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and extent of application, in the whole circle of science
Nothing was now wanting to a rational theory of
double refraction, but to frame an hypothesis of some
mode in which light might be conceived to be propagated,
through the elastic medium supposed to convey it, in
such a way as not to be contradictory to any of the facts
nor to the general laws of dynamics. This essential
idea, without which everything that had been done be-
fore would have been incomplete, was also furnished by
Dr. Young, who, with a sagacity which would have done
honour to Newton himself, had declared that to accom-
modate the doctrine of Huygens to the phenomena of
polarized light it is necessary to conceive the mode of
propagation of a luminous impulse through the ether,
differently from that of a sonorous one through the air
In the latter, the particles of the air advance and recede ;
in the former, those of the ether must be supposed to
tremble laterally." ("Preliminary Discourse on the
Study of Natural Philosophy.")

In 1811 he

Saint George - - - ,

terly Review" numerous articles, mostly scientific. He
published in 1813 " An Introduction to Medical Litera-
ture, including a System of Practical Nosology." In
1818 he became secretary to the board of longitude. He
was afterwards the editor or conductor of the " Nautical
Almanac." He devoted much attention to the subject
of Egyptian hieroglyphics, in which he made some dis-
coveries, that he published in 1819. He was more suc-
cessful in explaining the symbols of ancient Egypt than
any person except Champollion. He wrote about sixty
articles for the " Encyclopaedia Britannica," including
the article " Egypt" and more than forty biographical
notices. In 1827 he was chosen one of the eight foreign
associates of the French Institute. He died, without
issue, in London, in May, 1829.

See GEORGE PEACOCK. D.D., "Life of Dr. Thomas Young.
18=5- OURNEV, "Memoir "

11 Koge de Thomas Young :
"North British Review" for August. 1855.

Young, (THOMAS JOHN,) an American Episcopalian
divine, born at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1803, gradu-
ated at Yale College, and in 1847 became assistant rector
of Saint Michael's Church, Charleston. Died in 1852.
Young, (Sir WILLIAM.) an English writer, born near
Canterbury in 1750. He was elected to Parliament foi
Saint Mawes in 1783, and was afterwards Governor of
Tobago. He published "The West India Common-
place Book," " The History of Athens," and other works.
Died in 1815.
Yousouf-Ben-Taschefin. See YOOSUF-IBN-TASHB

Ypey, J'pl, ? (ANN/EUS,) a Dutch theologian, born
in Friesland in 1760, became professor of ecclesiastical



..,

OURNEV, "Memoir of Thomas Young," 1831: ARAGO.
ALLIBONB, " Dictionary of Authors:



i, e, i, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, u, >', short; a, e, i, Q, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; not; good- moon;



YPRES



ZACAGNI



history at Groningen in 1813. He published, besides
other works, a " History of the Christian Church in
the Eighteenth Century," and a "Compendious History
of the Reformation," (" Beknopte Geschiedenis de Her-
vorming," 1817.) Died about 1834.

Ypres, d', depR, (CHARLES,) a Flemish painter and
designer, born at Ypres about 1510, studied in Italy.
Among his works is "The Last Judgment." He died
in 1563 or 1564.

Ypsilanti, ip-se-lan'tee, or Ypsilan'tis, (ALEXAN-
DER,) a Greek statesman and soldier, was appointed
Hospodar of Wallachia in 1774. He was condemned to
death by the Turks on a charge of treason, and executed
in 1792. His son CONSTANTINE became interpreter to
the Porte, and was afterwards successively Hospodar
of Moldavia and Wallachia. He died in 1816, having
made several ineffectual attempts to achieve the inde-
pendence of his country.

YpsUanti, (ALEXANDER,) a celebrated Greek patriot,
a son of Constantine, and grandson of Alexander, noticed
above, was born at Constantinople in 1792. He entered
the Russian service at an early age, fought with dis-
tinction in the campaigns of 1812-13, a "d was made
a major-general in 1817. He became leader in 1820 of
the Hetaeria, (Hetairia,) an association for the promotion
of Grecian independence ; but after the defeat of the
Greeks at Dragashan, in 1821, he gave himself up to the
Austrians, by whom he was imprisoned six years. He
was released in 1827, on the intercession of the Czai
Nicholas, but he died the following year.

YpsUanti, (DiMiTRius,) a brother of the preceding,
was born at Constantinople in 1793. Soon after tha
breaking out of the insurrection in 1821, he took Tripo-
litza by storm, and subsequently distinguished himself
by his bold defence of the citadel of Argos, in conse-
quence of which the Turkish army was destroyed in its
passage between Argos and Corinth. He was made
commander of the forces in Eastern Greece by the presi-
dent, Capodistria, in 1828, and after the assassination of
that magistrate, in 1832, became one of the members of
the executive commission. He died the same year.

