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noticed above, became confidential secretary to Cardina
de Retz. He is known as the author of the historica.
"Memoirs" from 164810 1665, (1718.) An English trans-
lation of this work was published in 1755. r '' s " Memoirs"
are designed to explain and complete those of De Retz.

Joly, (JusEPH ROMAIN,) a French monk and writer,
born in 1715 ; died in 1805.

Joly, (MARC ANTOINE,) a French dramatist, born in
1672, wrote "The School of Lovers," and "The Jealous
Wife." Died in 1753.

Joly or Jolly, (MARIE ELISABETH,) a noted French
actress, born at Versailles in 1761. In 1793 she was
imprisoned by the revolutionists, but regained her free-
dom on condition that she should perform at the theatre
of the Republic. Died in 1798.

Joly, (PHILIPPE Louis,) a learned French ecclesiastic
and philologist, born at Dijon about 1712. Among his
works are " Critical Remarks on the Dictionary of Bayle,"
(1748,) and a " Treatise on French Versification," (1751.)
Died in 1782.

See QuiRARD, "La France LitteVaire. "

Joly de B6vy, zho'le' deh bi've', (Louis PHILIPPE
JOSEPH,) a French judge and religious writer, born at
Dijon in 1736; died in 1822.

Joly-Clerc, zho'le' klaiR, (NICOLAS,) a French natu-
ralist, wrote a number of works on botany. Died in 1817.

Joly de Fleury, zho'le' deh fluh're', (GUILLAUME
FRANCOIS,) a learned and eloquent French advocate and
magistrate, was born in Paris in 1675. For more than
twenty years he was attorney-general in the Parliament of
Paris. He wrote several treatises on law. Died in 1756.

Joly de Fleury, (JEAN FRANCOIS,) a French financier,
a son of the preceding, was born in 1718. He succeeded
Necker as minister of finances in 1781, and resigned in

French army, became aide-de-camp to Ney about 1804,
and presented to Bonaparte on the field of Austerlitz
his "Treatise on the Grand Operations of War." A
few days after this event he was appointed chief of the
staff of Ney. He received the title of baron for his
conduct at Jena in 1806, and was employed in Spain in
1808. In 1811 he became a general of brigade, and in
1812 French governor of Wilna. He contributed greatly


to the victory of Bautzen in 1813. His promotion having
been obstructed by the enmity of Berliner, he quitted
the French service in 1813, and entered that of Russia,
with the rank of lieutenant-general, and became aide-de-
camp to the emperor Alexander. Died about April i,
1869. Among his chief works are "Traite des grandes
Operations militaires, ou Histoire critique et militaire des
Guerresde Frederic II compare'es a celles de la Revolu-
tion," (5 vols., 1805,) a "Critical and Military History of
the Campaigns of the Revolution from 1792 to iSoi,"
(15 vols., 1819-24,) and " Precis de 1'Art de la Guerre,"
(5th ed., 2 vols., 1838.) The works of Jomini are among
the best that have ever been written on the art of war.

See PASCAL, "Observations sur la Vie et les Ouvrages de Baron
Jomini:" QU^RARD, "La France LiueVaire;" " Nouvelle Biogra-
Dhie Gene>ale ;" "Monthly Review," vol. id., lS*>, (Appendix.)

Jon Areson. See ARESON, (JoN.)

Jon, du, (FRANCIS.) See JUNIUS.

Jonae, yo'na, (PETER,) Bishop of Strengnas, in Swe-
den, was professor of theology at Upsal when John III.
attempted to re-establish the Catholic religion. Jonx
boldly opposed this proceeding. Died in 1607.

