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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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from office. He died on the 8th of November, 1517.

" Such," says Prescott, " was the end of this remark-
able man, the most remarkable, in many respects, of
his time. His character was of that stern and lofty
cast which seems to rise above the ordinary wants and
weaknesses of humanity. His genius, of the severest
order, like Dante's or Michael Angelo's in the regions
of fancy, impresses us with ideas of power that excite
admiration akin to terror. . . . His regency was con-
ducted on the principles of a military despotism. His
whole policy, indeed, was to exalt the royal prerogative
at the expense of the inferior orders of the state. . . .
He had a full measure of the religious bigotry which
belonged to the age." (" History of Ferdinand and
Isabella," vol. iii.)


nes," Leipsic, 1756: BARRHT, "Life of Cardinal Ximenes," 1813:
HBFELB, " Der Cardinal Ximenes," 1844 ; HAVEMANN, " F. Xime-
nes," 1848; ROBERTSON. " History of Charles V. "

Ximenes de Quesada, (di ki-sa'oa,) (GONZALO,) a
Spanish explorer and captain, born at Granada about
1495. He commanded a party which about 1532 began
to explore the region since called New Granada, and
founded in 1538 Santa Fi de Bogota. Died in 1546.

Ximeno or Jimeno, He-ma'no, (VINCENTE,) a
Spanish biographer, born at Valencia about 1700. He
published a literary history of the kingdom of Valencia,
"Escritores del Regno de Valencia," (2 vols., 1747-49.)

Xiphilin. See XIPHILINUS.

Xiphilinus, zif-e-H'nus, [Gr. Hi^iXivof ,- Fr. XIPHILIN,
gze'fe'laN',] (JOANNES,) became Patriarch of Constanti-
nople in 1066. He was the author of several religious
and ecclesiastical works. Died in 1075.

Xiphilinus, (JOANNES,) nephew of the preceding,
wrote an epitome of the " History" of Dion Cassius,
which was first published in 1551.

Xuares or Juares, Hoo-5'rJs, (CASPAR,) a Jesuit and
botanist, born in Paraguayin 1731 ; died at Rome in 1804.

Xuares or Juares, Hoo-a're's, written also Suares
(RODERICK,) a Spanish jurist, born at Salamanca, lived
IH the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella.

Xysuthrus, or Xysythrus, a king of Babylon, who

a, e, I, 6, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, fat; mgt; ndt; good; moon;




at the time of the great deluge is said to have saved
himself and some of his people in a ship.

Xuthus, zu'thus, [Gr. EoOSoc,] a mythical king of
Peloponnesus, was called a son of Helen, a brother of
Dorus and ^Eolus, and the father of Achseus and Ion.

Xylander, kse-lan'der, (GULIELMUS, or WILLIAM,)
a German scholar, originally named HOLZMANN, (i.e.
" wood-man," of which Xylander is the Greek equivalent,)
was born at Augsburg in 1532. He studied in his native
town and at Tiibingen, and in 1558 became professor
of Greek at Heidelberg. He made numerous transla-
tions from the Greek and Latin, among which we may

name the works of Strabo and Plutarch, the " History"
of Dion Cassius, and the mathematical works of Dio-
phantus. He also edited some of the works of Marcus
Antoninus, Phlegon Trallianus, and Antigonus Carys-
tius. His learning was profound, and his translations
are highly esteemed. Died in 1576.

Xylander, von, fon kse-lan'der, (JOSEPH KARL
AUGUST,) a German officer and military writer, born at
Munich in 1794, was the author of a treatise entitled
"Strategy and its Application," (1818,) a "Manual of
Tactics," and numerous other works, on various sub-
jects. Died in 1854.


Yahya,* (or Yahia,) ya'He-a, a Moorish captain,
called by the Spaniards BEN-GAMA or BEN-GAMIA. He
was commander of the armies of the Almoravides in
Spain, whose power was opposed by the Almohades.
He was killed in 1148.

Yahya- (or Yahia-) al-Barmekee, (or -Barmaki,)
ya'He-a i\ bar'ma-kee', (Aboo-Alee or Abfi-Ali,
ft'boo a'lee,) a Persian minister of state, belonged to the
family of Barmecides, (or Barmekides.) He became
vizier of Haroun-al-Raschid in 786 A.D. He was a
man of superior talents, and had great influence for
many years. He was disgraced about 803, and died
in 807 A.D.

