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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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preceding, and a son of Abd-el-Malek, became caliph in
720 A.D. He persecuted the Christians. Died in 724,

See WEIL, "Geschichte der Chalifen," vol. i. chap. xiii.

Yezeed or Yazid, (Ibu-Mahleb, Ib'n mah'leb,) an
able Persian warrior, who gained several victories for
the caliph Soliman. Having revolted against Yezeed
II., he was killed in battle about 720 A.D.

Yggdrasil. See ODIN.

Y Kiun. See WAN-LEE.

Yrnir, ee'mir, or Ymer, [supposed to be derived
from the Norse ymia, to "rush," to "roar," expressive
of confusion,] in the Norse mythology, the first of the
giants produced from Ginnunga-gap (the "abyss of
abysses") by the union of heat and frost, and the pro-
genitor of the Frost-Giants. He was also called Aur-
gelmir, (the "primeval mass," or chaos.) He was slain
by Odin and his brothers, who made the earth of his
flesh and bones, the sea of his blood, and the heavens
of his skull. He was a personification of Chaos.

Yolland, (WILLIAM,) an English engineer-officer,
born in 1810. He entered the royal engineers in 1828,
and was long employed on the ordnance survey of the
United Kingdom. He published " Astronomical Obser-
vations" and a "Treatise on Geodesy." Died in 1885.

Yonge, yung, (CHARLES DUKE,) an English author,
born in 1812. He was educated at Eton and at Oxford,
where he graduated in 1835. He published an " English
and Greek Lexicon," (1849; abridged, 1864,) a "Latin
Dictionary," (1855-56,) "History of England," (1857,)
"Life of Wellington," (1860,) "History of France,"
(1866,) etc. Died November 28, 1891.

Yonge, (CHARLOTTE MARY,) an English novelist,
born in Hampshire in 1823, published a number of tales,
mong the most popular of which are "The Heir of



Redclvffe,"



Heartsease," (1854,) "The Daisy



as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. ( JJJf^See Explanations, p. 23.!



YONI



2510



YOUNG



Chain," (1856,) "The Clever Woman of the Family,"
(1865,) "The Dove in the Eagle's Nest," (1866,) and
"The Chaplet of Pearls," (1868.) She has also written
"Landmarks of History," (1852-57,) and other educa-
tional works, a "History of Christian Names," (1863,)
numerous volumes of history for young people, (1874-
83,) " John Keble's Parishes," (1898,) " The Patriots
of Palestine," (1898,) etc.

Y6nl, yo'm, in the Hindoo mythology, the symbol
of Parvati and of femineity in general, and, as such,
associated with the worship of Siva. (See SIVA, and
also JUNO.)

Yoosuf, Yousouf, Yusuf, or Jusuf (yoo'soof) L, a
Moorish king of Granada, began to reign in 1333 ; died
in 1354.

Yoosuf- (or Yusuf-) Aboo-Amroo-Ibn-Abdi-1
Barr, (a'boo am'roo ib'n ibd-il baR,) written also You-
souf-Amrou-Ben-Abd-Alberr, a learned Moorish
writer, born at C6rdova, Spain, in 979 ; died in 1070.
Among his works may be mentioned a treatise on Mo-
hammedan history and traditions, and a " History of the
Opinions of the Mussulman Doctors," etc. A history
entitled the " Pearls of Sacred Wars" is also attributed
to him.

Yoosuf- (or Yusuf-) Ibn- Abdi-r-Rahman-al-Feh-
ree, (or-Pehrt) (ib'n abd-lr raH'man al feVr'ee,) a Sara-
cen or Moor, who was chosen Emir or Governor of
Spain in 746 A.D. He was defeated by Abd-er-Rahman,
near C6rdova, in 756, and was killed in 759 A.D.

Yoosuf-Ibn-Tashefeen, (or -Tashefin,) (ib'n tl'-
shh-feen',) written also Ben-Taschefyn, an Almo-
ravide prince of Northern Africa, distinguished for his
bravery and skill in war. He made extensive conquests,
and in 1072 founded the city of Morocco as the capital
of his dominions. Invited in 1086 by the Moslem
princes of Spain to assist them against the Christians,
he equipped a powerful armament, landed in Spain, and
gained a decisive victory, near Badajoz, over Alfonso,
King of Castile. He afterwards reduced nearly all of
the Moorish princes of that country to vassalage. Died
in 1 1 06.