Ypsilanti, (GREGORIOS,) PRINCE, a Greek diplomatist,
born September 17, 1835. In 1867 he became Greek
minister at the Austro-Hungarian court. He is the
head of a family having great estates in Greece, Rou-
ni, mi, i, and Russia.

Ypsilantia. See YPSILANTI.

Yrala or Irala, de, di e-ri'li, (DOMINGO Martinez
maR-tee'nfth,) a Spanish captain and explorer, born
at Vergara about 1486. He explored the region near
the Paraguay River, and was chosen governor of the
cclony at Assumption about 1538. Died in 1557.

Yriarte. See IRIARTE.

Ysabeau, e'zl'bS', (CLEMENT ALEXANDRE,) a
French Jacobin, born at Gien in 1754. He was a mem-
ber of the Convention, (1792-95,) voted for the death of
the king, and acted with the enemies of Robespierre on
the gth Thermidor. He was elected to the Council
of Elders in 1795. Died in 1823, (or, according to some
authorities, in 1831.)



Ysabeau, (VICTOR FR^D^RIC ALEXANDRE,) a French
writer on rural economy, born at Rouen in 1793, was
a son of the preceding. He published a number of
works. Died in 1873.

Yu, yoo, the last of the three ancient Chinese em-
perors* who stand pre-eminent for their wisdom and
virtue among all the rulers of the Celestial empire,
began to reign, according to Pauthier, in 2205 B.C. He
constructed extensive dikes along the banks of such of
the great rivers as were subject to inundations, and
executed other important public works. He is said
to have introduced great improvements in agriculture.
Some writers date the commencement of authentic his-
tory in China (see YAO) from the reign of Yu, who was
the founder of the first dynasty commonly called the
Hia (hee'a) dynasty of Chinese emperors.

See PAUTHIHR, "Chine," pp. 39-54.

Yule, (HENRY,) a British geographer, born in 1820.
He entered the Bengal army, and attained the local rank
of major-general, but was finally retired as a colonel.
For some time he was minister of Indian public works.
Among his works are " A Narrative of the Mission to
the Court of ATa," (1858,) " Cathay and the Way Thither,"
(1866,) a new translation of "The Book of Marco Polo,"
(1875,) and a very great number of learned papers,
chiefly on Asiatic geography. Died December 30, 1889.

Yusul See YOOSUF.

Yvan, C'VON', (MELCHIOR,) BARON, a French phy-
sician and writer, born in Basses-Alpes in 1803. He
went to China in 1843 as physician to a mission or
embassy conducted by M. Lagrenee, and he published,
besides other works, "Travels in China and the Malay
Peninsula," (1850.) Died near Nice, April 15, 1873.

Yver, e'vaiR', (JACQUES,) a French author, born at Ni-
ort in 1520, wrote " Le Printemps d'Yver." Died in 1572

Yveinois. See IVERNOIS.

Yves, SAINT. See IVES.

Yves, SAINT. See SAINT-!VES.

Yves, SAINT, or Yves de Ker-Martin, ev deh keV-
miR'tlN', a learned French monk and jurist, born in
Bretagne in 1253, was sometimes called YVES-HftLORi,
(ev i'lo're'.) Died in 1303.

See I. FAV, " Histoire de Saint Yves," 1851.

Yves de Ker-Martin. See YVES, SAINT.

Yveteaux, Des. See DES YVETEAUX.

Yvon, e'vAN', ABBS, a mediocre French writer, born
in Normandy about 1720. He aided Diderot in the
redaction of the " Encyclopedic," and published other
works. Died about 1790.

Yvon, (ADOLPHE,) a French historical painter, born
in the department of Moselle in 1817, was a pupil of
Paul Delaroche. Among his principal works may be
named " Marshal Ney supporting the Rear-Guard in
Russia," " The Seven Deadly Sins," and " The Capture
of the Malakoff." Died September n, 1893.

Yvon, (PIERRE CHRISTOPHE,) born near Mans in
1719, was for many years physician of the Abbey Roval
of Poissi, near Paris. Died in 1814.

Yao, Shun, Yn.



z.



Zabaglia, dza-bal'yl, (NiccoLd,) an Italian archi-
tect and mechanician, born at Rome in 1674, was the
inventor of several ingenious machines, among which
was one for transferring frescos from the plaster. He
was appointed architect of the basilicon of Saint Peter's.
Died in 1750.