Yakoobt-al-Mansoor-Billah, Yakoub-al-Man-
Bour-Billah, or Yakub- (or Jakub-) al-Mansur-
Billah, ya'koob' al man'sdor' bil'lah, a king of Morocco,
born about 1210, was an able and powerful monarch.
He began to reign in 1258. In 1275 he invaded Spain,
and waged war against the Christians with some suc-
cess. Died in 1286.

Yakoob Bey, or Yakoob Ooshbegee, oosh-bS'-
gee, a Toorkoman or Uzbeck soldier, surnamed ATAI.IK
GHAZEE, was born at Tashkent in 1820. He fought the
Russians with considerable distinction. In 1865 he was
sent against Cashgar, in Chinese Toorkistan, in aid of
the Mohammedan insurgents. Yakoob fought with great
ability and perseverance, and made himself master of
the whole country. He ruled Cashgar with remarkable
success, built a handsome college, mosque, monastery,
and palace, and kept two hundred ladies in his harem.
He was assassinated by his household officers, May 31,
1877. The Chinese then reconquered the country, and
Boon after murdered in cold blood many thousands of
Yakoob's former subjects.

Yakoob- (Yakoub- or Yakflb-) Ibn-Lais or
-Laith,} ya'koob' ib'n ITs, surnamed AL-SOFFAR or AL-
SUFFAR, was the founder of the dynasty of Soffarides
in Persia. By conquest he made himself master of Sei's-
tan about 862 A.D., and of Farsistan a few years later.
Died about 878 A.D.

Yaksha, [perhaps from the Sanscrit jaksh, to "eat,"l
a name of certain spirits in the Hindoo and Booddhist
mythology, described in the Vishnu-Purana as hideous
beings, always hungry and emaciated, but gentle and
inoffensive in character. Other books describe them as
most cruel and repulsive demons, still others as happy
spirits. Some Booddhists believe that they may enter
Nirvana, like human beings. They resemble the jinn,
or genii, of Arabian stories. They have wives, called
Yakshi, (Yakshee.)

Yal'den, (THOMAS,) an English poet and divine,
born at Exeter in 1671. He studied at Magdalene
College, Oxford, where he acquired the friendship of
Addison and Sacheverell. He succeeded Atterbury as
lecturer at Bridewell Hospital in 1698, and became
professor or reader of moral philosophy at Oxford about
1702. He was also rector of Chalton and Cleanville, in
Hertfordshire. He wrote, besides other poems, "The

It may be remarked that Yahya is the Arabic form of JOHN.
There have been many princes, leaders, and writers of this name,
both in Asia and Africa, but none of any great note.

t Yakoob (in German, Jakub} is the Arabic of JACOB and JAMES.

J See " Introduction," p. viii. section i., 4.

Temple of Fame," (1700,) "^Esop at Court," (1702,) a
" Hymn to Light," and a " Hymn to Darkness," which
was praised by Dr. Johnson. Died in 1736.

See JOHNSON. * l Lives of the Poets."

Yale, (ELIHU,) born at New Haven, Connecticut, in
1648, was the principal patron of the college called by
his name. He became in 1687 governor of Fort Saint
George at Madras. He was a Fellow of the Royal So-
ciety. Died in 1721.

Yam'a or Yam'a-na, [modern Hindoo pron. yum'a
or yjm'a-na,] called also Yam'an or Yam'en, in the
Hindoo mythology, the god of Patala, (or Naraka,) or
the lower world, and the god of death and the judge of
departed spirits. His residence or capital is called Yama-
pura, or " city of Yama." After having inquired into and
pronounced upon the merits of those who are brought
before his judgment-seat, he sends the good to Swarga,
(Indra's paradise,) and the wicked to appropriate places
of punishment, corresponding to the Tartarus of classic
mythology. Yama is known by a great multitude of
names, as Dharma-Raja, (" King of Justice,") Mrityu,
(i.e. "Death,") etc. He is said to have a servant,
named Karmala, (or Carmala,) who brings before him
the righteous on celestial self-moving cars. He has two
faces, the one full of mildness and benevolence, seen
only by the virtuous ; the other is hideous, exhibiting
great and terrible teeth : this only is visible to the
wicked. Yama is supposed by some to be the same
as Bali, (or Baly,) to whom, as we are informed in the
legend of VAMANA, (which see,) Vishnu conceded the
kingdom of Patala ; but Southey makes them two dis-
tinct personages,|l Yamen being the king, and " Baly"
(Bali) the judge, of " Padalon," (a corruption of Patala.)

