g hard; g as_/; G, H, K, guttural ; N, tuisal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.



Explanations, p. 23.



WILLIS



2478



WILMOT



but he subsequently devoted himself to the study of
medicine, particularly mental diseases. He attended
King George III. during his attack of insanity, and
his successful treatment of his case procured for him a
high reputation. He founded an establishment for the
insane at Greatford, in Lincolnshire, where his labours
were attended with extraordinary success. His personal
influence over his patients is said to have been wonder-
ful. Died in 1807.

Wil'lis, (NATHANIEL PARKER,) a distinguished
American poet and miscellaneous writer, born at Port-
land, Maine, in 1807. He graduated at Yale College in
1827, and was soon after employed by S. C. Goodrich,
since widely known as Peter Parley, to edit "The Le-
gendary" and "The Token." He founded in 1828 the
"American Monthly Magazine," subsequently merged
in the "New York Mirror." About 1831 he visited
various parts of Europe, as one of the attaches of Mr.
Rives, American minister at Paris. He published in
England " Pencillings by the Way," (1835,) and "Ink-
lings of Adventure," (1836,) both republished in Amer-
ica. These works were followed by " Loiterings of
Travel," (1839,) "Letters from under a Bridge," (1840,)
" Dashes at Lite with a Free Pencil," (1845,) " People I
have met," (1850,) " A Health Trip to the Tropics,"
(1853,) " Famous Persons and Places," (1854,) and " Out-
Doors at Idlewild," (1854.) Mr. Willis became in 1846
associated with G. P. Morris as editor of the " Home
Journal," a literary periodical, published in New York.
Died in January, 1867.

See ALLIBONE, "Dictionary of Authors;" DUYCKINCK, "Cyclo-
paedia of American Literature," vol. ii. : GRI5WOLD, " Poets and
Poetry of America;" "Edinburgh Review" for January, 1836;
" Fraser's Magazine" for February, 1836; "North American Re-
view" for October, 1836, and July, 1840, (by C. C. FKLTON.)

Willis, (ROBERT,) F.R.S., an English experimental
philosopher and mechanician, born in London in 1800,
was educated at Caius College, Cambridge, where he
took the degree of B.A. in 1826. He became Jack-
sonian professor of natural and experimental philosophy
at Cambridge in 1837, and lectured on dynamics, statics,
applied mechanics, etc. He applied himself to acoustics,
the philosophy of mechanism, the history and philosophy
of architecture, etc. Among his numerous works are
" Remarks on the Architecture of the Middle Ages and
of Italy," (1835,) and "The Principles of Mechanism,"
(1841.) Died February 28, 1875.

'Willis, (THOMAS,) F.R.S., an eminent English anato-
mist and physician, born at Great Bedwin, in Wiltshire,
in 1621, was educated at Oxford. He began to prac-
tise medicine at Oxford about 1646, and was appointed
professor of natural philosophy there in 1660. He pub-
lished in 1664 an able work on the "Anatomy of the
Brain," (" Cerebri Anatome,") in which he suggested or
affirmed that the several portions of the brain are organs
of different faculties. In 1666 he removed to London,
and became physician to the king. Died in 1675.

See WOOD, "Athena; Oxonienses ;" " Biographic Me"dicale."

Williaen, von, fon wil'le-zen, (WILHELM,) a Prus-
sian general and military writer, born near Magdeburg
in 1790, served against the French. in the campaigns of
1814 and 1815. He became a general in 1835, and
commanded the army of Sleswick-Holstein against
Denmark in 1849. Died February 25, 1879.

Wil'lis-tpn, (SAMUEL,) a wealthy American manu-
facturer, born at Easthampton, Massachusetts, in 1793.
He founded in his native town the Williston Seminary,
endowed two professorships at Amherst College, and
gave large sums for other educational and charitable
purposes. Died July 18, 1874.

Willmar, wil'mar or vel'miR', JEAN PIERRE CHRIS-
TINE,) BARON, a Belgian general, born at Luxemburg
in 1790, was minister of war from 1836 to 1840, and
was sent as ambassador to the Hague in 184;. Died
in 1858.