Jon3.ll " r -T/-v'T5a I I I . 1 , T1H*. (~* _ 'I , ....t


subject of the book bearing his name, is supposed to

have lived under the reign of Jeroboam II., about 800

or Jo'nas, |Heb. HJV ; Gr. 'lovuf; Lat
one of the minor Hebrew prophets, and the

1783. Died in 1802. B.C. ; but some place him under that of Jehu.

Joly de Fleury, (JEAN Omer o'maiR',) a French See II. Kings xiv. 15; Matthew xii. 39, 41 ; Luke xi. 29, 33.
priest, nephew of Guillaume Fran9ois, noticed above. Jo'uah of Cor'dova, known also as Marinus or
Died in 1755. Merinos, (in Arabic, Aboo-1 Waleed Merwan IBN

Joly de Maizeroy. See MAIZEROY. (JANAH,) an eminent Jewish rabbi, born at Cordova,

Jomard, zho'mSR.', (EnME FRANCOIS,) a French Spain, about 990 A.n. He was a very able Hebrew lexi-
archsologist and geographer, born at Versailles in 1777. cograjjher and grammarian, and his principal work,
He accompanied the army to Egypt in 1798, returned "Kitabel Tankih," or " The Book of Minute Research,"
in 1802, and was appointed secretary of the Egyptian is sliil highly valued,
commission. He contributed to the redaction of the j Jonas. See JONAH.

great " Description of Egypt," and, as imperial com- i Jonas, yo'nas, Jonae, yo'ni, or Jonsaon, yon'son,
missary, directed the engraving and impression of the (ARNGRIM,) a learned historian, antiquary, and divine,
same for twenty years, (1807-26.) The portions of this born in Iceland about 1568, is said to have studied
work written by Jomard were published separately, astronomy under Tycho Brahe. Most of his works
with the title of "Observations on Ancient and Modern relate to the history of Iceland. Died in 1648.
Egypt, or a Historical and Picturesque Description of I Jonas, zho'na', (MILE,) a French musical composer
its Monuments," (4 vols., 1830.) He was a member of "
the Institute. Died in 1862.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale.

Jombert, zhoN'baiR', (CHARLES ANTOINE,) a French
writer on art, born in Paris in 1712; died in 1784.

Joraelli, yo-mel'lee, (NiccoLb,) a celebrated Italian
composer, born at Aversa, near Naples, in 1714. He
studied under Feo, Leo, and Martini. His first opera,
" L'Errore amoroso," produced when he was twenty-
three years of age, rendered him so famous that he was
soon after invited to Rome, where he composed two
more operas and was patronized by the Cardinal of
York. In 1742 he went to Vienna, where he formed an
intimate friendship with Metastasio and gave instruc-
tions in music to the empress Maria Theresa. He was
employed as musician or chapel-master in Saint Peter's
at Rome from 1749 to 1754. The Duke t>( Wiirtemberg
having invited him to enter his service as chapel-master
to the court, Jomelli removed to Stuttgart, where he
passed about seventeen years, ( 1 754-70.) Died at Naples
in Aug;s^ 1774. Among his best productions are operas
entitled " Didone," (1745,) " Eumene," (i 746,) " Merope,"
('747.) and "Ezio," (1748,) several oratorios and masses,
and a miserere for two voices.

See Fgris, "Biographic Universelle des Musiciens;" PIETKO

ALFIBKI, " Notizie biografiche d
Biographic Gi<ne>ale;" CHORON

N. Jomelli," 1845: "Nouvelle
FAYOLLK, " Dictionnaire dea

Jomini, zho'me'ne', (HENRI,) BARON, an able general
and eminent writer on strategy, was born at Payerne,
in the Swiss Canton de Vaud, in 1779. He entered the

of Jewish origin, born March 5, 1827. He produced
"Le Duel de Benjamin," (1855,) " Le Roi boit," (1857,)
" Les deux Arlequins," (1865,) " Le Canard a trois Bees,
(1869,) and other operas-bouffes.

Jonas, yo'nJs, (JUSTUS,) an eminent German Re
former and writer, born at Nordhausen in 1493. He
became in 1521 professor of theology at Wittenberg
He assisted Luther in the translation of the Old Tes
lament, accompanied him to the Diet at Worms and at
Augsburg, and had a share in the composition of the
so-called Torgau Articles. He also translated a numbei
of Luther's works, and Melanchthon's " Defence (Apol-
ogy) of the Augsburg Confession," from the Latin into
German. Died in 1555.

See P. EKERMAN, "Vita et Acta Dr. J. Jonz," Upsal, 1761 ; G
C KNAPP " MI..*;,* j~ r ._ T iM_i_, i.

. ' Narratio de Justo Jona Theologo," etc., 1817; F.RSCW
onj GRUBHR, "Allgemeioe Encyclopaedic ;" "Nouvelle Biographic
Generate : L. REINHAHD, " Life of Justus Jonas," (in Latin,) 1731.

