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99. He was appointed ambassador to Italy in 1900.

Wolf, wolf, (ERNST WILHELM,) a German musician
and composer, born at Gross Behringen in 1735. He
lived many years at Weimar. Died in 1792.

Wolf, (FERDINAND,) a German writer, born at Vienna
in 1796. He was appointed librarian of the Imperial
Library, and secretary of the Academy of Sciences in
his native city. He published "Contributions to the
History of the National Literature of Castile," (1832,)
a work " On the Romantic Poetry of the Spaniards,"
(1847,) and other similar works. Died Feb. 18, 1866.

Wolf, woolf, [Ger. pron. wolf; Lat. WOL'FIUS,]
(FRIEDRICH AUGUST,) a celebrated German scholar
and critic, was born at Hainrode, near Nordhausen, in
Prussia, on the 151)1 of February, 1759. He studied at
Nordhausen, and had become a good classical scholar
when he entered the University of Gottingen, in 1777.
He acquired in early life a habit of independent judg-
ment, and devoted himself at Gottingen to the study
of philology. He incurred the ill will of Heyne, who
refused to admit him to one of his lectures. In 1779 he
was employed as teacher at Ilfeld. He published an
edition of Plato's "Symposium" in 1782, enriched with
notes and an introduction, in which he gave proof of
critical sagacity. Having married about 1782, he was

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fit; mit; not; good; moon;




appointed professor of philosophy at Halle in 1783, and
director of the Pedagogic Institute, which he trans-
formed into a philological seminary or normal school.
He had formed an exalted idea of the vocation of
teacher, which he pursued with much zeal and success.
During the twenty-three years in which he occupied
the chair at Halle, he gave more than fifty courses of
lectures on different authors and subjects, besides his
labours in the philological seminary. He published an
edition of Homer's poems in 1784 and 1785, and an
edition of Demosthenes' oration against Leptines, about
1790. The latter opened a new era in the study of
the Greek orators. His celebrity was increased by his
"Prolegomena ad Homerum," (1795,) in which he sup-
ported with much ingenuity the novel and paradoxical
theory that the " Iliad" and " Odyssey" were not written
by Homer or any single poet, but that they were
formed by the junction of several poems, composed by
different rhapsodists. This work produced a great
sensation among the learned throughout Europe ; but
his theory was accepted in full by a very few only.
Wolfs claim to priority in this discovery was disputed
by Heyne, and was defended by the former in " Letters
to Heyne," (1797,) which are regarded as models of
controversy and refined irony. He published an edition
of Suetonius, (1802,) and an edition of Homer, (" Ho-
meri et Homeridarum Opera," 4 vols., 1804-07.)

In consequence of the war, the University of Halle
was closed in 1806, soon after which Wolf removed to
Berlin, and took a prominent part in organizing the
university of that city. He received the title of privy
councillor at Berlin. Wolf and Buttmann published
the "Museum der Alterthumswissenschaft," (1807-10.)
In a remarkable treatise, entitled "Exhibition of Archae-
ology," (" Darstellung der Alterthumswissenschaft,") he
gave a programme of the studies of antiquity and phi-
lology which he wished to be pursued. He published
an excellent philological journal, called "Literarische
Analekten," (1817-20.) To improve his health, he visited
the south of France in the spring of 1824. He died a-t
Marseilles in August of that year.

See HANHART, " Erinnerungen" an F. A. Wolf," 1825: W.
KOERTB, " Leben und Stndien Wolfs." 2 vols., 1833; " Nouvelle
Biographic G^nerale :" "North British Review" for June, 1865.

'Wolf, [Lat. WOL'FIUS,] (HIERONYMUS,) a German
scholar, born at Dettingen in 1516. He studied at Wit-
tenberg, and became in 1557 professor of Greek, and
rector of the gymnasium at Augsburg. He was one
of the best Greek scholars of his time, and published
editions of the works of Isocrates, of Nicephorus Grego-
ras, of itschines and Demosthenes, and other classics.
Died in 1580.

See GERLACH, " Dissertatio de Vita H. Wolfii," 1743 ; M. ADAH,
" Vitse Germanorum Philosophorum."