Zabarella, dza-ba-rel'lj, (FRANCESCO,) a celebrated
Italian ecclesiastic, sometimes called THE CARDINAL OF
FLORENCE, was born at Padua in 1339. He was pro-
foundly versed in canon law, and rose through several
preferments to be Archbishop of Florence in 1410, and
a cardinal in 1411. He took an active part in the pro-
ceedings of the Council of Trent, and was the author
of numerous treatises relating to theology and ecclesias-
tical matters. Died in 1417.



Zabarella, (GlACOMO,) an Italian philosopher, bom
at Padua in 1533, published "Commentaries on the
Physics of Aristotle," and several treatises on logic and
philosophy. Died in 1589.

Zaborowa, za-bi-ro'vi, (JAMES,) a Polish publicist,
flourished about 1500. He published a collection of the
laws and constitutions of Poland, (1506.)

Zaborowski, za-ba-rov'skee, (STANISLAS,) a Polish
jurist, became secretary of the treasury in 1506. He
wrote on law and grammar. Died in 1549.

Zabulon, the French for ZEBULUN, which see.

Zacagni, dza-kln'yee, or Zaccagni, (LORENZO ALES-
SANDRO,) an Italian scholar and antiquary, became keeper
of the library of the Vatican. He published an impor-
tant work entitled "A Collection of Ancient Memorials



c as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled: s as z; th as in this. (JJ^~See Explanations, p. 23. '

158



ZACCARTA



ZAHRTMANN



of the Church," ("Collectanea Monumentorum veterum
Ecclesiae," etc., 1698.) Died at Rome in 1712.

Zaccaria, dzi-ka-ree'a, (FRANCESCO ANTONIO,) an
Italian Jesuit and scholar, born at Venice in 1714, be-
came professor of ecclesiastical history at the College
of Wisdom, Rome. Among his principal works are
"Literary History of Italy," (14 vols. 8vo, 1751,) "Lit-
erary Annals of Italy," (3 vols., 1762,) and " Numismatic
Institutes." Died in 1795 ; was sainted in 1897.

Zac'-ehe-us, [Fr. ZACHEE, zi'sha',] a rich publican
of Jericho, who became a disciple of Christ,

Zacchias, dzak-kee'is, (PAOLO,) an Italian physician
and medical writer, born at Rome in 1584, became



Zacharias, [Gr. Zaxapiat; Fr. ZACHARIE,] surnamed
SCHOLAS'TICUS, a Christian writer, who was Bishop of
Milylene and lived about 530 A.D. He wrote, in Greek,
a work entitled " Ammonias," designed to refute the
doctrine of the eternity of the universe.

Zacharias, [Fr. ZACHARIE,] a Greek ecclesiastic,
succeeded Gregory III. as Pope of Rome in 741 A.D.
He compelled Luitprand, King of the Longobards, to
restore the territories which he had taken from the
exarchate of Ravenna, and supported Pepin in his claim
to the throne of France in opposition to Childeric, (750.)
He wrote a " Life of Saint Benedict," and other works,
and founded numerous churches. Died in 752.



physician to Pope Innocent X. He published a number Zachariasiewicz, tsa'Ka-re-as'ya-vitch, (JoHAN,) an

of works on medical jurisprudence, which were highly * "-" tk "- K ' "- 1 IT.,., n-i;,.;, ;- .~r

esteemed at the time. Died in 1659.

Zaccone, zf'kon', (PIERRE,) a popular French novel-
ist, born at Douai, April 2, 1817. Among his tales are
" Le dernier Rendezvous,"! 1 852,) " Le Roi de la Bazoche,"
(1853,) "Le nouveau Paris," (1856,) " Le Condamne a
Mort," (1866,) "Les Nuits de Boulevard," (a drama,
1876,) " Le Fer rouge," etc. He also published a " His-
tory of Secret Societies," (1847,) " Epoques historiques
de la Bretagne," (1845,) etc - Died in 1895.

Zach, von, fon zak, [Ger. pron. tsaK,] (ANTON,)
BARON, an Austrian general, born at Pesth in 1747. He
became a colonel in 1795, and distinguished himself at
Marengo, where he was made prisoner, (1800.) He
obtained the rank of field-marshal-lieutenant He wrote
several works on the military art and on mathematics
Died in 1826.



Austrian author, born at Radymno, East Galicia, in 1825.
He became a journalist, and published many political
novels, which have helped to revolutionize the public
spirit of the Slavic parts of Austria-Hungary. He advo-
cated harmony between the Poles and the Ruthenians,
and opposed espionage and police despotism with much
spirit and efficiency.