Will'more, (JAMES TIBBITS,) an English engraver,
born in London in 1800. He acquired a high reputation
for his admirable landscapes, particularly his prints,
after Turner. Among these we may name " The Golden
Bough," "Ancient Italy," and "Bellini's Picture con-
veyed to the Church of the Redentore." His " Harvest



in the Highlands," after Landseer, and " Wind against
Tide," after Stanfield, are also esteemed master-pieces.
He became, in 1843, associate engraver in the Royal
Academy. Died in 1863.

Will'mott, (Rev. ROBERT ARIS,) of Bearwood, an
English writer and man of science, published, besides
other works, a " Life of Jeremy Taylor." Died in 1863.

Wil'lpck, Wil'lpx, or WilTpcks, (JuHN,) a Scot-
tish Protestant reformer, was a native of Ayrshire. He
was in England in 1541. Died after 1568.

Willot, ve'yo', (AMEDEE,) a French general, born al
Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1757. He became a general
of brigade in 1793, and gained some successes in the
north of Spain in 1795. Having joined the royalist
party, he was transported to Guiana in September, 1797,
as an accomplice of Pichegru in the Clichian conspiracy
He returned to France about 1814. Died in 1823.

Willoughby, wil'lo-be, (FRANCIS,) an English natu-
ralist, born in 1635. He studied at Trinity College,
Cambridge, where he acquired the friendship of John
Ray, in company with whom he afterwards made a sci-
entific tour on the continent. He died in 1672, leaving
his valuable works, entitled " Ornithologiae Libri tres"
and " Historiae Piscium Libri quatuor," to be published
by Ray, who also translated the former into English.
His merits as a naturalist are highly commended by
Cuvier.

See J. F. DENHAM, " Memoir of F. Willoughby," 1846.

Willoughby, (Sir HUGH,) an English navigator, was
commander of an expedition fitted out by the merchants
of London in 1553 for the purpose of making dis-
coveries in the Arctic seas. He is supposed to have
perished, with nearly all his company, in 1554.

'Wills, (CHARLES JAMES,) an English author,
born at Chichester in 1842. He wrote novels, works
of travel in Persia and France, etc.

Wills, (WILLIAM HENRY,) an English littlrateur,
born at Plymouth in 1810, became successively asso-
ciate editor of " Chambers's Journal," " Punch," the
"Daily News," "Household Words," and "All the
Year Round." Died September I, 1880.

Will'spii, (BYRON FORCEYTHE,) an American poet,
born at Little Genesee, New York, April 10, 1837. He
studied at Antioch College and Harvard University, and
became a resident of Indiana. His poem of " The Old
Sergeant," written in 1863, has attained deserved popu-
larity. In 1866 a collection of his poems was published
in Boston. Died at Alfred, New York, February 2, 1867.

See "Atlantic Monthly" for March, 1875.

Willson, (ELIZABETH CONWELL, nie Smith,) the
wife of the preceding, was born at Laurel, Indiana, June
26, 1842. She was married in 1863, and died October
13,1864. A volume of her verses has been printed. She
possessed pure and genuine, though undeveloped, poetic
gifts.

Wil'marth, (LEMUEL EVERETT,) an American painter,
born at Attleborough, Massachusetts, November 1 1, 1835.
He studied art in the National Academy, New York, in
the Munich Academy, under Kaulbach, and in the Ecole
des Beaux-Arts, Paris, under Gerome. In 1870 he was
chosen professor of drawing in the National Academy,
in 1871 he became an associate, and in 1873 a f"" Acade-
mician. Most of 'his pictures are scenes of domestic life,
of which " Jack's Return" and " The Pick of the Orchard"
are the most popular.

Wil'mer, (JOSEPH PERE BELL,) D.D., an American
bishop, born at Swedesborough, New Jersey, February
II, 1812. In 1838 he was ordained a priest of the Epis-
copal Church. He held rectorships in Virginia and in
Philadelphia, and in 1866 was consecrated Bishop of
Louisiana. Died December 2, 1878.