Yamagata, (Count TRIMOTO,) a Japanese gen-
eral and statesman, born in 1840. He was of noble
birth, his father being distinguished as a poet and
philologist. He fought for the Mikado in the 1867
revolution, was made under-secretary of war in 1868,
and began the work of reorganizing the army on the
European system. He was sent to Europe in 1869,
witnessed the Franco-German war, was made war min-
ister in 1871, president of the council in 1874, and was
commander-in-chief of the army during the Corean
war. He was prime minister from 1898 to 1900.

Yamana. See YAMA.

Yamen. See YAMA.

Yanaka. See NANEK.

Yan'cey, (WILLIAM L.,) an American politician,
born at Columbia, South Carolina, about 1815. He
studied law, and settled in Alabama about 1837. He
represented a district of that State in Congress from
1844 to 1847 inclusive. He became a leader of the most
extreme partisans of State sovereignty and disunion,
(called 6re-eaters,) and was the reputed author of the

The words Naraka and PltSla appear to be sometimes used as
nearly synonymous ; but PatSla is more correctly applied to the
whole extent of the lower world, while Naraka properly denotes a
place of torment.

Q " He [Yamen J sat upon a marble sepulchre.

Massive and huge, where at the monarch's feet
The righteous Baly had his judgment-seat."

Curse of Kekama, vol. ii., zL

f. as k; 5 as s ; g hard: g as/; G, H, vi,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.

Explanations, p. 23. >




phrase "fire the Southern heart." In the Convention
of Alabama he reported the ordinance of secession,
which was passed in January, 1861. He was sent early
in 1861 to Europe as a commissioner to obtain the
recognition of the new confederacy. Having returned
in February, 1862, he entered the Congress at Richmond
as Senator for Alabama. Died in August, 1863.

Yang-Tee or Yang-Ti, ying'tee', Emperor of China,
began to reign in 605 A.D. He caused several great
canals to be made for navigation. Died in 617.

Yao, ya'o, or Yaou, ya'oo, almost yow, an ancient
Chinese sage and ruler, is supposed to have lived about
two thousand years before the Christian era. According
to Pauthier, he ascended the imperial throne 2357 B.C.,
and reigned seventy-two years, after which Shun was
associated with him in the government. His reign is
considered by some to mark the commencement of au-
thentic history among the Chinese. The most ancient
historical books of China, if we may trust the statements
of the Chinese critics, date from the time of Yao; in
other words, the events of his reign were chronicled by
contemporary historians, and not written afterwards
from tradition, as is the case with the early history of
nearly all other nations. Be this as it may, there is
reason to believe the early history of China to be more
trustworthy than that of most other countries. Yao is
represented as having been one of the most enlightened,
virtuous, and prosperous of rulers. He introduced
into the state many important regulations. He gave
especial encouragement to the study of astronomy and to
works of public improvement. "Great indeed," says
Confucius, " was Yaou as a sovereign. How majestic
was he ! It is only Heaven that is grand, and only Yaou
corresponded to it. How vast was his virtue ! The
people could find no name for it. How majestic was he
in the works which he accomplished ! how glorious in
the admirable regulations which he instituted !" (See the
"Confucian Analects," book viii. chap, xix.) Yao was
succeeded by Shun, who was scarcely, if at all, inferior
to him in wisdom and virtue.

Yaroslaf ur Yaroslav, Jaroslaw or Jaroslav,
ya'ro-sllf, Grand Duke of Russia, a son of Vladimir I.,
was born towards the close of the tenth century. In
1016 he gained a decisive victory over his brother,
Sviatopok, and was crowned sovereign of all the Russias.
His reign is distinguished by the wise laws which he
enacted for the benefit of his subjects, the liberal encou-
ragement which he gave to learning, and the introduction
of painting from Greece. His sister Mary was married
to Casimir, King of Poland, and one of his daughters
became the queen of Henry I. of France. Died in 1054.

