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ford, where he took his medical degree in 1525. He
wrote a work entitled " On the Differences among Ani-
mals," ("De Differentiis Animalium,") which was highly
esteemed at the time. He became physician to Henry
VIII., and a Fellow of the College of Physicians. Died
in 1555.

Wotton, [Lat. WOTTO'NUS,] (Sir HENRY,) an Eng-
lish diplomatist and writer, born in Kent in 1568. He
studied at Queen's College, Oxford, where he greatly
distinguished himself by his proficiency in law, mathe-
matics, languages, and the natural sciences. He subse-
quently travelled in France, Germany, and Italy, residing
abroad nearly nine years, during which time he made
the acquaintance of Isaac Casaubon and other learned
men of the time. After his return to England he be-
came secretary to the Earl of Essex, whom he accom-
panied on his expeditions to Spain and Ireland. When
Essex was arrested, in 1601, Wotton fled to the conti-
nent. Having learned at Florence that some persons
had conspired to assassinate James VI. of Scotland, he
carried information of the plot to that king, and thus
gained his favour. In 1604 Sir Henry was sent as Eng-
lish ambassador to Venice, where he remained several
years. He performed missions to other foreign courts,
and became provost of Eton about 1625. He wrote
several short and beautiful poems, and prose works,
among which are " The State of Christendom," " The
Elements of Architecture," and "Characters of some
of the English Kings." Died in 1639.

See IZAAK WALTON, "Life of Sir Henry Wotton," prefixed to
" Reliquiae Wottonianje," 1651.

^ Wotton, (NICHOLAS,) an English statesman, born in
Kent about 1497, was an uncle of the preceding. He
was employed in several embassies, and was secretary
of state in the reign of Edward VI. Died in 1566.

Wotton, (WILLIAM,) D.D., an English divine and
scholar, born in Suffolk in 1666. He possessed extra-
ordinary powers of memory, and, having entered Cathe-
rine Hall, Cambridge, before the age of ten, distinguished
himself by his attainments in the Latin, Greek, and
Oriental languages. He took the degree of M.A. in
1683, and subsequently became rector of Middleton
Keynes, in Buckinghamshire. His principal works are
entitled " Reflections on Ancient and Modern Learning,
in reply to Sir William Temple's essay in defence of
modern literature, and "View of Hickes's Archaeo-
logical Treasure of the Ancient Northern Languages,"
(1708.) The former treatise gave rise to the famous
controversy between Bentley and Sir William Templa
concerning the " Epistles of Phalaris." Died in 1726.

See " Biographia Britannica."

Wottonus. See WOTTON.

Woulfe, woolf, (PETER,) an English chemist, was a
resident of London and a Fellow of the Royal Society.
He contributed to the "Transactions" of that body
" Experiments on the Distillation of Acids," etc., and
other chemical treatises. Died in 1806.

Wouters, wow'ters, (FRANCIS,) a Flemish painter
of history and landscapes, was born at Lierre in 1614,
and was a pupil of Rubens. He went to England in
1637, and afterwards worked at Antwerp. He was
killed by an unknown hand in 1659.

Wouverman, wow'ver-man', or Wouvermana,



easi,- {asj; g/tard; gas/'; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; th asinM/j.

157



(BSP^See Explanations, p. 23. \



WOUVERMAN



2498



WREN



wow'ver-mins', (PETER,) a Dutch painter, born at
Haarlem about 1625, was a pupil of his brother Philip,
whose style he imitated. He painted horses, hunting-
scenes, etc. Died in 1683.

His younger brother JOHN was a skilful landscape-
painter. Died in 1666.

Wouverman, Wouvermans, or Wowerman,
(PHILIP,) an eminent Dutch painter, brother of the pre-
ceding, was born at Haarlem in 1620, and was a pupil
of Wynants. His works are chiefly landscapes, battle-
pieces, hunting-scenes, and horse-markets, all of which
he represented with admirable skill and fidelity, his
horses, particularly, being unsurpassed. The galleries
of Dresden and Paris possess numerous master-pieces
by this artist. He is said to have lived in poverty,
though his pictures were sold for high prices by his
patrons. His designs and etchings are also highly
esteemed and very rare. Died in 1668.