Wilmer, (RICHARD HOOKER,) D.D., an American
bishop, brother of Bishop J. P. B. Wilmer, was born in
Alexandria, Virginia, March 15, 1816, graduated at Yale
College in 1836, and in 1840 was ordained a presbyter
of the Episcopal Church. He held various pastorates
in Virginia, and in 1862 was consecrated Bishop of Ala-
bama.

Wil'mpt, (DAVID,) an American legislator, distin-
guished as an opponent of slavery, was born at Bethany
Wayne county, Pennsylvania, in January, 1814. He



a, e, I, 6, u, y, long; i, e, 6 same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, ii, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; m?t; not; good ; moon:



WlLAfOT



2479



WILSON



was admitted to the bar in 1834, and practised law a
Towanda. He began his political life as a Democra
and was elected a member of Congress in 1844. Whil
i. bill was pending to appropriate $2,000,000 for th
purchase of a part of Mexico, in August, 1846, he move
to add an amendment, " That, as an express and fun
damental condition to the acquisition of any territor
from the republic of Mexico by the United States,
neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ev'e
exist in any part of said territory." This amendment
known as the " Wilmot Proviso, 1 ' produced a great ex
citement, both in Congress and in the country at large
It was adopted by the House of Representatives, bu
failed in the Senate. Mr. Wilmot was re-elected in 1846
and 1848, and in the latter year supported Martin Van
Buren for the Presidency. In 1851 he was electee
president judge of the thirteenth judicial district of
Pennsylvania. Having joined the Republican party
he advocated the election of John C. Fremont to the
Presidency, in 1856. He was temporary chairman of the
National Convention which nominated Mr. Lincoln in
1860, and was elected to the Senate of the United States
in March, 1861, to fill a vacancy for two years. Died a
Towanda in March, 1868.
Wilmot, (JOHN.) See ROCHESTER, EARL OF.
Wil'mpt, (JOHN EARDLEY,) an English jurist, born
at Derby in 1709, rose to be chief justice of the common
pleas in 1776, and published a work entitled "Notes of
Opinions." Died in 1792.

Wilmot, (JOHN EARDLEY,) a Jawyer, born at Derbv
in 1748, was a son of the preceding. He wrote a
"Treatise on the Laws and Customs of England," anc
"Memoirs of his Father." Died in 1815.

Wilmsen, wil'm'zen, (FKIEDRICH PHILIPP,) a Ger-
man writer, born at Magdeburg in 1770. He published
the "Deutscher Kinderfreund," "Manual of Natural
History," and other educational works. Died in 1831.

Wil'spn, (ALEXANDER,) a distinguished ornithologist,
born at Paisley, Scotland, in 1766. He emigrated in
1794 to America, where he employed himself for a time
at his trade of weaving, and subsequently taught a school
at Kmgsessing, Pennsylvania. Having acquired some
knowledge of birds from William Bartram the naturalist,
he resolved to make a collection of American birds, and
in 1804 set out on a pedestrian tour through Western
New York, then a wilderness. He gave a lively and
graphic account of this excursion, in a poem entitled
"The Foresters." He brought out in 1808 the first
volume of his " Ornithology," and in 1813 had completed
seven volumes. For this admirable work he had himself
drawn with great care and exactness the pictures of the
birds from original specimens; and his publication may
be said to mark an era in ornithological science. It
was, in fact, the pioneer of the magnificent works of
Charles Bonaparte and Audubon, which have left nothing
to be desired in this department of ornithology. Wilson
died in 1813, worn out with his excessive labour in pre-
paring his work for publication. Two more volumes
were edited after his death, and a continuation by C. L.
Bonaparte came out in 1833, (4 vols. 410.)

See " Blackwood's Magazine" for June and August, 1826 ; " North
American Review" for January, 1827 ; DUYCKINCK, " Cyclopaedia
el American Literature," vol. i. ; ALLIBONE, " Dictionary of Au-
thors."

Wil'spn, (ALPHEUS WATERS,) D.D., a bishop of the
Methodist Episcopal Church South, born in Baltimore,
Maryland, in 1834, was educated at Columbian College,
Washington, D.C., became a preacher in 1853, and in
1882 was made a bishop.