Yaroslaf (or Jaroslaw) H became Grand Duke of
Russia in 1238. During his reign the Mongol Tartars
overran his dominions and reduced him to vassalage.
Died in 1246.

Yar'ran-ton, (ANDREW,) an English soldier and
mechanician, born in Worcestershire in 1616, served for
a time in the Parliamentary army. He devoted himself
to the improvement of inland navigation and agricul-
ture, and wrote a valuable work, entitled " England's
Improvement by Sea and Land," (1677.)

See SAMUEL SMILES, " Industrial Biography."

Yar'rell, (WILLIAM,) an eminent English naturalist,
bom at Westminster in 1784. He was a Fellow of the
Linnaean and Zoological Societies, and contributed a
number of valuable treatises to the Journal and Trans-
actions of those institutions. He published in 1836 his
" History of British Fishes," (2 vols. 8vo,) which was
followed in 1843 by his "History of British Birds," (2
vols.) They are beautifully illustrated with wood-cuts,
and are ranked among the most admirable works of
their kind. Yarrell was the first to prove that the white
bait is a distinct species offish, and not the young of other
species, as was previously supposed. Died in 1856.

See the " Quarterly Review" for March, 1837.

Yart, yiR or e-f R, (ANTOINE,) a French litterateur,
born at Rouen in 1710, became a priest and curate of
Saussay, in Vexin. He published, under the title of
' Idee de la Po^sie Anglaise," (8 vols., 1749-56,) prose
translations of several English poems. Died in 1791

Yates, (ANNA MARIA,) a celebrated English actress,
excelled particularly in tragic parts. She was the wifa
of Richard Yates. Died in 1787.

Yates, (EDMUND HODGSON,) an English novelist, a
son of the following, was born in 1831. He was editor
of the "Temple Bar Magazine" for some years. He
wrote "Broken to Harness," (1864,) "The Business of
Pleasure," (1865,) "Land at Last: a Novel," (1866,)
"Black Sheep," (1867,) "The Rock Ahead," (1868,)
" Wrecked in Port," (1869,) " Dr. Wainwright's Patient"
and "Nobody's Fortune," (1871,) "The Yellow Flag,"
(1873,) "The Impending Sword." (1874,) "Personal
Reminiscences," (1884,) etc. Died May 20, 1894.

Yates, (JAMES,) an English antiquary and economist,
born at Highgate, near London, in 1789, became a dis-
senting minister. He published, besides other works,
" Textrinum Opus, or an Inquiry into the Art of Weav-
ing among the Ancients," (1845.) Died May 7, 1871.

Yates, (ROBERT,) an American jurist and statesman,
born at Schenectady, New York, in 1738, became chief
justice of the State of New York in 1790. Died in 1801.

Yates, (WILLIAM,) an English Baptist divine and
Orientalist, born in 1792. In 1815 he went as a mission-
ary to Calcutta, where he translated the Bible into
Bengalee, and the New Testament, Pentateuch, Psalms,
Proverbs, Isaiah, and Daniel into Sanscrit. He also pub-
lished a Sanscrit grammar, and a Sanscrit-and-Englisb
dictionary. He died on the voyage to England, in 1845

Yazikof or Jasikow, ya'ze-kof', a Russian lyric
poet, distinguished for the exquisite sweetness and melody
of his verse, was born at Simbirsk in 1805. From the
character of his early songs, he was called " the Russian
Anacreon," but his later productions were of a more
serious character. Died in 1846.

Yeames, yeemz, (WILLIAM FREDERICK,) an English
painter, born at Taganrog, in Russia, in 1835. Among
his works is " Sir Thomas More taken to the Tower,"
(1863.) He was elected an associate of the Royal Acad-
emy of London in 1866, and Academician in 1878.

Yearsley, yeerz'le, (Mrs. ANNE,) an English writer,
born at Bristol about 1756, was originally a milkwoman.
She was patronized by Hannah More, under whose aus-
pices she published "The Royal Captives," a romance,
and a collection of poems.

Yeats. (S. LEVETT,) an English novelist, author
of several exciting romances, including " The Honor
of Savelli," (1895,) "The Chevalier d'Auriac,"
(1897,) etc.