Zacharie. See ZACHARIAH and ZACHARIAS.

Zacbarie de Liaieux, zj'ki're' deh le'ze-uh', a
French monk, born at Lisieux in 1582. He produced,
Desides other books, a fanciful work called " Gyges the
Gaul," ("Gyges Gallus," 1659.) He wrote under the
assumed name of PETRUS FIRMIANUS, or FIRMIAN.
Died in 1660.

Zachau, tsaK'ow, written also Zachaw, (FRIED-
KICK WILHELM,) a German musician and composer,
born at Leipsic in 1663. He was a skilful performer on



Zach, von, fon zak or tsaK, (FRANZ XAVER,) BARON, the organ, lived at Halle, and was one of the masters of
an eminent astronomer, born at Presburg in June, 1754, Handel. Died in 1721.

Zachee. See ZACCHEUS.

Zacher, tsa'Ker, (ERNST JULIUS AUGUST,) a German



was a brother of the preceding. He passed several

of his early years in England after he had left college.

About 1786 he entered the service of Ernest, Duke I scholar, born at Obernigk, in Silesia, February 15, 1816.

He studied at Breslau and Berlin, and held a professor-
ship at Halle and afterwards at Kbnigsberg, whence he



of Saxe-Gotha, and was appointed director of an obser-
vatory which that prince had erected at Seeberg. He I
gained a high reputation as an observer and a writer on | was recalled to Halle in 1863 as professor of German



astronomy. He published a valuable periodical, entitled
" Monatliche Correspondenz," (28 vols., 1800-13,) a
"Catalogue of Fixed Stars," (1804,) "Tables of Aberra-
tion and Nutation for 1404 Stars," (1812,) and a work
called "The Attraction of Mountains and its Effects on
a Plumb-Line," (2 vols., 1814.) He passed several of his
latter years in Italy, whither he went as an attendant or
grand marshal of the Duchess of Saxe-Gotha. He died
of cholera in Paris in 1832.

Zacharia, (JusT FRIEDRICH WILHELM,) a German
poet and satirist, born at Frankenhausen in 1726. He



studied at Leipsic, and became in 1761 professor of nove if st
belles-lettres in the Carolinum at Brunswick. ""



His
The Brawler ("Der



philology. He published " The Gothic and Runic Alpha-
bets," (1855,) " History of Genovefa, Countess Palatine,"
(1860,) and various minor treatises. Died in 1887.

Zachtleven or Zachtleevin. See SACHTLEVEN.

Zacuth, (ABRAHAM.) See ABRAHAM ZACUTH.

Zacuto Lusitaiio, za-koo'to loo-se-ta'no, [Lat ZA
CU'TUS LUSITA'NUS,] a Portuguese physician and phi-
losopher, of Jewish extraction, born at Lisbon in 1575.
He spent the latter part of his life in Amsterdam, where
he published several medical works. Died in 1642.

Zagoskin, tsl'gos-kin, (MIKHAIL,) a prolific Russian
t, and dramatist, born in 1789. His best-



known



the nove l " Yoori Miloslavsky," (1829.)
J *



burlesque heroic poem entitled me raw,er r uer known tQ ]jsh reader ^ <<The YQ M uscovite .
Renommist," 1744) was the first work of the kind that Died Moscow T -~-
had appeared in German, and was received with great < -
favour. It was followed by other similar poems, en-
titled "Phaeton," "The Handkerchief," (" Das Schnupf-
tuch,") and " Murner in Hell," ("Murner in der Holle,")
which were also very successful. He likewise published
"Fables and Tales," which are highly esteemed, and
translated Milton's " Paradise Lost" into German hex-
ameter verse. Died in 1777.

See ESCHKNBURG, " Leben F. W. Zachariae's," 1781 : GERVIHDS,
"Geschichte der Deutschen Dicluung."

Zacharia von Tiingenthal, tsaK-a-ree'i fon ling'-
en-thll, (KARL SALOMO,) an eminent German jurist and
writer, born at Meissen in 1769. Having studied at
Leipsic, he became in 1802 professor of law at Witten-
berg, and in 1807 filled the same chair at Heidelberg.
He was ennobled in 1842, with the title of Baron von
Lingenthal. He published a number of valuable legal
and philosophical works, among which may be named a



Zahn, tsin, (JoHANN,) a German philosopher, born
in Franconia in 1641, published " Physico-Mathematico-
Historical Mirrors of Remarkable and Wonderful
Things to be Known," ("Specula Physico-Mathematico
Historica Notabilium ac Mirabilium sciendorum," 1696.)
Died in 1707.