Wolf, (JOHANN,) a German medical writer, born in
Zweibriicken (Deux-Ponts) in 1537, was professor at
Marburg. Died in 1616.

Wolf, (JOHANN,) a German jurist, said to have been
a twin brother of the preceding. He published "A
Key to History," ("Clavis Historiarum,") and other
works. Died in 1606.

Wolf, (JOHANN CHRISTIAN,) a German philologist,
bom at Wernigerode in 1689. He became professor of
physics and poetry at Hamburg in 1725, and edited the
extant fragments of Sappho and other Greek poetesses.
Died in 1770.

German divine and scholar, a brother of the preceding,
was born at Wernigerode in 1683. He became professor
of Oriental languages and rector at the gymnasium in
Hamburg. He published a " History of the Hebrew
Lexicons," (in Latin,) " Bibliotheca Hebraica," and other
learned works, also editions of the Letters of Libanius,
and other classics. Died in 1739.

See J. H. VON SEHLEN, "Commentatio de Vita J. C. Wolfii,"
1717: " Nouvelle Biographic G^ne'rale."

Wolf, (KASPAR,) a German medical writer, born at
Zurich about 1525, was a friend of C. Gesner. He was
professor of physics and Greek at Zurich. Died in 1601.

Wolf, (KASPAR FRIEDRICH,) a German anatomist,
born in Berlin in 1735 ; died in 1794.

Wolf or Wolft von, fon wolf, [Lat. Woi/Fius,l

(JoilANN CHRISTIAN,) FREIHERR, a celebrated German
philosopher and mathematician, born at Breslau, January
24, 1679, (or, according to some authorities, 1674.) After
he had studied for some years in the College of Breslau,
he entered the University of Jena in 1699. He devoted
himself to the exact sciences, and began at an early age
to meditate the reform of practical philosophy by the
application of mathematical methods. About 1701 he
passed from Jena to Leipsic, where he took his degree
in philosophy, and delivered lectures. He became ac-
quainted with Leibnitz, who exercised considerable
influence over him. In 1707 he was appointed professor
of mathematics and philosophy at Halle. He published
"Thoughts on the Powers of the Human Mind," (1712,)
and " Elements of Universal Science," (" Elementa
Matheseos universal, " 1713-15.)

His peace was disturbed by the intrigues of the
professors of theology, who censured his doctrines as
dangerous to religion and morality. Instigated by these
adversaries, among whom Joachim Lange was especially
violent, the King of Prussia removed Wolf from his chair
in 1723, and banished him from the kingdom. Before
that year he had published " Rational Thoughts on God,
the World, and the Human Soul," (1720,) "Thoughts
on the Search after Happiness," (1720,) and other works
He was professor of mathematics and philosophy at
Marburg for eighteen years, (1723-41.) During this
period he published a number of works, among which
are a celebrated "Treatise on Logic," (" Philosophia
Rationalis, sive Logica methodo Scientifica pertractata,"
1728,) " Primitive Philosophy, or Ontology," (" Philoso-
phia prima, sive Ontologia," 1730.) "Moral Philosophy,
or Ethics," ("Philosophia moralis, sive Ethica," 1732,)
" Rational Psychology," (" Psychologia rationalis," 1 734,)
and " Universal Practical Philosophy," (" Philosophia
practica universalis," 2 vols., 1738-39.) About 1733
he was invited by the king to return to Halle. He
declined to change his position until the accession of
Frederick the Great, (1740,) when he resumed his pro-
fessorship at Halle. He was appointed privy councillor
and professor of international law. Among his later
works were "The Law of Nature," ("Jus Naturae," 8
vols., 1740-49,) and "The Law of Nations," ("Jus
Gentium," 1749.) He had married Catherine Marie
Brandisin in 1716, and had several children. As a phi-
losopher, he developed and popularized the doctrines
of Leibnitz, his mind being methodizing rather than
creative. Died in April, 1754.

See STIEBRITZ, " Nachrichtvon Wolfs Leben und Ende," 1754;
GOTTSCHKD, " Historische Lobschrift auf C. Wolf," 1 755 : WUTTKK,
"C. Wolfs eigene Lebensbeschreibung," 1841 : C. F. BAUMEISTHR,
"Vita, Fata et Scripta C. Wolfii," 1739 : FONTENELLH, " Eloges."