Wil'spn, (ANDREW,) an English traveller and author,
eldest son of Dr. John Wilson, noticed below, was born
in 1831. His best-known book is "The Abode of Snow,"
the record of a journey through the upper valleys of the
Himalayas. Died June 8, 1881.

Wilson, (ANDREW,) a writer on zoology, born at
Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1842. His works include



" Leaves from a Naturalist's Note-Book," " Chapters
on Evolution," " Wild Animals." " Elements of
Zoology," etc.



Wilson, (ARTHUR,) an English writer, was secre-
tary to Robert, Earl of Essex. He was the author of
the " Life and Reign of James I." Died in 1642.



Wilson, (AUGUSTA JONES EVANS.) See EVANS
(AUGUSTA JONES.)

Wilson, (BIRD,) D.D., an American clergyman, a son
of James Wilson, the signer of the Declaration of Inde-
pendence, was born at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, January
8, 1777. He graduated at the University of Pennsylvania
in 1792, became a lawyer in 1797, and a judge of a com-
mon pleas court. In 1819 he took orders in the Epis-
copal Church. He was a professor of divinity in the
General Seminary, New York, 1821-50. Besides legal
works, he published a "Life of Bishop White," (1839)
Died in New York, April 14, 1859. (See his " Life," by
W. W. Bronson.)

Wilson, (DANIEL,) an English theologian, born in
London in 1778. He studied at Saint Edmund's Hall,
Oxford, and rose through various preferments to be




1828-30,) "The Christian's Struggle against Sin and
Death," and other works. Died in Calcutta in 1858.

Wilson, (Sir DANIEL,) a Scottish writer, born at
Edinburgh in 1816. He published, besides other
works, " The Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of
Scotland," (1851,) " Prehistoric Man," (1863,)

Caliban: the Missing Link," (1873,) "Anthro-
pology," (1885,) " Left-Handedness," (1891,) and
"The Lost Atlantis," (1892.) He became professor
of history at Toronto, Canada, about 1853, and presi-
dent of the University of Toronto in 1881. He was
knighted in 1888. Died in 1892.

Wilson, (Sir ERASMUS,) an English surgeon, born in
1809. He practised in London, and published a " Sys-
em of Human Anatomy," (1842,) which has passed
hrough many editions, and other professional works,
argely upon skin-diseases. Died August 9, 1884.

Wilson, (FLORENCE,) [Lat. FLOREN'TIUS VOLUSE'-
NUS,] a Scottish philosopher and scholar, born in the
county of Moray, studied in Paris, and afterwards be-
came teacher of a grammar-school at Carpentras. Hia
jrincipal work is entitled " Dialogue on Tranquillity of
vlind," ("De Animi Tranquillitate Dialogus.") Died
n 1547.

'Wilson, (FRANCIS,) an American actor, born at
Philadelphia in 1854. He first appeared in comedy
n 1878, and in comic opera as Sir Joseph Porter in
' Pinafore" about 1884. He has since been a favour-
te in many comedy roles.

Wilson, (GEORGE,) a Scottish chemist and physician,
a brother of Sir Daniel, noticed above, born at Edin-
Durgh in 1818. He was successively appointed chemical
ecturer in the School of Arts, director of the Industrial
Museum of Scotland, and regius professor of technology
n the university of his native city, (1855.) He pub-
ished, among other works, an " Elementary Treatise
m Chemistry," (1850,) "Researches on Colour-Blind-
less," (1855,) and "The Five Gateways of Knowledge,"
1856.) Died in 1859.

Wilson, (HENRY,) an English mariner, was captain

if a vessel which was wrecked on one of the Pelew

slands in 1783. He was kindly treated by the chief

f the island, Abba Thulle, whose son Le Boo went to

England with Wilson. Died in 1810.

Wilson, (HENRY,) a distinguished American Senator
iorn at Farmington, New Hampshire, February 16
812, was a son of poor parents. His education wa
ery defective. After he had worked on a farm many


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 403 of 425)