Yorck (or York) von Wartenburg, yoRk (on
waR'ten-booRG', (HANS DAVID LUDWIG,) COUNT, a
Prussian general, born at Konigsberg in 1759. Having
served for a time against the French, under the Duke
of Saxe- Weimar, he entered Napoleon's army, and com-
manded the Prussian corps in the campaign of 1812.
After the reorganization of the Prussian army, and their
withdrawal from the French cause, he successively de-
feated Eugene, Viceroy of Italy, at Dannekow, Sebastian!
at Weissig, and General Bertrand at Wartenburg, (1813.)
He gained a victory over Marmont, at Mockern, in
October the same year, and in 1814 was made general
of infantry. After the surrender of Paris, he was created
a count, commander of the forces in Silesia and Posen,
and in 1821 a field-marshal. He died in 1830.

York, CARDINAL. See STUART, (HENRY BENEDICT.)

York, DUKE OF. This title is appropriated exclu-
sively to members of the royal family of England, and
has often been given to a younger son of the king. The
first Duke of York was EDMUND OF LANGLEY, the fifth
son of Edward III. He was born in 1341, and obtained
the title about 1385. He had superior abilities, and took
a prominent part in the reign of Richard II. Died in
1402. His son EDWARD, second Duke of York, was
distinguished as a warrior. He was killed at the battle
of Agincourt, in 1415, and left no issue. The dukedom
then passed to his nephew, RICHARD PLANTAGENET, a
son of Richard, Earl of Cambridge, who was a younger
son of the first Duke of York. Richard, the third duke,
became a claimant of the throne, the right to which
descended through his mother, Anne Mortimer, who
was a great-granddaughter of Lionel, the third son of
Edward III. He was appointed Regent of France in
1435, ar >d recalled in 1447. In 1454 he received the
title of Protector of the Kingdom during the illness of
Henry VI. In 1455 he took arms to enforce his claim
to the throne. This was the beginning of the long civil
war of the Roses. His party gained a victory at Saint
Alban's in 1455, and another at Northampton in 1459 or



1460. The Duke of York was defeated and killed at
Wakefield in December, 1460. His son became King
Edward IV. RICHARD, the second son of Edward IV.,
became Duke of York in 1474. He was murdered in
the Tower by Richard III. in 1483. HENRY TUDOR,
the second son of Henry VII., was created Duke of
York in 1491. He ascended the throne, as Henry VIII.,
in 1509. The title was also borne by Charles I. and
James II. before their accession to the throne. ERNEST
AUGUSTUS, a brother of George I., was created Duke of
York and Albany in 1716. He died, without issue, in
1728. EDWARD AUGUSTUS, a brother of George III.,
was created Duke of York and Albany in 1760, and died,
without issue, in 1767.

See Miss ROBERTS, " Memoirs of the Rival Houses of York
and Lancaster," 1827.

York, (FREDERICK,) DUKE OF, born in 1763, was the
second son of George III. He served for a time in the
Prussian army, and was created in 1784 Duke of York
and Albany. He married in 1791 Frederica, daughter
of Frederick William II. of Prussia. He commanded
a British corps in the French campaigns of 1793-94, was
made a field-marshal in 1795, and commander-in-chief
of the army in 1798. He was defeated near Bergen, in
Holland, in 1799, and compelled to sign the disadvan-
tageous convention of Alkmaar. Died in 1827.

Yorke, (CHARLES,) Lord Morden, an English jurist
and statesman, born in London in December, 1722, was
a younger son of the first Lord Hardwicke. He was
educated at Bene't College, Cambridge. He and his
brother Philip were, while at college, the principal
authors of the "Athenian Letters ; or, The Correspond-
ence of an Agent of the King of Persia residing at
Athens," (1741,) a work of considerable merit. He pub-
lished an ingenious "Treatise on Forfeiture forTreason,"
(1744.) In 1747 he was returned to Parliament for Rye-
gate. He became solicitor-general in 1756, and attorney
general in 1762. He was attached to the Whig party.
Having resigned in December, 1 763, he was rtappointed
in August, 1765, on the formation of the ministry of
Roskingham. He refused the offer of the great seal
several times, but, at the earnest request of the king, he
accepted the same in January-, 1770, and succeeded Lord
Camden. By this act he deserted his Whig friends and
destroyed his own peace. He died a few days after he
became chancellor, probably by suicide. He left several
children, one of whom was Sir Joseph Yorke, a naval
officer. Charles Yorke was a friend and correspondent
of Montesquieu.