Wolfart, wol'faRt, (PETER,) a German medical writer,
born at Hanau in 1675 ; died in 1726.

Wolfe, woolf, (CHARLES,) an Irish clergyman and
poet, born at Dublin in 1791. He studied in the uni-
versity of his native city, took the degree of B.A. in
1814, and in 1817 was ordained. He died in 1823, of
consumption, at the early age of thirty-one. His works
were published in 1825, under the title of "Remains
of the Late Rev. Charles Wolfe," etc. : they consist of
sermons, prose sketches, and lyric poems of great
beauty. Among the last-named is his "Burial of Sir
John Moore," which is esteemed one of the finest
productions of the kind in the language.

'Wolfe, (JAMES,) a celebrated English officer, born in
Kent in 1726. He served with great distinction in Ger-
many in the early campaigns of the Seven Years' war,
and had a prominent part in the capture of Louisburg
from the French in 1758. He was appointed in 1759 to
command the land-forces in the expedition against the
French in Canada, having been previously made major-
general. After several ineffectual attempts to drive the
French army from their position near Quebec, he at
length succeeded in ascending the Heights of Abraham,
commanding that city, and, in the battle which ensued,
gained a decisive victory over the enemy. He was,
however, mortally wounded in the action, dying on the
field of battle immediately after he was informed of the
result. His opponent, General Montcalm, also fell in
this engagement, and the French lost their possessions
in Canada.

; cuss; gkard; gas/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; *h as in this.

lanations, p. 23. >




Wolff See WOLF.

'Wolff, wolf, (ALBERT,) a German sculptor, born at
Neu-Strelitz, November 14, 1814. He was a pupil of
Rauch, and in 1856 was made a professor in the Academy
of Fine Arts at Berlin. His best works are regarded as
model examples of the classic style. Died in 1892.

Wolff wolf, (EMIL,) a German sculptor of high repu-
tation, born in Berlin in 1802, resided many years in
Rome. He executed a number of portrait-busts and
mythological subjects. Among the former are those of
Niebuhr and Prince Albert. Died September 29, 1879.

Wolff, woolf, (JOSEPH,) a converted Jew and traveller,
born about 1795. He was ordained a priest of the
Anglican Church about 1838. He performed a journey
to Bokhara, of which he published a narrative. He
wrote other works. Died in 1862.

See "Blackwood's Magazine" for August, 1861.

'Wolff, (OSKAR LUDWIG BERNHARD,) a popular
German writer, born at Altona in 1799, was the author
of numerous tales, romances, and satirical sketches.
Among these we may name " The Natural History of
German Students," and "Poetical Home Treasure of
the German People." Died in 1851.

Wolff, (Pius ALEXANDER,) a celebrated German actor
and dramatic writer, born at Augsburg in 1782. He
excelled particularly as a tragedian, and his representa-
tions of Hamlet, Orestes, Max Piccolomini, and Tasso
were unsurpassed. He was the author of "Caesareo,"
and other comedies, and a drama entitled " Preciosa,"
which forms the text of one of Von Weber's operas.
Died in 1828.

Wolff, (WiLHELM,) a German sculptor, known also
as THIERWOLFF, (ter'wolf,) was born at Fehrbellin, in
Brandenburg, April 6, 1816. He is noted for his animal-

Wolffhart See LYCOSTHENES.

Wolffl or Woelffl, wolf'l, (JOSEPH,) an eminent
German composer and pianist, born at Salzburg in 1772,
was a pupil of Michael Haydn and Leopold Mozart.
In 1795 he visited Vienna, where he was received with
enthusiasm, and subsequently resided for a time in Paris
as music-teacher to the empress Josephine. He died
in London about 1812. His compositions are chiefly
operas, and pieces for the piano. As a pianist, he was
regarded as scarcely inferior to Beethoven.

Wolfgang, woolf 'gang, [Ger. pron. Wolfgang,] Prince
of Anhalt, a German Reformer and adherent of Luther,
was born in 1492. Having taken up arms against the
Imperialists, he was outlawed by the emperor Charles V.
in 1547. Died in 1566.