See KXMMKRER's treatise " Ueber die Composition in PhUipp
Wowerman's Gemalden," etc. : DESCAMPS, "Vies des Peintres."

Wou-Wang. See WOO-WANG.

Woveren. See WOWER.

Wower, wo'wer, sometimes called Be Woweren,
d?h wo'weh-ren, (JOHN,) a learned German writer, born
at Hamburg in 1574. He wrote, besides other works,
"De Polymathia Tractatio integri Operis de Studiis
veterum," (1603,) and other works. Died in 1612.

Wower, wow'er, or Wo'ver-en, (JOHN,) a Flemish
jurist, born at Antwerp in 1576, was a friend of Justus
Lipsius. He edited Tacitus and Seneca, and wrote
several works. Died in 1635.

Wrangel, VRang'gel, (HERMANN,) a Swedish gen-
eral, born in 1587, was the father of Karl Gustaf,
noticed below. He obtained from Gustavus Adolphus
the rank of field-marshal in 1621, and commanded
against the Poles. In 1636 he took several places in
Pomerania. Died in 1644.

Wrangel, von, fon VRang'gel, (KARL GUSTAF,)
COUNT, an eminent Swedish admiral and general, born
at Skokloster in 1613. He served under Gustavus
Adolphus in Germany, and had a prominent part in
the victory of Lutzen, after the death of that illustrious
commander. Appointed subsequently to the command
of the Swedish forces in Germany, he carried on the
war with energy and success, until it was concluded by
the peace of Westphalia. He afterwards gained several
decisive victories over the Danes and their Dutch allies,
and in 1660 was made grand marshal of Sweden. Died
in 1675.

See GHIJER, " Histoire de Suede."

Wrangel, von, fon wRang'gel, (FRIEDRICH HEIN-
RICH ERNST,) BARON, a Prussian general, born at
Stettin in 1784. He served against the French in the
campaigns from 1811 to 1815, and had a high command
in the Danish war of 1848. He was made general of
cavalry in 1849. Died at Berlin, November I, 1877.

See "Leben F. von Wrangel's," Berlin, 1849.

Wrangell or Wrangel, von, fon VRang'gel, (FER-
DINAND PETROVITCH,) BARON, a Russian admiral and
celebrated navigator, of Swedish extraction, was born
in Esthonia in 1795. Appointed in 1820 commander of
an exploring expedition to the Arctic Sea, he travelled
on the ice in sledges as far north as 72 2'. After his
return he became in 1829 governor of the Russian pos-
sessions in the northwestern part of America. In 1847
he was created vice-admiral. His principal works are
a " Sketch of a Journey from Sitka to Saint Petersburg,"
(1836,) " Statistical and Ethnographical Notices on the
Russian Possessions in America," (1839,) and "Journey
on the Northern Coasts of Siberia and the Icy Sea,"
(1841,) which was translated into French and German,
lie died at Dorpat, Tune IO, 1870.

Wranitzki, wRi-nlts'kee, (PAUL,) a German opera-
composer, born in 1756, became director of the orchestra
at the Imperial Theatre at Vienna. Died in 1808.

Wratdslaus, vRa'tis-lowss', or Wratislaw, vRa'tis-
laf, the first King of Bohemia, inherited the title of duke
in 1061. He afferwards assumed the title of king, and
was an ally of the emperor Henry IV. Died in 1092.

Wrat'is-law, (ALBERT HENRY,) an English clergy-
nan, of Bohemian descent, born in 1821. He was



educated at Rugby, and at Christ College, Cambridge,
graduating in 1844. His works include "Lyra Czecho-
Slavonska," (1849,") "Adventures of Baron Wratislaw,"
(a translation,) a " Life of Saint John Nepomucene,"
(1873,) a " Life of Huss," (1882,) etc. Died in 1892.

Wraxall, rak'sal, (FREDERICK CHARLES LASCELLES,)
j an English writer, born at Boulogne in 1828. He pub-
lished, besides other works, "Wild Oats," (1857,) and
'' Armies of the Great Powers," (1859.) Died in London
in 1865.