"He was possessed," says Lord Campbell, "of the
finest talents, of the most varied accomplishments, of
every virtue in public and private life ; but when he
seemed to have reached the summit of his lofty am-
bition, he committed a fatal error. . . . His acceptance
of the great seal was wrong, but did not proceed from
sordid motives. He was overpowered by royal blandish-
ments, and a momentary mistake as to the duty of a good
subject"

See LORD CAMPBBLL, "Lives of the Lord Chancellors," vol. v.

Yorke, (CHARLES PHILIP.) See HARDWICKE.

Yorke, (Sir JOSEPH SIDNEY,) K.C.B., an English
admiral, entered the navy in 1780. He served under
Lord Rodney in 1782, and rose through various promo-
tions to be admiral of the blue in 1830. He perished
by shipwreck in Stokes Bay in 1831.

Yorke, (PHILIP.) See HARDWICKE, EARL OF.

Youatt, yoo'at, (WILLIAM,) an English veterinary
surgeon, born in 1777, was the author of a "Treatise
on Cattle," a "Treatise on the Horse," "The Com-
plete Grazier," and other similar works. He was also
editor of a journal entitled "The Veterinarian." Died
in 1847.

Youmana, yoo'manz, (EDWARD LIVINGSTON,) an
American chemist and scientific writer, born in Albany
county, New York, in 1821. He published, besides
other works, a "Class-Book of Chemistry," (1852,) and
" Hand-Book of Household Science," (1857.) In 1864 he
edited " The Correlation and Conservation of Forces,"
and founded, and edited until his death, " The Popular
Science Monthly. " Died January 18, 1887.

Young, yiing, (ALEXANDER,) D.D., an American



i. e,i, o, u, y,/c/; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, J, short; a, e, i, c, obscure; far, 'all. fat; met; not; good; moon:



YOUNG



2511



YOUNG



Congregational divine, born at Boston in 1800, was the
author of "Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers of the
Colony of Plymouth," (1841,) "Library of Old English
Prose Writers," and other works. Died in 1854.

Young, yung, (Sir ARETAS WILLIAM,) an English
officer, served successively against the French in Egypt,
Sicily, and Spain, and was made lieutenant-colonel in
1813. He became lieutenant-governor of Prince Ed-
ward's Island in 1831, and was knighted in 1834. Died
in 1835.

Young, (ARTHUR,) an eminent English agriculturist
and writer on economy, was born in Suffolk in 1741
He was a merchant's clerk in his youth at Lynn. Having
an aversion to mercantile business, he began to make
experiments in agriculture, which at first were not suc-
cessful. He leased a farm of three hundred acres at
Samford Hall, Essex, about 1765, and cultivated it for
five years. He published a " Tour through the Southern
Counties of England and Wales," (1768,) which was
successful, and a "Course of Experimental Agriculture,"
(1770.) He performed several exploring tours in different
parts of England, and published the results of his inves-
tigations in works which contributed much to improve
the methods of cultivation. His " Farmer's Calendar"
(1771) was a very popular work. In 1774 he published
his " Political Arithmetic." He acquired a European
reputation by his writings on agriculture. In 1784 he
began to publish the " Annals of Agriculture," (45 vols.,)
which was highly esteemed. He travelled in France in
1787 and 1789, to explore the agricultural resources of
that country, on which subject he published, about 1791,
an interesting work. In 1793 he was appointed secre-
tary to the board of agriculture, with a salary of four
hundred pounds or more. He had married in early life,
and had several children. Died in 1820. By his experi-
ments and writings he rendered an important service tc
British agriculture ; and even the French acknowledge
that France rests under obligations to him. His works
on agriculture were translated into French by order of
the Directory, and published under the title of "Cultiva
teur Anglais" (18 vols., 1801.)

