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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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of War." Died at Paris, December 31, 1874.

Wysocki, (PETER,) a Polish patriot, and prominent
leader in the revolution of 1830, was born at Warsaw in
1799. He was taken prisoner by the Russians in 1831,
and exiled to Siberia, where he died in 1837.

Wyss, w!ss, (JOHANN RUDOLF,) a Swiss writer, born
at Berne in 1781, became professor of philosophy in his
native town. He published, among other works, " Idyls,
Traditions, Legends, and Tales of Switzerland," (1815.)
Died in 1830.

Wysshart. See WISHART.

Wythe, vi\th, (GEORGE,) an American jurist and
patriot, was born in Elizabeth City county, Virginia, in
1726. He was an ardent promoter of the independence
of the colonies, was elected to the Continental Congress
in 1775, and signed the Declaration of Independence in
July, 1776. In this year Wythe, Jefferson, and Pendleton
were appointed a committee to revise the laws of Vir-
ginia. He became in 1777 a judge of the high court
of chancery, and served as chancellor of Virginia for
twenty years. He emancipated his slaves. Died at
Richmond in 1806.

See SANDERSON, " Biography of the Signers to the Declaration
of Independence."

Wyther. See WITHERS.

Wyttenbach.wit'ten-baic', [Lat. WYTTENBA'CHIUS,]
(DANIEL,) an eminent Swiss critic and scholar, born at
Berne in 1746. He studied at Gottingen, and subse-
quently at Leyden under Professor Ruhnken, and be-
came in 1771 professor of Greek and philosophy in the
Athenaeum at Amsterdam. He was appointed in 1779
professor of eloquence at Leyden. He was one of the
greatest scholars of his time, and his compositions,
which are all written in Latin, are esteemed standard
works. Among these his "Life of Ruhnken" (1799) is
particularly admired for the elegance of its style. He
was editor for a time of the " Bibliotheca Critica," and
published editions of the " Opera Moralia" of Plutarch,
the "Phaadon" of Plato, (1810,) and other classics. Died
in 1820. His wife, JOHANNA GALLIEN, was distinguished
for her learning, and was made doctor of philosophy by
the University of Marburg. She died in 1830.

See W. L. MAHNE, "Vita D. Wyttenbachii," 1823.

Wyttenbachius. See WYTTENBACH.

eas *,- c as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (j&^'See Explanations, p. 23.)




Xaintrailles, de. See SAINTRAILLES, DE.


Xanthippus, zan-thip'pus, [Gr. Sovflunrof ; Fr. XAN-
THIPPE, gz&N'tep',] an Athenian general, was the father
of Pericles. He succeeded Themistocles as commander
of the fleet in 479 B.C., and acted a prominent part in
the naval victory over the Persians at Mycale, (479.) He
captured Sestos in 478.

Xanthippus, a Spartan general, an ally of the Car-
thaginians in the first Punic war, defeated the Romans
under Regulus, whom he took prisones, (B.C. 255.)

Xanthus, zan'thus, [Edvfloc,] a Greek lyric poet, who
flourished probably about 650 B.C. No fragments of his
poetry are extant.

Xanthus, a Greek historian and native of Lydia,
is supposed to have been contemporary with Herod-
otus. He was the author of a description of Lydia,
entitled "Lydiaca," which is highly commended by
Dionysius of Halicarnassus. There are only fragments
of it extant.

Xantippe, zan-tip'pe, or, more correctly, Xan-
thip'pe, [Gr. Zavftirirn ; Fr. XANTIPPE or XANTHIPPE,
gzo.Vtep',] the wife of Socrates, was notorious for her
ill temper. Being asked by Alcibiades how he could
live with such a woman, he is said to have replied, " She
exercises my patience, and enables me to bear with all
the injustice I experience from others." It is, however,
probable that Xantippe's faults have been much exag-
gerated. Socrates evidently entertained a sincere regard
for her, and gave her credit for many domestic virtues.

Xaupi, gzo'pe', (JOSEPH,) a French antiquary and
priest, born at Perpignan in 1688; died in 1778.

Xaverius. See XAVIER.