Wraxall, (Sir NATHANIEL WILLIAM,) an English
statesman and historical writer, born at Bristol in 1751.
He travelled over the greater part of Europe, and
published in 1775 "Cursory Remarks made in a Tour
through some of the Northern Parts of Europe," etc.,
I which was very well received. He was elected to Par-
liament in 1780. Among his other works may be named
" The History of France from the Accession of Henry
III. to the Death of Louis XIV.," etc., (3 vols., 1795,)
and "Historical Memoirs of My Own Time," (1815.)
The latter publication contained a libel on the Russian
ambassador, Count Woronzow, for which Wraxall was
fined and imprisoned for a short time. Died in 1831.

See the " Edinburgh Review" for October, 1815 : " Quarterly Re-
view" for April, 1815, and December, 1836: ALLIBONR, "Dictionary
of Authors."

Wray, ra, (DANIEL,) an English antiquary, born in
London in 1701, was one of the authors of the "Athenian
Letters." (See YORKE, CHARLES.) Died in 1783.

Wray, (JOHN.) See RAY.

Wray, (ROBERT BATEMAN,) an eminent English
gem-engraver, born in Wiltshire in 1715. Among his
best works are heads of Milton, Shakspeare, Pope,
Cicero, a Madonna, Dying Cleopatra, and Antinous.
Died in 1770.

Wrbna und Preudenthal, uRb'nJ otrnt froi'den-
til', (RUDOLF,) COUNT, an Austrian statesman, born at
Vienna in 1761 ; died in 1823.

Wrede, vRa'deh, (FABIAN JAKOB FABIANSON,) BARON,
a Swedish general and writer on physical science, was
born in 1802.

Wrede, wRa'deh, (KARL PHILIPP,) PRINCE, a cele-
brated German field-marshal, born at Heidelberg in 1767.
He served in the Austrian army in the campaigns of 1799
and 1800, was made lieutenant-general in 1804, and in
1805 succeeded General Deroy as commander-in-chief
of the Bavarian forces, then forming a part of Napoleon's
"grand army." He soon after obtained a series of bril-
liant successes over the Austrians, including the capture
of Innspruck, and in 1809 was created a field-marshal
and count of the French empire for his distinguished
bravery at the battle of Wagram. As commander of
the Bavarian cavalry in the Russian campaign of 1812,
he was defeated by Wittgenstein at Polotsk ; but he
skilfully covered the retreat of the scattered army on that
disastrous day. By the treaty of Reid, in 1813, Bavaria
joined the allies, and Wrede was appointed to the chief
command of the united forces of Austria and Bavaria.
On the 3Oth of October, 1813, he endeavoured to inter-
cept the army of Napoleon, then retreating after the
defeat of Leipsic ; but, after a fiercely-contested battle
at Hainau, the French troops forced a passage, and the
allies withdrew, Marshal Wrede having been severely
wounded. Died in December, 1838.

See W. RIHDKL, " C. P. von Wrede nach seinem Leben und
Wirken," 1839: " Nouvel'e Biographic GeWrale."

Wree, de, deh vRa, (OLIVIER,) a Belgian historian,
born at Bruges' in 1596. He wrote "History of the
Counts of Flanders," (" Historia Comitum Flandriae,"
1650,) and other works. Died in 1652.

Wren, rin, (Sir CHRISTOPHER,) a celebrated English
architect, born at East Knoyle, in Wiltshire, on the
20th of October, 1632, was a nephew of Bishop Mat-
thew Wren. His father was Dean of Windsor and
chaplain to Charles I. He invented several ingenious
instruments about the age of fourteen. In 1646 he
entered Wadham College, Oxford, as a gentleman com-
moner. He was early distinguished for his proficien-j
in mathematics and anatomy, and was regarded as a
prodigy at college. In 1653 'he was elected Fellow of
All Souls' College, Oxford. He became professor of



a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, J, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, till, fat; met; not; good; moon)