See

Revie' ... _ .

" Dictionary of Authors ;" " Nouvelle Biographic Generale."

Young, (AUGUSTUS,) an American naturalist and
geologist, born at Arlington, Vermont, in 1785. He
studied law, was elected a member of Congress in 1841,
and after the end of his term (1843) devoted himself to
scientific pursuits. He wrote several scientific treatises,
and was appointed State naturalist (for Vermont) in
1856. Died in 1857.

Young, (BRIGHAM,) high-priest of the Mormons,
was born at Whitingham, Vermont, in June, 1801. He
joined the Mormons in 1832 at Kirtland, Ohio, and
soon acquired much influence by his shrewdness and
energy. He was one of the twelve apostles sent out
in 1835 to make proselytes. On the death of Joseph
Smith, June, 1844, he was chosen president and prophet.
As the people of Illinois seemed determined to expel
the Mormons from the State, Young resolved to remove
to some region in the far West, and, accompanied by
a large majority of the Mormons, abandoned Nauvoo
early in 1846. He persuaded his followers that the valley
of Great Salt Lake was the Promised Land, and, having
arrived at that lake about July, 1847, ne founded Salt
Lake City. The Mormons increased rapidly by emi-
gration. In the spring of 1849 they held a convention
at Salt Lake City, and organized a State, which they
called Deseret ; but Congress refused to admit it into
the Union, and organized the Territory of Utah, of
which Brigham Young was appointed Governor, (1850.)
The Mormons afterwards defied the laws and officers of
the federal government, and Brigham Young ruled over
Utah with absolute authority. In 1857 President Buch-
anan appointed Alfred Gumming Governor of Utah, and
sent an army of about 2500 men to enforce his authority.
Governor Cumming proclaimed, about November, 1857,
chat the Mormons were in a state of rebellion ; but in
1858 hostilities were suspended by a compromise.
Brigham Young was married, according to the rites of
che Mormon faith, to about twelve actual wives, besides



ee the "Gentleman's Magazine" for May, 1820; "Monthly
iew" for July, August, and September, 1780, et seq. ; ALLIBONE,



having many women "sealed to him" as his spiritual
wives. By the energy and prudence of his character, he
maintained until his death an almost unlimited authority
over a body of nearly 100,000 souls. He died of cholera
morbus, August 29, 1877.

See " Mormonism," in the " New American Cyclppzdia ;" " New
America," byHfipwoRTH DIXON, 1867; "Mormonism: its Leaders
and Designs," by JOHN HYDE, JR., 1857: "The Mormon*, or
Latter-Day Saints," by LIEUTENANT J, W. GUNNISON, 1852; B.
G. FERRIS, " Utah and the Mormons," 1856.

Young, (CHARLES AUGUSTUS,) Ph.D., LL.D., an
American astronomer, born at Hanover, New Hampshire,
December 15, 1834, graduated at Dartmouth Collegt in
1853, was professor of mathematics in Western Reserve
College, Hudson, Ohio, 1857-66, professor of natural
philosophy and astronomy in Dartmouth College, 1866-
77, and in 1877 was chosen professor of astronomy in
Princeton College. Prof. Young has made very impor-
tant spectroscopic studies and discoveries in solar phys-
ics and chemistry. His principal work is "The Sun,"
(1882.) He is also author of many scientific papers.