Xav'I-er, [Ger. XAVER, ksa-vaiR',] (FRANCIS,) second
on of the Elector of Saxony, (who was afterwards
Augustus III., King of Poland,) was born in 1730. He
was appointed in 1763 administrator of Saxony during
the minority of his nephew. Died in 1806.

Xavier. zav'e-er, JSp. pron. Ha-ve-aiR'; Fr. pron.
gzi've-4'; Lat. XA'VE'RIUS ; Ger. XAVER, ksa-vaiR'; It.
SAVERIO, sa-va're-o,] (FRANCIS,) SAINT, a celebrated
Jesuit missionary, called " the Apostle of the Indies,"
was born in the kingdom of Navarre, near the foot of
the Pyrenees, in April, 1506. He was educated in Paris,
and there formed a friendship with his fellow-student
Ignatius Loyola. He was one of those who associated
themselves with Loyola in the formation of the order
of Jesuits, about 1534. In 1538 he went to Rome, and
began to preach in the church of San Lorenzo in Da-
maso. Under the auspices of John, King of Portugal,
Xavier visited the East Indies as a missionary in 1541,
arriving at Goa in May, 1542. Ringing a bell through
the streets of Goa, he summoned parents to send their
children and slaves to him in order to be instructed in
the catechism. He endeavoured to reform the vicious
professors of religion as well as to convert the heathen,
whose temples he caused to be destroyed and replaced
by churches. Having laboured among the ignorant
population employed in the pearl-fishery on the coast,
he afterwards passed to Travancore, where, it is said, he
baptized ten thousand idolaters in nine months. In 1545
he visited Malacca, and converted numerous idolaters,
Jews, and Mohammedans. With several other mission-
aries, whom Loyola sent to aid him, he pursued his
course to the Banda Isles in 1546. He baptized many
in Amboyna, founded a mission at Ternate, and returned
to Malacca in 1547. Having converted a Japanese exile,
named Auger, he resolved to extend his labours to
Japan. He took Auger with him, and in 1549 reached
Canguxima, where he studied the Japanese language,
and was kindly received by the King of Saxuma. He
went thence to Firanda, in which he was permitted to
preach, and made many converts. Encouraged by this
success, he proceeded to Meaco, the capital of the em-

pire, where he arrived in 1551. He obtained from the
king permission to preach, and converted about three
thousand there. His success was hindered by his im
perfect knowledge of the language. He ardently desired
to carry the gospel to China, and was not deterred by
the severe penalty under which foreigners were forbid-
den to enter that country. Before he could reach this
new scene of labour, he died, on the isle of Sancian,
near the Chinese coast, in December, 1552. He was
canonized in 1622.

See TURSELUNUS, " Vita F. Xaverii," 1594 ; BARTOLI, " Vita K.
Xaverii," 1666; SANDOVAL, "Vida de S. Francisco Xavier," 1619;
I. TOSCANO, "Vita di F. Saverio," 1658: H. VENN, "Missionary
Life of Francis Xavier;" BOUHOURS, "Vie de S. Francois Xavier,
1682, (DRVDSN'S English translation of the same, 1688 ;) RAVBOIS,
"Vie de S. F. Xavier," 1838; REITHMEIKR, "Leben des heiligen
Franz Xaver," 1846.

Xavier, (JEROME, or GERONIMO,) a Jesuit missionary,
born in Navarre, was a relative of the preceding. He
went to Goa in 1571, after which he preached at the court
of the Mogul emperor, where he is said to have made
many converts. He wrote several religious treatises, in
Latin and in Persian. Died at Goa in 1617.

Xenarchus, ze-nar'kus, [Sevop^oc,] an Athenian
comic poet of the middle comedy, flourished about 350-
330 B.C. Fragments of his works are extant.

Xenocles, z?n'o-klez, [Heww/^f,] an Athenian tragic
poet, was a son of Carcinus the Elder, and flourished
about 420 B.C. He gained a victory over Euripides in
415 B.C. He had a son CARCINUS, and a grandson
XENOCLES, who were likewise tragic poets.

Xenocles, an Athenian architect, lived in the age
of Pericles.

Xenocrate. See XENOCRATES.