Jonas or Jonae, (RuNOLPH,) a scholar and author,
born in Iceland, graduated at Copenhagen, where he
fixed his residence after 1649. He wrote "Elements
of the Northern Languages," and " Rudiments of the
Icelandic Grammar." Died in 1654.

Jou'a-thau, 1 1 leb. |n:irr, ] son of King Saul, and the

ost intimate friend of the psalmist David. The death
of this prince, who fell with his fathe', near Mount Gilboa,
while fighting the Philistines, furnished the subject o/
one of the most beautiful of David's songs.

See I. Samuel xviii., xix., xx. ; II. Samuel L 17-27.

Jon'athan Ap'phus, ( af fus, ) a celebrated Jewish
leader and high-priest, succeeded his elder brother, Judas

-e as /<; c as .,; g hard; g asy ; G, H, K,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. ( J^=See Explanations, p. 23.'




Maccabseus, in 161 B.C., as chief ruler of his nation. For
seventeen years he governed with wisdom and justice, and
carried on successful wars with many of the surrounding
nations. During the civil dissensions in the kingdom
of Syria he was decoyed into the city of Ptolemais and
massacred with his entire escort.

Jonathan Ben TJz-zi'el (or uz'ze-el) or U-zi'el,
a Jewish rabbi, supposed to have been contemporary
with the prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. He
was the author of the "Targum," a Chaldaic paraphrase
of most of the Hebrew prophetical books.

Jonckbloet, yonk'bloot, (WiLLEM JOSEPH AN-
DREAS,) a Dutch author, born at the Hague, July 6, 1817.
He was educated at Leyden, and held professorships of
the Dutch language and literature at Groningen and
Leyden. He published histories of poetry in the Neth-
erlands, and of Dutch literature. Died in 1885.

Joncourt, de, deh zhdN'kooR', (ELIE,) a Dutch writer,
of French extraction, born at the Hague in 1707. He
was one of the editors of the " Bibliotheque des Sciences
et des Arts," (50 vols., 1754-80,) and wrote various
works. Died about 1775.

Jonctys, yonk'tis, (DANIEL,) a Dutch liafratmr-and
physician, born at Dort, lived many years at Rotterdam.
Among his works was an able treatise against torture.
Died in 1654.

Jones, jonz, (AttsoN,) an American physician, Presi-
dent of the republic of Texas at the time of its annexation,
was born in Berkshire county, Massachusetts, in 1798.
He settled in Brazoria, Texas, in 1833, took a promi-
nent part in the political and military movements which
resulted in the independence of that republic, was min-
ister to the United States in 1838, and afterwards for
three years secretary of state under President Houston.
In 1844 he succeeded Houston as President Died by
his own hand in 1858.

Jones, (CiiAKi.Ks COLCOCK,) JR., an American author,
born at Savannah, Georgia, October 28, 1831. He
graduated at Princeton College in 1852, became a
lawyer, was an officer in the Confederate army, and
after 1865 removed to New York, returning to Georgia
in 1887. Among his works are " Ancient Tumuli in
Georgia," (1869,) "Antiquities of the Southern In-
dians," (1873,) " De Solo's March through Georgia,"
(1880,) "Negro Myths from the Georgia Coast,"
(1888,) etc. Died July 19, 1893.

Jones, jonz, (DAVID,) a Welsh poet, born in Caer-
narvonshire, was also a collector of Welsh manuscripts.
Died about 1780.

Jones, (DAVID R.,) an American general, born in
South Carolina about 1827, graduated at West Point in
1846. He served as brigadier-general in the army of
General Lee at ArUietam, September 17, 1862. Died
in 1863.

Jones, (EDWARD,) a Welsh musician and bard, born
in Merionethshire about 1750. He published, besides
other works, " Musical and Poetical Relics of the French
Bards," (1784.) Died in 1821.

Jones, jonz, (ERNEST,) M.P., an English poet and
Chartist. He became the leader of the Chartist move-
ment about 1846. He was imprisoned about two years
for his radical political speeches, (1848-49.) Among his
works are "The Wood Spirit," (1841,) and "Chartist
Lyrics." He was elected a member of Parliament in
1869, and died the same year.