Yeats. (WILLIAM BUTLER,) an Irish author, born
at Dublin in 1865. He wrote " The Wanderings of
Oison," a poem, (1889,) " Fairy- and Folk-Tales,"
(1889,) and other stories, poems, essays, etc.

Yefremof or Jefremow, yeh-fra'mof, a Russian
traveller, born about 1744, published "Travels in Persia
and India," (1786.) Died after 1809.

Yelin, von, fon yeh-leen', (JULIUS CONRAD,) a Ger-
man mathematician, born in Bavaria in 1771, wrote
several scientific works. Died in 1826.

Yeliu-Thsoo-Thsai, yel'le-oo' tsoo tsi, a celebrated
Chinese or Tartar minister, born in 1190. He was a
councillor of Jengis Khan and of his son Ogodai. He
was noted for his wisdom and virtue. Died in 1244.
According to Abel Remusat, " Millions of men owed
their lives and liberty to this great minister, who spent
his life in pleading the cause of law, order, and hu-

Yel'ver-ton, (Sir HENRY,) an English statesman
and jurist, born in 1566, was the author of "Reports of
Special Cases." Died in 1630.

Yendis or Yendys. See DOBELL.

Yen-Hoei, ySn-ho-a' or -ho-!', or Yen-Hwiiy, called
also Yen-Yuen, (yoo'en',) the favourite and most gifted
disciple of Confucius, was born towards the latter part
of the sixth century B.C. Not only his master but his
fellow-pupils admitted his decided superiority over all
the rest. Confucius asked one of them, (Tsze-Kung,)
" Which do you consider superior, yourself or Hwuy?"
He replied, "How dare I compare myself with Hwuy?
Hwuy hears one point and knows all about a subject, I
hear one point and know a second [only]." (See "Ana-

a, e, I, o, u, y, long: a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o. it, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fit; mt; not; good; moon:




lects of Confucius," book v.) Confucius said of him,
"There was Yen-Hwuy; HE loved to learn; ... he
did not repeat a fault. Unfortunately, his appointed
time was short: he died, and now there is not such
another." ("Analects," book vi.) Even Menciu? was
considered to be inferior to Yen-Hwuy, who was "all
round and complete." (See Legge's " Chinese Classics,"
vol. ii. p. 43.) When Yen-Hwuy died, Confucius was
inconsolable, both for his own loss and the loss of man-
kind. (See CONFUCIUS.) His disciples said to the sage,
" Your grief is excessive !" " Is it excessive ?" said he.
"If I am not to mourn bitterly for this man, for whom
should I mourn?" ("Analects," book XT.) On another
occasion he said, " Admirable indeed is the virtue of
Hwuy." And again, " He has nearly attained to perfect

Ten-Yuen. See YEN-HOKI.

Yepez, de, da ya-pe'th', (ANTONIO,) a Spanish Bene-
dictine monk, born in the sixteenth century, lived at
Valladolid. He wrote "Chronicles of the Benedictine
Order," (7 vols., 1609-15.) Died in 1621.

Yepez, de, (DlEGO,) a Spanish monk and historical
writer, born near Toledo in 1559. He became prior of
the monastery of the Escurial. Philip II. is said to have
intrusted to him the direction of his conscience. Yepez
wrote a " History of the Persecution in England since
1570." Died in 1613.

Yerkes, (CHARLES TYSON,) an American capi-
talist, born at Philadelphia in 1837. He became a
banker and broker; failed in 1871 and was imprisoned
for misappropriation of public funds ; was pardoned,
and recovered his fortune during the panic of 1873-74.
He was prominent in street railway operations in Phila-
delphia, and entered the same field in Chicago in
1 886. He became widely known as the donor to the
University of Chicago of the great 4O-inch "Yerkes
telescope," now in the observatory at Geneva, Illi-
nois. In 1900 he contracted to build an extensive
underground electric railway in the city of London.

Yermak or lermak, yjr'mak, a Cossack chief, who
conquered Siberia, was born near the banks of the Don.
He invaded Siberia with 5000 men, and, after several
victories over the native tribes, took Siber, the capital,
in 1580, and laid the foundation of the Russian dominion
in that region. Died in 1583.