Xenocrates, ze-nok'ra-tez, [Gr. Hnwcpanjf ; Fr. X<-
NOCRATE, gzi'no'kRit',] an eminent Greek philosopher,
born at Chalcedon in 396 B.C. He was a pupil of Plato
and a fellow-student of Aristotle. He accompanied
Plato to Syracuse, and after the death of his master was
sent on embassies to Philip of Macedon. About 339
B.C. he became the head of the Platonic Academy at
Athens, over which he presided twenty-five years. He
had a high reputation for probity, modesty, and moral
purity. He wrote numerous works on philosophy, which
are not extant, taught that the soul is a self-moving
number, and regarded unity and duality as two deities,
the former of which rules in heaven and the latter in the
mutable worici. In his philosophy the doctrines of Plato
are modified by the Pythagorean doctrines of number. .
His eloquence converted the dissolute Polemon into
a temperate man and an eminent philosopher. Died in
314 B.C.

Xenocrate Chalcedonio," ig.

Xenocrates, a Greek statuary of the school of Ly
sippus, flourished about 260 B.C.

Xenocrates, a Greek physician, who resided at
Aphrodisias, is supposed to have lived about 37 A.D.
He was the author of a work "On the Nutriment de-
rived from Animals," part of which is extant.

Xenomedes, zSn-o-mee'dez, [Sevo/vifalS,] OF CHIOS,
a Greek historian, lived before the Peloponnesian war,
(which began 431 B.C.)

Xenon, zee'non, or Xe'no, [Efvuv,] a Greek painter
of Sicyon, was a pupil of Neocles.

Xenophane. See XENOPHANES.

Xenophanes, ze-nof'a-nez, [Gr. ^.tvofyavw / Fr. X4
NOPHANE, gza'no'fSn',] a celebrated Greek philosopher
and poet, born at Colophon, in Ionia, about 600 B.C.
Diogenes states that he flourished in the 6oth Olympiad,
(about 538 B.C.) He was the founder of the Eleatic
school, and probably lived for some time at Elea, in
Italy. He wrote a poem on the foundation of Elea, and
a number of elegiac poems of much merit. "The work
which contained his philosophic system," says Victor
Cousin, "and which has immortalized his name, was a

a, e, i, 6, u, y, long : a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, ii, J, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; fir, fall, fit; mSt; not; good; moon:


2 55


poem on Nature, in hexameter verse." Several frag-
nents of this poem have been preserved. He was con-
sidered by the ancients as the originator of the doctrine
of the oneness of the universe. He censured Hesiod
and Homer because they attributed to the gods human
vices and defects, and is said to have maintained the
doctrine of the unity of the Deity. According to Aris-
totle, Xenophanes, directing his view over the universe,
declared, " God is the One." Saint Clement also affirms
that he taught pure monotheism. Victor Cousin de-
fends him from the charge of pantheism which some
writers had brought against him. (" Biographic Uni-
verselle.") Xenophanes also insisted on the antagonism
between sensuous appearances and the pure truth or
reality. He was about one hundred vears old when he

See HITTER, "History of Philosophy:" G. H. LEWES. "Bio-
graphical History of Philosophy ;" ARISTOTLE, " De Xenophane,
Georgia et Melisso ;" SIMON KARSTEN, " Xenophanis Carminum
Reliquiae; de Vita ejus," etc., 1830; DIOGENES LAERTIUS, "Xeno-
phanes ;" FULLEBORN, " Beitrage zur Geschichtc der Philosophic."

Xenophile See XENOPHILUS.

Xenophilus, ze-nof'e-lus, [Gr. Sevo/pi^of ; Fr. X6NO-
PHILE, gza'no'fel',] a Greek sculptor, who, aided by
Straton, made a statue of ^Esculapius at Argos.