WREN



2499



WRIGHT



astronomy at Gresham College, London, in 1657, and
was one of the first members of the Royal Society. In
1661 he was appointed assistant to Sir John Denham,
surveyor-general, and began to turn his attention to
architecture. To extend his knowledge of that art, he
visited Paris in 1665. The great fire in London in 1666
afforded him a favourable opportunity and ample space
for the exercise of his talents. He proposed to rebuild
the city on a more regular and commodious plan, which,
however, was not adopted. About 1667 he succeeded
Denham as surveyor-general and chief architect. He
erected in London a number of churches, the Royal
Exchange, the Monument, Temple Bar, the Observatory
at Greenwich, and other fine public edifices. His master-
piece is Saint Paul's Cathedral, which was commenced
in 1675 and finished in 1710. It is about four hundred
and seventy-five feet long, and is surmounted by a noble
cupola, which is greatly admired. Saint Paul's is prob-
ably the most beautiful cathedral ever built in England
for Protestant worship. The original and favourite plan
which Wren formed for this work, and which was re-
jected by the authorities, differed greatly from the plan
that was adopted.

He married a daughter of Sir John Coghill in 1674.
He was elected president of the Royal Society in 1680.
About 1690 he built an addition to Hampton Court for
William III. Among his other works were additions
to Windsor Castle, and two towers added to the west
end of Westminster Abbey. He is generally regarded
as the greatest of English architects. He contributed
several treatises on astronomy and other sciences to the
" Philosophical Transactions." He died in London in
February, 1723, aged about ninety-one, and was buried
in Saint Paul's Cathedral.

"The austere beauty of the Athenian portico, the
gloomy sublimity of the Gothic arcade, he was, like
almost all his contemporaries, incapable of emulating ;
. . . but no man born on our side of the Alps has
imitated with so much success the magnificence of the
palace-like churches of Italy." (Macaulay, " History of
England," vol. i.)

'Wren, (MATTHEW,) an English prelate, born in Lon-
don in 1585. He became chaplain to the prince, after-
wards Charles I., whom he accompanied to Spain in
1623, and was successively created Bishop of Hereford,
Norwich, and Ely. He was one of the judges of the
Star Chamber, and assisted in drawing up the Scottish
Liturgy, which gave rise to the riots in Edinburgh in
1637. He was impeached by the Commons in 1640,
and imprisoned in the Tower nearly twenty years. Sir
Christopher Wren was his nephew. Died in 1667.

'Wren, (MATTHEW,) a son of the preceding, was bom
at Cambridge in 1629. He was a member of Parliament,
and became successively secretary to the Earl of Clar-
endon and the Duke of York. He published a treatise
" On the Origin and Progress of the Revolutions in Eng-
land," and other works. Died in 1672.

Wright, rlt, (ABRAHAM,) an English clergyman, born
in London in 1611. He became vicar of Okeham, in
Rutlandshire. He published, besides other works,
" Parnassus with Two Tops," (" Parnassus biceps,"
1656.) Died in 1690.

Wright, rit, (ARTHUR WILLIAMS,) Ph.D., an Ameri-
can scientist, born at Lebanon, Connecticut, September
8, 1836, graduated at Yale College in 1859, was a tutor
there, 1863-68, was professor of physics and chemistry in
Williams College, 1868-72, and was appointed professor
of molecular physics and chemistry in Yale College in
1872, and of experimental physics in 1887. He pub-
lished numerous papers on physics, astronomy, etc.

Wright, (CARROLL DAVIDSON,) an American
economist, born at Dunbarton, New Hampshire, in
1840. He served in the civil war, from private to
colonel, was chief of the Massachusetts Bureau of
Labour Statistics 1873-88, and United States Commis-
sioner of Labour after 1885. He published a number
of works on the labour subject, the cost of pro-
duction of iron and steel, " Industrial Evolution of the
United States," " Outline of Practical Sociology,"
etc.



'Wright, (EDWARD,) an English mathematician,
born at Garveston, in Norfolk. He became a Fellow of
Caius College, Cambridge. He constructed for Prince
Henry a large sphere which represented the motions of
the planets, moon, etc., and predicted the eclipses for
17,100 years. About 1590 he accompanied the Earl of
Cumberland in a sea-voyage. He published in 1599 a
valuable "Treatise on Navigation." He is said to have
discovered the mod of constructing the chart which is
known by the name of Mercator's Projection. Died in
1615, or, as some say, 1618.