WolfiuB. See WOLF.

Wolfram von Eschenbach. See ESCHENBACH,


' Wolfter, wolf'ter, (PETER,) a German historian, born
at Mannheim in 1758. He wrote on the history of the
German empire. Died in 1805.

Wolgemuth. See WOHLGEMUTH.

Wolke\ wol'keh, (CHRISTIAN HEINRICH,) a German
teacher and educational writer, born at Jever in 1741 ;
died in 1825.

Wollaston, wool'las-ton, (WILLIAM,) an English
writer on ethics and theology, was born in Staffordshire
in 1659. He studied at Sidney College, Cambridge,
where he took the degree of A.M. in 1681. His principal
work, entitled "The Religion of Nature Delineated,''
(1724,) obtained extensive popularity, and was translated
into French. He also wrote a number of critical, philo-
sophical, and theological treatises. Died in 1724.

See " Biographia Britannica:" CLARKE, " Life of Wollaston,'
prefixed to his edition of "The Religion of Nature,"

Wollaston, (WILLIAM HYDE,) an eminent English
chemist and natural philosopher, born in London in 1 766.
He was a son of Francis Wollaston, an astronomer,
who was a grandson of William, noticed above. Having
been educated at Cambridge, he studied medicine, anc
took the degree of M.D. in 1793; but he soon re-
nounced the practice of medicine, and devoted himself
to scientific researches. He was chosen secretary of
'he Royal Society in 1806, and president of the same
in 1820. He invented the reflecting goniometer, by

which the angles of crystals are measured, and the
camera lucida, (1812.) About 1802 he verified the laws
of double refraction in Iceland spar, announced by
Huyghens, and wrote a treatise "On the Oblique Re-
raction of Iceland Crystal." He acquired wealth by
the manufacture of platinum by an improved method,
laving been the first who reduced that metal into ingots
n a state of purity. About 1805 he discovered the
metals palladium and rhodium. He contributed thirty-
eight memoirs to the " Philosophical Transactions."
The identity of galvanism with common electricity waa
first demonstrated by Dr. Wollaston. He was a very
skilful experimenter and accurate observer. Among his
valuable inventions is a chemical sliding-rule, by which
the equivalents of substances are readily ascertained,
and an ingenious method of rendering platinum malle-
able. The latter was published just before his death.
Died in December, 1828.

See G. MOLL, " De Dood van Dr. W. H. Wollaston ;" THOMSON,
41 History of Chemistry;" " Noavelle Biographic Gene"rale:"
"British Quarterly Review" for August, 1846.

Wolle, wol'leh, (CHRISTOPH,) a German writer on
theology, born at Leipsic in 1700, was well versed in the
Oriental languages. Died in 1761.

Wol'le, |?BTKE,) a bishop, born in Saint John, Dan-
ish West Indies, January 5, 1792. He was educated in
Pennsylvania, and about 1830 became a bishop of the
Moravian Church. Died at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania,
November 14, 1871.

Wolleb, wol'lep, [Lat. WOLLE'BIUS,) (JOHANN,) a

Swiss divine, born at Bale in 1536. He was professor

i the University of Bale, and wrote a work entitled

Summary of Theology," ("Compendium Theologiae,")
which is highly commended. Died in 1626.

Wollebius. See WOLLEB.

Wollner or Woellner, von, fon wol'ner, (JoUANN
CHRISTIAN,) a Prussian statesman, born at Dovritz about
1730. He was ennobled by Frederick William II. in
1786, and was appointed minister of state and justice,
and director of ecclesiastic affairs, in 1788. He insisted
on rigid orthodoxy in the clergy. Died in 1800.