Xenophon, zSn'o-fon, [Gr. Scvoyuv; Fr. XENOPHON,
gzS'no'fAN'; It. ZENOFONTE, dza-no-fon'ti,] a celebrated
Athenian historian and general, was a son of Gryllus,
and a native of the demus Ercheia. He is supposed to
have been born about 445 B.C. According to Diogenes
Laertius, from whose writings we derive nearly all that
is known of his life, Xenophon fell from his horse at the
battle of Delium, in 424 B.C., and would probably have
been killed, if he had not been rescued by Socrates.
He became a pupil of Socrates at an early age, and,
according to Photius, was also a pupil of Isocrates.
Little is known of the events of his life which occurred
between the battle of Delium and the year 401 B.C.
Diogenes Laertius states that "Xenophon edited or
made known the History of Thucydides, although it
was in his power to pass it off as his own work ;" but
the truth of this statement is doubted by some critics.
In 401 B.C. he went to Sardis, and entered the service
of the Persian prince Cyrus the Younger, whom he ac-
companied in an expedition against Artaxerxes Mnemon,
King of Persia. Xenophon and the other Greeks who
engaged in this expedition were deceived as to its real
object. Cyrus was defeated and killed at Cunaxa, near
Babylon, and the Greek general Clearchus was treach-
erously slain. Xenophon was one of the generals who
conducted the Greek army of 10,000 in its memorable
retreat from the Tigris to the Black Sea. He displayed
great firmness, courage, and military skill in this opera-
tion. This expedition and retreat form the subject of
his most celebrated work, the " Anabasis, or History
of the Expedition of Cyrus the Younger," which is a
very interesting narrative and is written in a natural,
agreeable style.

According to some authorities, he was banished from
Athens about 399 B.C., perhaps because he was a friend
of Socrates. Diogenes Laertius says he was banished
for Laconism. He took part in an expedition which
the Spartan king Agesilaus conducted against the Per-
sians in 396, and he fought in the Spartan army against
the Athenians at the battle of Coroneia, (394 B.C.) Soon
after this date he settled, with his wife Philesia and his
children, at Scillus, near Olympia, where he resided
many years and employed his time in hunting and
writing. During his residence at Scillus he wrote a
"Treatise on Hunting," his "Anabasis," and perhaps
other works. The decree by which he was banished
from Athens was repealed a tew years before his death,
which occurred about 355 B.C. He had two sons, named
Gryllus and Diodorus. It is supposed that all of his
writings have come down to us. Under the title of
" Hellenica," he wrote a history of Greece from 411 to
362 B.C. His " Cyropaedia" (Kvpomudeia) is commonly
regarded as a political romance founded on the exploits
of Cyrus the Great, and has no authority as a history.
Among his other works are a " Life of Agesilaus," " The
Symposium, or Banquet," in which he explains the
ideas of Socrates in relation to love and friendship,

and delineates the character of Socrates, a Dialogue
between Socrates and Critobulus, entitled OUovo/uxof,
which treats of domestic and moral economy, and is
highly esteemed, and a philosophic work called "The
Memorabilia of Socrates," (' ' \nofj.vri^ovVfmTa Soxparauf,)
which purports to be an exposition of the doctrines and
character of his illustrious master. It is highly prized
as a memorial of the practical part of the Socratic phi-
losophy. "Xenophon," says Macaulay, "is commonly
placed, but, we think, without much reason, in the same
rank with Herodotus and Thucydides. He resembles
them, indeed, in the purity and sweetness of his style ;
but in spirit he rather resembles that later school of
historians, whose works seem to be fables composed
for a moral, and who in their eagerness to give us warn-
ings and example forget to give us men and women."

by M. A. Cowper, and his " CEconomicus" by Robert

See FORTIA D'URBAN, "Vie de Xe'nophon," 1705; CREUZBR.

\_ V , ._ !_._.' ,1 .. tr 7J ,

" Lexicon Bibliographicum ;" GROTE, " History of Greece :" THIRJ '
WALL, "History of Greece:" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Xenophon, an Athenian sculptor, who lived about
300 B.C. In conjunction with Cephisodotus, he made a
statue of Jupiter.

Xenophon, a Greek physician, a native of Cos, lived
at Rome, and gained the favour of the emperor Claudius.
At the instigation of Agrippina, he poisoned Claudius,
by introducing a poisoned feather into his mouth under
pretence of making him vomit.

Xenophon OF EPHESUS, a Greek writer of unknown
period, was the author of a romance called " Ephesiaca,
or the Loves of Anthia and Abrocomas," the style of
which is simple and elegant. He probably lived in
the second or third century after Christ. His romance
has been translated into German by Burger, and into
English by Rooke.
Xerces. See XERXES.