Young, (EDWARD,) an eminent English poet, born at
Upham, in Hampshire, in 1684, was a son of Edward
Young, rector of that parish, and subsequently Dean
of Salisbury. He studied at Winchester, entered New
College, Oxford, in 1703, and a few months later removed
to Corpus Christi College. In 1708 he was elected a
Fellow of All Souls' College. He published in 1713
poems entitled "The Last Day," and "The Force of
Religion, or Vanquished Love." In 1719 he took the
degree of D.C.L., and produced the same year the
tragedy of "Busiris." He was patronized by the Duke
of Wharton, who granted him an annuity. His next work
was "The Revenge," a tragedy, (1721,) which, like most
of his writings, is marred by false taste and bombastic
style. About 1725 he began to publish, under the title
of "The Love of Fame, the Universal Passion," a col-
lection of satires, which was very successful. It is stated
that he received .3000 for this work. His several
works were dedicated to various patrons, in terms of
fulsome adulation. Having taken holy orders in 1727,
he was appointed one of the royal chaplains, and ob-
tained in 1730 the rectory of \Velw) r n, in Hertfordshire
where he resided many years. In 1731 he married
Lady Elizabeth Lee, widow of Colonel Lee, and a
laughter of the Earl of Lichfield. They had a son
Frederick. Colonel Lee and Lady Lee had a daughter,
who was married to a Mr. Temple, and who died at
Lyons in 1736. This Mr. Temple and his wife are the
"Philander" and "Narcissa" of the "Night Thoughts,"
(1742-46,) the poem on which the reputation of Young
is chiefly founded. It enjoyed great popularity, and
found admirers and imitators in Germany and France
The form and conception of this poem are somewhat
original and bold ; it is profusely adorned with brilliant
imagery, pompous hyperbole, and striking antithesis ;
but he seldom attains the true sublimity. " In his
'Night Thoughts,'" says Dr. Johnson, " he has ex-
hibited a very wide display of original poetry, varis-
gated with deep reflections and striking allusions, a
wilderness of thought, in which the fertility of fancy
scatters flcwers of every hue and every odour. " (" Lives
of the English Poets.") " Young," says Villemain, "is
not a good model ; he has too much artifice. . . . He
fatigues the imagination more than he touches the
heart ; he fills the reader with a sort of satiety of sym-
pathy for his sorrow." {" Biographic Universelle.")
Among his later works is " Resignation," a poem,
(1762.) In 1761 he was appointed clerk of the closet
to the Princess-Dowager of Wales. After he was
seventy years old he continued to solicit preferment, but
without success. He died at Welwyn in April, 1765.

See H. CROFT, " Life of Edward Young," in JOHNSON'S " Lives
of the English Poets;" "Biographica Bntannica;" J. MITFORD,
" Life of Young :" CAMPBELL, " Specimens of the English Poets ;"
DRAKE, "Essays:" "Westminster Review" for January, 1857;
ALLIBONE, "Dictionary of Authors."

Young, (Sir JOHN,) an English civil officer, born in
1807. He was secretary of the treasury from 1844 to
1846, chief secretary for Ireland from 1852 to 1855, Gov-
ernor of New South Wales from 1860 to 1868, Governor
of Canada from 1868 to 1872. In 1870 he received the
title of Lord Lisgar. Died October 6, 1876.



*,- {asj; g haning as/; G, M,Vi,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasr; thasinMu. l,J^=See Explanations, p. 23.1



YOUNG



2512



YPEY



Young (TOHN CLARK,) D.D., an American Presby- shire. During this period he studied natural philosophy,
terian divine, bom at Greencastle. Pennsylvania, in 1803, and the " Principia" of Newton H : became a student



became president of Centre College, Danville, Kentucky,
in 1830. Died in 1857.

Young, (JOHN FREEMAN,) D.D., an American bishop,
born at Pittston, Maine, October 30, 1820, was a student
of the Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut,
graduated at the Theological Seminary near Alexandria,
Virginia, in 1845, and in 1846 became a priest of the
Episcopal Church. In 1867 he was consecrated Bishop
of Florida. Died November 15, 1885.

Young, (JOHN RADFORD,) an English mathema-
tician, born in London about 1800. Among his works
are "The General Theory and Solution of Algebraic
Equations," (1842,) and a "Treatise on Navigation and
Nautical Astronomy," (1856.)

Young, (JosuE MARIA,) D.D., an American bishop,
originally named JOSHUA MOODY YOUNG. He was born

O _ J * j-\ _. _ 1 . _O_O 1U-.



of medicine in London in 1792, attended the lectures of
John Hunter, and continued his studies in Edinburgh,
whither he went in 1794. About this date he was chosen
a Fellow of the Royal Society. In the autumn of 1795
he went to Gottingen, where he studied several months
and took the degree of M.D. He visited various cities
of Germany in 1796, and entered Emanuel College,
Cambridge, in 1797. His uncle, Dr. Brocklesby, who
died in 1797, left him a legacy of about j 10,000.