Jones, (GRIFFITH,) an English author, born in 1721.
He edited at different times several periodicals, and was
connected with Dr. Johnson in the " Literary Magazine"
and with Goldsmith in the " British Magazine." Among
his works are " Great Events from Little Causes," and
several "Liliputian Histories." Died in 1786.

Jones, jonz, (HENRY,) an Irish poet and dramatic
writer, born at Drogheda about 1720, was by trade a
bricklayer. His productions attracted the attention of
the Earl of Chesterfield, then lord lieutenant of Ireland,
who took him to England and procured a large sub-
scription for his poems. Among his works we may cite
the "Tragedy of the Earl of Essex," (1753,) and
"The Cave of Idra." Died in 1770.

Jones. (HENRY ARTHUR,) an English dramatist,

born at Grandborough in 1851. His first marked
success as a playwright was with " The Silver King,"
(1882.) Later plays are " The Middleman," (1889,)
" The Triumph of the Philistines," (1895,) etc.

Jones, (HENRY BENCE,) F.R.S., an English physician,
writer, and lecturer on medical subjects, born at Lowes-
toft in 1813. He graduated at Cambridge in 1836, and
commenced the study of medicine. In 1846 he was
elected physician to Saint George's Hospital, and a Fel-
low of the Royal Society. His principal works were
" Animal Chemistry," " Lectures on Pathology and
Therapeutics," and "The Life and Letters of Faraday."
Died in London, April 20, 1873.

Jones, (HUGH BOLTON,) an American artist, born at
Baltimore, October 20, 1848. Among his best pictures
are "The Poplars," "Tangier," "The Wayside Pool,"
"The Return of the Herd," " October," " On Herring
Run," and "The Ferry Inn." In 1883 lie was elected to
the National Academy of Design, New York.

Jones (INIGO,) a distinguished architect, styled "the
English Palladio," was born in London about 1572.
Being apprenticed to a joiner, his talent for designing
attracted the attention of the Earl of Pembroke, who
furnished him with means to travel through Europe.
While in Italy, he accepted an invitation from Christian
IV. to visit Denmark. The sister of that monarch was
the queen of James I. of England ; and thus the way
was paved to the royal patronage when he reached his
native land in 1605. In a short time he was appointed
architect to the queen and to Prince Henry, in which
position he formed a friendship with Ben Jonson. They
subsequently quarrelled, and the poet ridiculed him in
several plays. In 1612 he visited Italy a second time;
and it was at this period that he fully adopted the classic
style of architecture, which was then but little known in
England. On his return he became surveyor -general of
the royal buildings. He died in 1653. Of the edifices
; designed and constructed by him may be mentioned the
palace at Whitehall, and the west front of Old Saint
Paul's. He wrote a work entitled " Stonhenge Re-

Jones, (JACOB,) COMMODORE, an American naval
officer, born in Kent county, Delaware, in 1770. He
became a lieutenant about 1801, and in October, 1812,
'commanded the sloop-of-war Wasp, with which he cap-
tured the British sloop Frolic, which carried more guns
than the Wasp. He was promoted to the rank of post-
captain in 1813, and obtained command of the frigate
Macedonian. Died in Philadelphia in 1850.

Jones, (JAMES CHAMBERLAIN,) a United States Sen-
ator, born in Davidson county, Tennessee, in 1809. In
1841 he was chosen by the Whigs Governor of the State,
James K. Polk being his competitor. He was re-elected
in 1843, when Mr. Polk was again the opposing can-
didate. In the National Whig Convention of 1848
Governor Jones strenuously advocated the nomination
of Henry Clay ; but after the selection of General Taylor
as the choice of the Convention he entered the canvass
warmly in his support, and spoke to large audiences
in different States of the Union. He was elec'ed to the
United States Senate in 1851, and served the full term
of six years. He supported the Kansas-Nebraska bill
in 1854, and thenceforward acted principally with the
Democratic party. Died in 1859.

Jones, (JEREMIAH,) a learned and eloquent English
dissenting minister, born in 1693, published an important
work entitled a "New and Full Method of Settling the
Canonical Authority of the New Testament," (2 vols.,
1726,) which is said to be the best English work on the
subject. Died in 1724.