Woll9tonecraft,w661'stou-kraft, (MARY,) afterwards
MRS. GODWIN, a celebrated English authoress, born in
1759. There is some doubt as to the place of her birth ;
but her parents removed to the vicinity of London when
she was about sixteen years old. Owing to the poverty
of her family, and the violent temper of her father, her
early training, both moral and intellectual, was very
defective. Having by her own exertions fitted herself to
be a teacher, she opened a school at Islington in 1783,
in which she was assisted by two sisters and an intimate
friend. In 1786 she published her first work, entitled
"Thoughts on the Education of Daughters." She next
translated into English Salzmann's "Elements of Mo-
rality," and Lavater's "Physiognomy." In 1791 she
wrote an answer to Burke's " Reflections on the French
Revolution," which was soon followed by her " Vindi-
cation of the Rights of Woman." In 1792 she visited
Paris, where she wrote " A Moral and Historical View of
the French Revolution." About this time she formed an
unfortunate attachment to an American named Imlay,
and, in consequence of his desertion, twice attempted to
destroy herself. In 1795, having business in Norway,
she travelled in that country and in Sweden, and, on
her return, published " Letters from Norway." This
work shows great shrewdness and powers of observation,
and contains many fine descriptive passages. Mary
Wollstonecraft was married to Godwin, the celebrated
novelist, in 1796, and died in 1797, after giving birth
to a daughter, who became the wife of the poet Shelley.

See WILLIAM GODWIN, "Life of Mary Godwin :" MRS. ELWOOD,
" Memoirs of the Literary Ladies of England from the Commence-
ment of the Last Century," vol. ii., (1843 ;) " Monthly Review" fol
June, 1792, April, 1795, and July, 1796.

Wolmar, wol'maR, or Volkmar, volk'maR, (MEL-
CHIOR,) a Swiss jurist and Hellenist, born at Rothweil
about 1497. He was professor of law at Tubingen, and
taught Greek to Calvin. Died in 1561.

Wolowski, vo-lov'skee, (LEWIS FRANCIS MICHAEL
RAYMOND,) a political economist, born at Warsaw in
1810; died at Gisors, August 14, 1876.

a, e, T, 6, ii, y, long: a. e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, li, y\ short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; mlt; not; good; i




Wolseley, woolz'le, (Sir GARNET JOSEPH,) LORD, a
British general, was born at Golden Bridge House, near
Dublin, Ireland, June 4, 1833. He entered the army as
an ensign in 1852, and served with great distinction in
Kurmah, the Crimea, at Lucknow, in China, and in the
Manitoba rebellion of 1867, which last he suppressed.
He was knighted in 1870, and subsequently com-
manded in the Ashantee war, in Cape Colony and
Cyprus, was governor of Natal and the Transvaal, and
in 1882 won the victory of Tell-el-Kebir in Egypt.
For this he was gazetted full general and made a
baron. After the Soudan campaign of 1884-85 he
was created viscount, was appointed commander-in-
chief in Ireland in 1890, made field-marshal in 1894,
and succeeded the Duke of Cambridge as commander-
in-chief of the army in 1895. Lord Roberts suc-
ceeded him in this office in 1900. He was the author
of several works of literature.

Wplaey, wdol'ze, (THOMAS,) a celebrated English
courtier and cardinal, born at Ipswich in 1471. His
origin was rather obscure. According to a doubtful
tradition, he was the son of a butcher. He was educated
at Magdalene College, Oxford, where he obtained the
degree of B.A. at the early age of fifteen. He was elected
a Fellow of his college, was ordained a priest, and was
presented to the living of Lymington in 1500. Soon
after that date he became chaplain to Henry VII., and
was sent on a delicate mission to the emperor Maxi-
milian, which he performed with great celerity and suc-
cess. He obtained in 1508 the lucrative place of Dean
of Lincoln. Soon after the accession of Henry VIII.,
Wolsey's patron Bishop Fox procured his appointment
as royal almoner. Having excellent qualifications for a
courtier, he gained the special favour of the young king,
and was rapidly promoted. He became Canon of Wind-
sor in 151 1, Dean of York and Bishop of Tournay in
1513, Bishop of Lincoln in March, 1514, Archbishop of
York in September, 1514, and cardinal in 1515. About
the end of the last-named year he was appointed chan-
cellor. He was now the prime favourite and chief
minister of Henry VIII. In his style of living he dis-
played a princely magnificence. He had superior talents
for business, and understood the public interests, which
he seems to have promoted except when they interfered
with his ambition. His favour and influence were courted
by Charles V. and Francis I. when they became (1519)
competitors for the imperial crown. Wolsey aspired to
the papacy, and was a candidate for it at the death of Leo
X., in 1522. When he was defeated, he showed his re-
sentment against Charles V. because that monarch failed
So support his pretensions. He built a grand palace at
Hampton Court, which he presented to Henry VIII.