Xeres, de, da Ha'rfs, (FRANCISCO,) a Spanish histo-
rian, was secretary to Pizarro, whom he accompanied to
Peru about 1530. He published in 1547 a history of the
expedition, entitled " A True Account of the Conquest
of Peru," etc.

Xerxes, zerk'sez, [Gr. Zipfrs; Fr. XERCES, gzeVsis',]
L, sometimes called XERXES THE GREAT, a famous king
of Persia, and the most powerful monarch of his time,
was a son of Darius Hystaspis. His mother was Atossa,
a daughter of Cyrus the Great. He succeeded Darius
in 485 B.C., and began to raise an immense army for the
invasion of Greece. Several years were expended in
cutting a canal through the isthmus of Mount Athos,
and in building a bridge of boats or ships across the
Hellespont, over which Xerxes and his army passed in
the spring of 480 B.C. His army was composed of many
nations tributary to the Persian empire, and, according
to Herodotus, amounted to 2,317,610 men, besides slaves
and non-combatants. Niebuhr and Grote consider
this number incredible and impossible. The number
of slaves and other camp-followers was equal to that
of the soldiers. He is said to have shed tears when
he reflected that in a century, or less, none of these
myriads of men would survive. Having reviewed his
army at Doriscus, he marched through Thrace and
Thessaly. The Greeks attempted to defend the pass
of Thermopylae, but the Persians turned that position
(see LEONIDAS,) and captured Athens, from which the
whole population had been removed. The Athenians,
who were directed by Themistocles, relied chiefly on
their naval power for defence against the invaders. An
indecisive naval action was fought by the two fleets at
Artemisium, where the Persian fleet was much damaged
by a storm. Xerxes was still able after this loss to
muster a fleet of twelve hundred vessels, which in the
autumn of 480 B.C. was defeated at the decisive battle
of Salamis. (See THEMISTOCLES.) Xerxes, placed on a
lofty position on the adjacent shore, witnessed this dis-
astrous defeat of his vainglorious project. He retreated

,- 9 as s; ghard; gas/; G, H, K,guttural; H, nasal; R, trilled: sasz.- th as in /to.

nations, p. 23.)




hastily by land to the Hellespont, and crossed over to
Asia, leaving an army under Mardonius, who was de-
feated at Plataea in 479 B.C. Xerxes was murdered in
465 by Artabanus, an officer of his court. He appears
to have been by nature not without amiable and noble
qualities ; but his heart was corrupted by the posses-
sion of unlimited power, and by the abject adulation
commonly bestowed on Eastern sovereigns. He was
succeeded by his son Artaxerxes Longimanus.

See HERODOTUS, " History of Greece ;" GROTE, " History o
Greece;" ROLLIN, "Ancient History:" ROSENBERG, "De Cam-
byse, Dario Hystaspe et Xerxe," 1690; HUSSEL, " Xenes des Gros-
Ben Leben. Thaten und Ende." 1816.

Xerxes IX, King of Persia, was a son of Artaxerxes
L, (Longimanus,) whom he succeeded in 425 B.C. After
a reign of a few months, he was assassinated by Sog-
dianus, his half-brother.

Ximenes or Jimenes, He-ma'ne's, (FRANCISCO,) a
Spanish friar, who was employed as a missionary in
Mexico. He translated into Spanish a Latin work on
the plants of Mexico, by Hernandez. Died about 1620.

Ximenes or Jimenes, (FRANCISCO,) a Spanish
painter, born at Saragossa in 1598. He studied in
Rome, adopted an Italian style, and returned to Sara-
gossa. His works are highly praised. Died in 1666.

Ximenes, He-ma'nfe, (LEONARDO,) a Sicilian astron-
omer and geometer, born at Trapani in 1716, became
a Jesuit. He was appointed professor of geography at
Florence, and by his skill in hydraulics rendered im-
portant services in averting the damages caused by
overflowing rivers. He wrote a number of able works
on astronomy and hydraulics, among which is " Collec-
tion of Hydraulic Pamphlets," etc., (" Raccolta di Peri-
zie ed Opuscoli idraulici,"2 vols., 1781-86.) He founded
an observatory at Florence, where he died in 1786.