Jones, (JOHN,) a physician and medical writer, sup-
posed to have been born in Wales about 1500. He was
educated at Cambridge, and practised at Bath, in Eng-
land. Among his works was " The Art and Science of
Preserving the Body and Soul in Health," (1579.)
. Jones, (JOHN,) a Benedictine, born in London in
1575. He studied at Oxford, where he roomed with
Laud, afterwards the celebrated archbishop. Having
become a Roman Catholic, he went to Spain, became a
monk, and continued his studies at Compostella. He

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; a, 6, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; fir, fill, fat; met; not; good; moon;




was subsequently appointed professor of Hebrew anJ
divinity at Douay. He was the author of several theo-
logical works. Died in London in 1636.

Jones, (JOHN,) a Welsh antiquary, who collected and
transcribed numerous old manuscripts in his native lan-
guage. Fifty large volumes of these are yet preserved.
He is supposed to have died about 1600.

Jones, (JOHN,) the author of "Adrasta, or the
Woman's Spleen," (1635,) and other dramatic works,
lived in England during the reign of Charles I.

Jones, (JoHN,) a clergyman of the Church of Eng-
land, born in Wales in 1700, and educated at Oxford.
In 1751 he became rector of Boulne-Hurst, and in 1755
vicar of Hitchin. Four years later he was chosen by Dr.
Young, the poet, to be his curate. He wrote "Catholic
Faith and Practice," (1765,) and other religious works.
Died about 1770.

Jones, (JOHN,) LL.D., a Unitarian minister, born in
Carmarthenshire about 1765. About 1795 he was ap-
pointed pastor of a congregation at Plymouth Dock, and
afterwards at Halifax, in Yorkshire. He subsequently
removed to London. He was the first to introduce
the use of Greek-and-English dictionaries. Previous
to his time the Greek had been studied entirely with the
aid of books written in Latin. Of his numerous works
we may mention " Illustrations of the Four Gospels,
founded on Circumstances peculiar to our Lord and the
Evangelists," (1808,) and "A Greek-and-English Lexi-
con," (1823.) Died in 1827.

Jones, (JoHN,) a lawyer and writer, born in Carmar-
thenshire in 1772, was admitted to the bar in 1803.
Among his works are "A History of Wales," and
" Cyfamod Newydd," a translation of the New Testament
from the Greek into Welsh. Died in 1838.

Jones, (JoHN M.,) an American general, born in
Virginia about 1820, graduated at West Point in 1841.
He became a captain in 1853, and resigned his commis-
sion in 1861. He served as a brigadier-general in the
army of General Lee, and was killed near Spottsylvania,
May 10, 1864.

Jones, (NOBLE WIMBERLY,) a physician and patriot,
born in Georgia in 1725. He was an early and active
promoter of the Revolution, was a delegate to Con-
gress in 1775, and was taken prisoner at Charleston in.
1780. In 1781 he was again elected to Congress. Died
in 1805.

Jones, (OwEN,) an antiquary, born in Denbighshire,
Wales, in 1740. He published a large collection of
ancient Welsh poetry, and the "Archaeology of Wales,"
containing several historical documents. Died in 1814.

Jones, (OWEN,) an architect, born in Wales about
1809. In 1837 he visited Granada, and in 1842 published
"Plans, Elevations, Sections, and Details of the Al-
hambra," with a translation of the Arabic inscriptions,
and a historical account of the sovereigns of Granada
from the Spanish. He chiefly devoted his attention to ,
ornamental architecture, in which he soon acquired
distinction. In 1852 he was appointed "Director of
Decorations" at the Crystal Palace in London. He
displayed his taste and artistic knowledge with a very
happy effect in arranging and ornamenting the various
courts of that building. Among his writings are "De-
signs for Mosaic and Tessellated Pavements," (1842,) and
the "Grammar of Ornament," (1856.) Died in 1874.