Wright, rit, (ELIZUR,) an American journalist and
philanthropist, born in Litchfield county, Connecticut,
in 1804. He graduated at Yale College, and in 1829
became professor of mathematics and natural phi-
losophy in Western Reserve College, Ohio. He was
successively editor of the "Quarterly Anti-Slavery
Magazine," the "Massachusetts Abolitionist," and the
" Cnronotype." He also translated La Fontaine's
"Fables" into verse. Died November 22, 1885.

Wright, rit, afterwards Darusmont, da"r\i'm6N',
(FANNY,) a social reformer or innovator, born at Dun-
dee, Scotland, about 1796. She visited the United States
about 1818, and wrote "Views on Society and Manners
in America." Her opinions were similar to those of
the atheistical French philosophers. She lectured in
the Northern United States, and attacked slavery and
other social institutions. About 1838 she was married
to M. Darusmont, a Frenchman. Died in Cincinnati
in 1853.

Wright, (GEORGE FREDERICK,) an American clergy-
man and geologist, born at Whitehall, New York, Janu-
ary 22, 1838. He graduated in arts at Oberlin College
in 1859, and in theology in 1862, held Congregational
pastorates in New England, 1862-81, and in 1882 became
professor of New Testament literature in the Oberlin
Theological Seminary. His principal works are "Logic
of Christian Evidences," (1880,) " Studies in Science and
Religion," (1882,) "The Relation of Death to Probation,"
(1882,) "The Glacial Boundary in Indiana and Ohio,"
(1884,) and " Divine Authority of the Bible," (1884.)
In 1884 he became editor of the " Bibliotheca Sacra."

Wright, (GEORGE NEWNHAM,) an English clergyman,
born about 1812. He graduated in 1835 at Brasenose
College, Oxford. Among his numerous works are a " Life
of William III.," (1837,) " Life of the Duke of Welling-
ton," (1839-41,) "Life of Louis Philippe," etc.

Wright, (HORATIO GATES,) an American general,
born in Connecticut about 1822, graduated at West
Point in 1841. He became a brigadier-general of vol-
unteers about September, 1861, and took command of
the department of Ohio in August, 1862. He com-
manded a division at the battle of the Wilderness, May
5 and 6, 1864, and a corps at Spottsylvania Court-House,
May 9-12, and Cold Harbour, June 3. He served as
major-general at the battle of Opequan Creek, Septem-
ber 19, 1864, and contributed to the decisive victory at
Cedar Creek, October 19 of that year. He received
the brevet of major-general in the United States army,
April, 1865. Died in 1899.

Wright, (ICHABOD CHARLES,) an English author and
banker, born in Nottinghamshire in 1795. He was edu-
cated at Eton, and at Christ Church, Oxford. His best-
known works are translations into English verse of the
"Divina Commedia" of Dante and of Homer's "Iliad."
Died at Nottingham, October 14, 1871.

Wright, rit, (JOHN WESLEY,) an Irish naval officer,
born at Cork in 1769. He became a captain in the
navy, was taken prisoner on the French coast in 1804,
and was confined in the Temple at Paris. In 1805 he
was found dead in prison, and it was suspected that he
had been murdered.

Wright, JOSEPH,) a celebrated English painter, com-
monly known as WRIGHT OF DERBY, was born in that
town in 1734. He studied portrait-painting in London,
under Hudson, and subsequently visited Rome. His
works are chiefly landscapes and historical pictures;



1 Cicero's Villa." Died in 1797.



e as k; c as s; g hard: g as ;'; G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.



lanations, p. 23.)



WRIGHT



2500



WUNDT



"Wright, (Sir NATHAN,) an English judge, born in
1653, was lord keeper of th? great seal from 1700 to
1705. In politics he was a Tory. " To his obscurity,'
says Lord Campbell, "he owed his promotion." Diec
in 1721.

See LORD CAMPBELL, "Lives of the Lord Chancellors," vol. iv.

Wright, (Sir ROBERT,) an English judge, was chief
justice of the king's bench in 1687. " He was ignoran
to a proverb," says Macaulay: "yet ignorance was not
his worst fault. His vices had ruined him." (" Histon
of England.") He and two others were appointed to
exercise visitorial jurisdiction over Magdalen College
Oxford, from which they removed President Hough.
Died in 1689.