He began to practise medicine in London in 1800, and
was professor of natural philosophy in the Royal Insti-
tution from 1801 to 1804. Between 1800 and 1804 he
contributed to the " Philosophical Transactions" several
memoirs "On the Theory of Light and Colours," in
which he advocated the undulatory theory of light. He
married Miss Eliza Maxwell in 1804. In 1807 he pub-
lished an excellent work entitled a " Course of Lectures



in what is now Acton, Maine, October 29, 1808, and be- j ^"Natural Philosophy and Mechanical Arts/' (2 vols.
Universalist religion and became a Catholic, studied in



came a printer and editor.



the college at Emmittsburg, and in 1837 was ordained a
priest. In :8s4 he was consecrated Bishop of Erie,

- J . r .- . i- . i . . I 1-t? _ J _. T? *_ O



In 1828 he renounced the \ wh y ch present ^ a ' comp i e te system of elementary
physics and mechanical philosophy. Among his chief



Pennsylvania, the first of that title,
tember 18, 1866.



Died at Erie, Sep-



Young, (MATTHEW,) an eminent Irish mathematician
and writer, born in the county of Roscommon in 1750.
He studied at Trinity College, Dublin, of which he be-
came a Fellow in 1775, and in 1786 was appointed to the
chair of natural philosophy. He was one of the found-
ers and first members of the Royal Irish Academy, to
the "Transactions" of which he contributed several
valuable articles. Among his principal works are "An
Essay on the Phenomena of Sounds and Musical Strings,"
(1784,) "Method of Prime and Ultimate Ratios," and
"Principles of Natural Philosophy," (1800.) He died
in 1800, having been previously created Bishop of Clon-
fert and Kilmacduach.

Young, (PATRICK,) [Lat. PATRIC'IUS JU'NIUS,] a
distinguished classical scholar, born in East Lothian,
Scotland, in 1584, was appointed keeper of the royal
library in London. He translated into Latin some of
the works of King James I., and edited the epistles of
Clemens Romanus. Died in 1652.

Young, (Sir PETER,) [tat. PE'TRUS JU'NIUS,] a Scot-
tish diplomatist, born in 1544. He was associated with
Buchanan as tutor of the young prince, afterwards James
I. of England, and subsequently became a member of the
privy council, and was employed in various missions.
He was the author of a vindication of Mary Queen of



he was appointed one of the physicians of
ge's Hospital. He contributed to the " Quar-



Scots. Died in 1628.
Young, (ROBERT ALEXANDER,]



D.D., an American



divine, born in Knox county, Tennessee, January 23,
1824. He graduated at Washington College, entered
the Methodist ministry, and for three years was president
of Florence University in Alabama.

Young, (SAMUEL,) an American politician, born in
Lenox, Massachusetts, about 1780, removed to the State
of New York in his youth. He became a member of
the board of canal commissioners in 1817, was for many
years a Senator of New York, and held other high
offices in that State. He acted with the Democratic
party, and was the leader of the delegation of Free-
Soilers, alias " Barnburners," which went from New York
to the Baltimore Convention in 1848. He died at Ball-
ston, New York, in 1850.

Young, (THOMAS,) an English Puritan divine, born
about 1587. He became master of Jesus College,
Cambridge, and was a tutor of the poet Milton. Died
in 1655.

Young, (THOMAS,) an English philosopher and scholar
of great eminence, was born at Milverton, in Somer-
setshire, on the I3th of June, 1773. His parents were
members of the Society of Friends. He studied for
several years at Compton School, Dorsetshire, and after-
wards at home. He was well versed in the Greek, Latin,
French, and Italian languages, and in mathematics. He
also studied Hebrew, Arabic, etc. From 1787 to 1792
he was employed as tutor to Hudson Gurney, in the
family of David Barclay of Youngsbury, in Hertford-



discoveries was the interference of the rays of light, on
which subject we quote the comments of Sir John F. W.
Herschel: "The first year of the present century, our
illustrious countryman, the late Dr. Thomas Young, had
established a principle in optics which, regarded as a
physical law, has hardly its equal, for beauty, simplicity,


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 414 of 425)