Jones, (PAUL; originally JOHN PAUL,) a famous naval
officer, born at Arbigland, in Scotland, in 1747. He emi-
grated to Virginia, entered the colonial naval service in
1775, was appointed a captain in August, 1776, and took
command of the Ranger, a vessel of eighteen guns, about
June, 1777. He sailed to Europe in that year, cruised on
the coast of Scotland, and made a bold attack on White-
haven, where he burnt some shipping. He also captured
the Drake, a sloop of war. Early ^1779 he was trans-
ferred to the Bonhomme Richard, which carried about
forty-five guns. Having several smaller vessels under
his command, he captured or destroyed many British
vessels. In September he attacked the Serapis. a frigate
of forty-four guns, which surrendered after a long battle.
His own ship was so much damaged in this action that
she sank a few hours after. Congress voted Captain
Jones a gold medal for this victory. He entered the

Russian service, with the rank of rear-admiral, in 1788;
but, having quarrelled with one of the Russian admirals,
he was soon removed from the command. He died in
Paris in 1 792.

D __ _ _. _ _ ?

Jones," 1845; "National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished Ameri-
cans," vol. iii. ; "Monthly Review" for September, 1825.

Jones, (RiCE,) a Welsh poet, born in 1715. He pub-
lished " Welsh Anthology," (1770.) Died in 1801.

Jones, (RICHARD,) a Welshman, published about
1654 "Gemma Cambricum," a work of great ingenuity,
in which all the books and chapters of the Bible were
abbreviated and written in his native dialect.

Jones, (SAMUEL,) an American major-general, born
in Virginia, graduated at West Point in 1841. He took
arms against the Union in 1861, and commanded in
Western Virginia in 1862-63. He was killed at the
battle of the Wilderness, May 5, 1864.

Jones, (SAMUEL M.,) an American political re-
former, was born in Wales in 1846, and brought to
the United States in infancy. He became wealthy as
a manufacturer, introduced reforms in labor con-
ditions, and was elected mayor of Toledo in 1897.
As such he became a vigorous advocate of municipal
ownership and opponent of monopolies, and was re-
elected as an independent candidate in 1899.

Jones, (STEPHEN,) born in London in 1763. He wa
the editor of the Whitehall "Evening Post," the "Bio-
graphia Dramatica," and a " Biographical Dictionary,"
(2d edition, 1796.) Died in 1827.

Jones, (Sir THOMAS,) chief justice of the common
pleas during the reign of James II. He openly opposed
the encroachments of the king on the laws of England,
and was dismissed from office in 1686.

See MACAULAY, " History of England," vol. ii. chap. vi.

Jones, (THOMAS RUPERT,) an English geologist,
born at London in 1819. He became professor of
geology at Sandhurst in 1862. He wrote numerous
works and papers on fossil foraminifera, entomostraca,

Jones, (THOMAS RVMER,) an English physician and
surgeon, distinguished as a comparative anatomist and
physiologist, was born about i8to. He was educated
at London and Paris. He was appointed professor of
comparative anatomy in King's College, London, and
in 1840 became Fullerian professor of physiology in
the Royal Institution of Great Britain. In 1844 he was
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. Among his
works may be mentioned " A General Outline of the
Animal Kingdom," (1841,) and "The Natural History
of Animals," (ist vol., 1844.) Died December 10, 1880.

Jones, (THOMAS WHARTON,) a British oculist and phy-
siologist, born at Saint Andrew's, Scotland, about 1808,
published a " Treatise on Ophthalmic Medicine and Sur-
gery," etc., and became professor of ophthalmic medicine
in University College, London. Died in 1891.

Jones, (Sir WILLIAM,) an English judge under James
I. and Charles I., was born in 1566. He wrote several
legal works, and became a judge of the king's bench in
1625. Died in 1640.

Jones, (WILLIAM,) an able mathematician, born in
the island of Anglesey in 1680. He taught mathematics
for several years, and corresponded with the most dis-
tinguished scientific men of that age. He was the friend
of Newton and of Halley, and the father of the emi-
nent Orientalist Sir William Jones. He held the office
of vice-president of the Royal Society. Died in 1749.
Among his productions are "A Compendium of the Art
of Navigation," (1702,) and several works in defence
of the theories of Newton.

Jones (WILLIAM) of Nayland, a learned Episcopal
divine and multifarious writer, born in Northampton-
shire, England, in 1726, graduated at Oxford in 1749.
Of his productions we may mention " Catholic Doctrine
of the Trinity proved from Scripture," (1756,) an " Essay

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