Wright, (SAMUEL,) an English dissenting minister
born at Retford in 1683. He preached in London, ant
published a "Treatise on the New Birth." Died in 1746

Wright, (SiLAS,) an American statesman, born a
Amherst, Massachusetts, May 24, 1795. He graduatet
at Middlebury College in 1815, studied law, was admittec
to the bar in 1819, and settled at Canton, Saint Lawrence
county, New York. He was elected to the Senate ol
New York in 1823, became a political opponent of De
Witt Clinton, and served in the Senate until 1827. In
1826 he was elected a member of Congress, in which
he acted with the Democrats. He was comptroller
of New York for about four years, (1829-32,) and was
elected to the Senate of the United States in January
1833. He opposed the United States Bank, and sup-
ported Mr. Clay's Compromise bill of 1833. In 1837 he
was re-elected a Senator for six years. He voted for
the tariff of 1842, and opposed the annexation of Texas
to the Union, (1844.) He was nominated as candidate
for the Vice-Presidency by the National Democratic
Convention in May, 1844 ; but he declined the honour.
He had been again elected a Senator of the United
States in February, 1843, and was chosen Governor of
New York in November, 1844. He declined to serve
under President Polk as secretary of the treasury in
1845, and is said to have refused the offer of a foreign
mission. In 1846 he was a candidate for Governor, but
was not elected. He died at Canton in August, 1847,
leaving a fair reputation for ability and integrity.

See J. D. HAMMOND, " Life and Times of Silas Wright," 1848

Wright, (THOMAS,) an eminent English antiquary,
born in 1810, took his degree at Trinity College, Cam-
bridge. He published numerous works on early English
history and literature, among which we may name his
"Biographia Britannica Literaria," (1846,) "Essays on
the Literature, Superstitions, and History of England in
the Middle Ages," (2 vols., 1 846,) " Narratives of Sorcery
and Magic," (1851,) "The Celt, the Roman, and the
Saxon," (1852,) "Wanderings of an Antiquary," etc,
(1854,) and "History of Ireland," (3 vols., 1857.) He
also edited Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales," (1855,) "Po-
litical Songs of England from the Reign of John to
that of Edward II.," "The Chester Miracle Plays," and
other productions of the middle ages. He was one of
the founders of the Camden Society and of tha British
Archaeological Association, and was elected a correspond-
ing member of the French Academy of Inscriptions,
and other learned societies in Europe. Died December
23- 1877-

Wright, (THOMAS,) " the Prison Philanthropist," an
English reformer, born in 1788, devoted himself to visit-
ing prisons. Died April 14, 1875.

Wright, (THOMAS,) a British naturalist, born at Pais-
ley, in Scotland, November 9, 1809. He was educated
at the Royal College of Surgeons, Dublin, was licensed
by the College of Surgeons, London, in 1832, and grad-
uated at Saint Andrew's University in 1846. He has
published a great number of papers, chiefly upon oolitic
and cretaceous geology and palaeontology.

Wright, (WALTER RODWELL.) an English lawyer,
who wrote a description of the isles of Greece, entitled
1 Horae lonicaa." He died at Malta in 1826.

Wright, (WILLIAM,) LL.D., a British scholar, born
in Bengal, January 17, 1830. He was educated at Saint
Andrew's and at Halle, and was made professor of Arabic
in University College, London, in 1855, in Trinity Col-
lege, Dublin, in 1856, and in the University of Cam



bridge in 1870. Besides preparing an Arabic Grammar,
he edited many Arabic, Syriac, and other Semitic texts.
Died May 22, 1889.

Wriothesley, (HENRY.) See SOUTHAMPTON.
Wriothesley, rots'le or rot'es-le, (THOMAS,) fourth
Earl of Southampton, an English statesman, became a
member of the privy council under Charles II., and
subsequently lord high treasurer. He had superior
abilities, and was conspicuous for his integrity and virtue
in a time of general corruption. Died in 1667.

Wrisberg, wRis'bjRG, (HiiNRicH AUGUST,) a Ger
man anatomist, born in the Harz in 1739. He becam*
professor of anatomy at Gottingen, and wrote numerous
professional works. Died in 1808.

Wroniecki, vRo-ne-8ts'kee, (ANTONY,) a Polish
officer and military writer, born at Posen in 1790. He
served against the Russians in 1830, and rose '.o be


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 410 of 425)