See MILLER, "Opisanie Sibirskago tzarstra," 1750.

Yewell, (GEORGE HENRY,) an American artist, born
at Havre-de-Grace, Maryland, January 20, 1830. He
studied in New York under Thomas Hicks, and at the
National Academy, 1851-53, also under Couture in Paris,
1856 tt sty., returning in 1861 to New York. From 1867
to 1878 he lived in Italy, and chiefly in Rome, visiting
Cairo and the Levant, 1875-76. His earlier paintings
(before 1867) include portraits and genre subjects ; later
he worked on street-scenes with figures, as well as on
interiors, portraits, etc. In 1862 he was made an asso-
ciate, and in 1880 he became a full Academician. Among
his pictures are "Senate-Chamber in the Doge*"s Palace,"
"Interiors of Saint Mark's, Venice," "Mosque of Kait-
Bey," "Entrance to the Old Slave-Market, Cairo," "A
Street-Scene in Cairo," etc.

Yezdejerd or lezdedjerd (yez'de-jerd') t, King of
Persia, of the dynasty of Sassanida;, succeeded his brother
Varanes (Bahram) IV. in 399 A.D. He maintained peace
and friendship with the Roman empire, and gave tolera-
tion to the Christians, who became numerous in Persia.
In the latter part of his reign, however, a persecution
was provoked by the rash zeal of Abdas, Bishop of Susa,
who destroyed a temple of the fire-worshippers. Died
in 419.

Yezdejerd or lezdedjerd n., surnamed THE
GENTLE, was the son of Varanes (Bahram) V., whom
he succeeded on the throne of Persia in 439 A.D. He
was attached to the doctrine of Zoroaster, and wished
his subjects to conform. His chief minister urged him
to use severe measures against the Christians, who were
numerous, especially in Armenia, and in 442 an army
was sent to enforce the worship of fire in that province.
An Armenian prince named Vartan raised a large army
and defeated that of Persia; but finally, through the

treachery of several Armenian leaders, Vartan was de-
feated and killed, and the province was subdued in
451. He died in 457, and was succeeded by his son

Yezdejerd or lezdedjerd UX, King of Persia, was
the son of Sheheriar, and the last of the race of Sas-
sanidae. He began to reign on the death of his uncle
Ferrookh-zad, in 632 A.D., and found the empire weak-
ened by intestine dissensions and verging to dissolution.
He reformed the calendar, changed the old names of
months and days for others representing physical objects
or properties, and ordained that time should be com-
puted from a new era, (June 16, 632,) which is still ob-
served by the followers of Zoroaster. In 634 Irak was
invaded by a Moslem army, against which he sent a
general named Roostam, who addressed the invaders
in terms like these : " Retire from the Persian soil, if
you would avoid the wrath of the king of kings. Who
is your sovereign ? what are his antecedents, his titles,
and his dominions? Why do you quit your deserts,
and what do you seek in Persia?" To this the un-
terrified zealots replied, " We covet nothing that Persia
contains. The vicegerent of God has charged us to
announce his law to the nations of the earth. If the
Persians and their king will receive these sublime truths,
they shall be our brothers ; if not, our swords shall sub-
vert the throne of Yezdejerd." In the battle that en-
sued, the Arabs fought with all the courage of fanaticism,
and appeared invincible until they were broken and
routed by the charge of the Persian elephants. The
caliph Omar raised another army, and in 636 gained a
decisive victory over Roostam, who was killed in the
retreat. This was the first of a series of victories which
about 645 had effected the conquest of all Persia, except
a part of Khorassan, in which the Persian king took
refuge. He was killed in 652 A.D.

Yezeed, Yezld, or Jesld (ygh-zeed') I, written
also Yazid and Yazeed, the second of the Omeyyade
caliphs, was a son of Moaweeyah, (whence his Arab
surname, iBN-MoAWEEYAH,) and began to reign a'
Damascus in 680 A.D. He was recognized in Persia
Syria, and Egypt. Mecca and Medina, having revolted
against him, were pillaged and almost destroyed by
his armies. Died in 683 A.D., aged thirty-nine.

See WEIL, " Geschichte der Chalifen," vol. i. chap. vi.

Yezeed, Yezid, or JesJd It, a grandson of the

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 413 of 425)