Ximenes, she-ma'ne's, (PETER.) a theologian, born
of Portuguese parents at Middelburg, in Holland, in
1514. He wrote, in Latin, a work called " Demonstration
of the Catholic Truth." Died in 1595.

Ximenes, (RoDRiGO,) a Spanish prelate and his-
torian, became Archbishop of Toledo, and cardinal.
He rendered important military services in the war
against the Moors, and wrote a " History of Spain."
Died in 1247.

Ximenes, de, deh ze'ma'nes', (AUGUSTIN Louis,)
MARQUIS, a French poet, of Spanish extraction, born in
Paris in 1726, was an intimate friend of Voltaire. He
was the author of " Don Carlos," and other tragedies, a
poem entitled " Csesar in the Senate," and several criti-
cal essays, which were highly esteemed. Died in 1815.

Ximenes (or Jimenes) de Carmona, He-ma'n*s
di kaR-mo'na, (FRANCISCO,) a Spanish medical writer,
born at Cordova near the end of the sixteenth century.

Ximenes, [English pron. ze-mee'nez,] or, more fully,
Jimenes (or Ximenes) de Cisneros, He-ma'ne's da
celebrated Spanish statesman and patron of literature,
was born at Torrelaguna, in New Castile, in 1436. He
was educated at Salamanca and at Rome, where he
studied theology, philosophy, and Oriental languages.
He became grand vicar of Cardinal Mendozaat Siguenza.
About 1482 he entered the Franciscan order at Toledo,
where he acquired distinction as a preacher. He was
appointed confessor to Queen Isabella in 1492, and
Archbishop of Toledo in 1495. His modesty prompted
him to decline this honour ; but he submitted to the
positive command of the pope. He was distinguished
by his simplicity of life, his charity to the poor, and his
aversion to luxury and pomp. About 1498 he founded
the University of Alcala de Henares. He exerted his
influence to reform the Franciscan order of monks.
Under his auspices a number of eminent scholars began
in 1502 to prepare a Polyglot Bible, called the Complu-
tensian, which became the model of all the subsequent
versions of the Bible in divers languages, and was the
greatest literary enterprise of that age. On the death
of Queen Isabella (1504) he acted as mediator between
Ferdinand the Catholic and the archduke Philip, each
of whom claimed the regency of Castile. After the
death of Philip (1506) Ximenes was appointed regent
or guardian of Queen Joanna, who was disqualified by

mental imbecility. He authorized the citizens of the
towns to form themselves into a militia, and by this
bold and politic measure promoted the power of the
crown, while he reduced the importance of the unruly

In 1507 he received the title of cardinal. He fitted
out at his own expense a fleet and an army, which he
conducted in person to Africa in 1509, and captured the
city of Oran by storm. " His talents, energy, and re-
puted sanctity of character," says Prescott, " combined
with the authority of his station, gave him unbounded
influence with all classes of the Castilians." During his
expedition against Oran, King Ferdinand wrote a letter
to Count Navarro and requested him to find some
pretence for detaining Ximenes in Africa. The car-
dinal was acquainted with the contents of this letter, and
naturally put the worst construction on the same. On
one occasion the king, who wished the archbishopric of
Toledo for his natural son Alfonso, importuned Ximenes
to resign his see and take another in exchange ; but he
replied, with indignation, "that he would never consent
to barter away the dignities of the Church." In 1517
his "Polyglot Bible" was completed. According to
Prescott, this was "a noble monument of piety, learn-
ing, and munificence, which entitles its author to the
gratitude of the whole Christian world." (" History of
Ferdinand and Isabella.")

By the testament of Ferdinand, who died in January,
1516, Cardinal Ximenes was appointed sole regent of
Castile during the absence of the young king Charles.
His right to this office was disputed by Adrian, Dean
of Louvain, who produced powers of similar purport
from Charles. Ximenes and Adrian administered the
government jointly for some time, but the former soon
assumed sole power. In September, 1517, Charles V.
arrived in Spain, and wrote a letter to Ximenes, which
" is unmatched, even in court annals, for cool and base
ingratitude." (Prescott) It announced his dismissal

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 412 of 425)