"The numerous enemies," says Hume, " whom Wol-
sey's sudden elevation, his aspiring character, and his
haughty deportment had raised him, served only to
rivet him faster in Henry's confidence. . . . That artful
prelate likewise, well acquainted with the king's impe-
rious temper, concealed from him the absolute ascendant
which he had acquired, and, while he secretly directed
all public councils, he ever pretended a blind submission
to the will and authority of his master." (" History of
England," vol. iii.) In 1523 he was appointed legate of
the pope for life. Wolsey fortified the king's scruples
in relation to his marriage witli Queen Catherine, partly
with a view of promoting a breach with Charles V. ; but
he lost the favour of Henry, probably because he failed
to gain the pope's consent to the divorce of Catherine.
The enmity of Anne Boleyn also contributed to his fall.
In October, 1529, the great seal was taken from him.
An indictment was laid against him that he had pro-
cured bulls from Rome, contrary to a statute of Richard
II. The court pronounced against him a sentence by
which his lands and goods were forfeited ; but Henry
granted him a pardon for all offences. He was sonn after
again arrested on a charge of treason ; but before his trial
began he died, at Leicester Abbey, in November, 1530.

See T. STORER, "Life of Thomas Wolsey," 1599: G. CAVEN-
DISH. " Life of Cardinal Wolsey," 1641 ; FIDDES, " Life of Cardinal
Wolsey," 1724; J. GROVE, " History of Cardinal Wolsey," 4 vols.,
1742-44; J. GALT, "Life and Administration of Wolsey," 1812.

Woltmann, von, fon wolt'man, (KARL Lunwio,) a
German historian, born at Oldenburg in 1770. He pub-
lished a "History of Great Britain," (1799,) a "History
of the Peace of Westphalia," (1809,) a continuation of
Schiller's "Thirty Years' War," and other works. Died
in 1817.

His wife, CAROLINE VON WOLTMANN, originally
named STOSCH, (slosh,) was the author of several his-
torical and fictitious compositions. Died in 1847.

Wolzogen, wolt-so'gen, (JOHANN LUDWIG,) a Ger
man Socinian writer, born in Austria in 1596; died near
Breslau in 1658.

Wolzogen, van, vtn wol-zo'gen or wol-zo'Hen,
(Louis,) a Dutch theologian, born at Amersfort in 1632.
He preached at Amsterdam in the Walloon church, and
wrote several theological works. Died in 1690.

Wolzogen, von, fon wolt-so'gen, (JUSTUS LUDWIG,)
BARON, a Prussian general, born at Meiningen in 1773,
was a step-son of Karoline von Wolzogen, noticed
below. He served against the French in the principal
campaigns from 1807 to 1815, and obtained the rank of
general of infantry. Died in 1845.

Wolzogen, von, (KAROLINE,) a German writer, born
at Rudolstadt in 1763. Her original name was LENGS-
FELD, and she was a sister-in-law of the celebrated
Schiller. She published in 1798 a romance entitled
"Agnes von Lilien," which was received with great
favour. Her " Life of Schiller, drawn from the Recol-
lections of his Family," etc., came out in 1830, in 2
vols. It gives a highly interesting and truthful delinea-
tion of the life and character of that great poet Died
in 1847.

Womock, woo'mok, or Wo'mack, (LAWRENCE,)
an English theologian, born in Norfolk in 1612. He
took an active part in the controversies of the time,
and wrote against the Puritans and the nonconformists.
He became Bishop of Saint David's in 1683. Died in

Wood, (ALPHONSO,) an American botanist, born at
Chesterfield, New Hampshire, September 17, 1810. He
graduated at Dartmouth College in 1834, was president
of the Ohio Female College, 1851-57, and held professor-
ships in Terre Haute, Indiana, and elsewhere. He pub-

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 407 of 425)