Zahn, (JOHANN KARL WILHELM,) a German artist,
born at Rodenberg in 1800, spent many years in Italy,
and published in 1828 a work entitled "The Finest
Ornaments and Most Remarkable Pictures from Pom-
peii, Herculaneum, and Stabise." He became professor
in the Academy of Arts at Berlin in 1829. Died in
1871.

Zahn. (THEODOR,) a German theologian, born at
Mors, Rhenish Prussia, in 1838. He was successively
professor at Gottingen, Kiel, Erlangen, Leipzig, and
again at Erlangen in 1891. His works are numerous,
the most striking being those on the New Testament



Manual of French Civil Law," and " The Unity of
State and Church." Died in 1843. Canon, (1881-93.)

Zaeh-a-ri'ah, [Fr. ZACHARIE, zi'kf re'; Heb. mot,] I Zahrtmann, tsaRf man, (CHRISTIAN CHRISTOPHER,)
King of Israel, was the son of Jeroboam II., whom he a Danish officer and hydrographer, born before 1800.
succeeded in 793 B.C. Died about 770 B.C. He served with distinction in the campaign of 1815.

Za-eh-a-ri'as, [Fr. ZACHARIE, zl'kt're',] a Jewish I and subsequently examined the coasts of Denmark, of
priest, who was the father of John the Baptist, and to which he published valuable charts. One of these,
whom the angel Gabriel predicted the birth of that son. entitled " The Danish Pilot," has been translated into

a, e, i, 6, u, y, long; 4, e, i>, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, ?, i, o, obscure; fir, fall, fit; met; not; good; moon :



ZAIDOON



2515



Z.AMORA



English and French. He was appointed hydrographer
to the Danish admiralty, created knight grand cross of
the 'order of Dannebrog, and obtained various other
distinctions. Died in 1853.

Zaidoon, Zaidoun, or Zaidftn, Ibn, tb'n zi'd6"on',
(Abool-Waleed- (or Walid-) Ahmed, i'bool wa-leed
iH'med,) an Arabian poet, born at Cordova in 1003.
He lived at Seville, and was vizier to King Motadhed.
Died in 1070.

Zainer or Zeiner, tsi'ner, written also Tzaiiier,
(GuNTHER,) a celebrated German printer, born at Reut-
lingen about 1430, was the first to establish a press
at Augsburg. He also introduced the Roman type
into Germany. Died in 1478. His brother JOHANN
founded a printing-establishment at Ulm.

Zajonczek, zj-yon'chek, (JOSEPH,) a Polish general,
born at Kamieniec in 1752. He served under Kos-
ciusko against the Russians, and afterwards entered the
French army, fought in Italy and Egypt, and became
a general of division in 1802. He iost a leg in the
Russian campaign of 1812, and was soon after made
prisoner. In 1815 he was appointed Viceroy of Poland
by the emperor Alexander, who made him a prince in
1818. He published, in French, a " History of the Polish
Revolution in 1794," (1797.) Died in 1826.

Zakrzewska, zakR-zhev'ska, (MARIA ELIZABETH,)
M.D., a distinguished physician, born in Berlin, Prussia,
September 6, 1829. She was of Polish descent, the
daughter of a midwife. She studied medicine in Ger-
many, but had to come to the United States to receive
her degree, which she took at the Cleveland Medical
College. In 1863 she founded the Woman's Hospital
at Boston.

Zakrzewski, zakR-zhSv'skee, a Polish patriot, born
about 1744, became president of the National Council
at Warsaw in 1794. After the capture of that city by
Suwarow, he was arrested, by order of the Russian
government, with Potocki and others, and imprisoned
at Saint Petersburg till the accession of the emperor
Paul. Died in 1802.

Zal, zil, or Zalzer, zil'zar, [i.e. "golden-haired,"] the
name of an ancient Persian warrior, who was distin-
guished for his heroic achievements, and still more as
the father of the famous ROOSTAM, (which see.) He is
said to have greatly aided Kai-Kobad (the first of the
Kaianian kings) in repelling the invasion of the Tartars
and in establishing that king securely on the throne of
Persia.

See "A Short History of Persia," in vol. v. of SIR WILLIAM
JONES'S Works ; ATKINSON'S " Abridgment of the Shah Nameh of
Firdausi."

Zaleski, za-les'skee, (BoHDAN,) a Polish poet, born
In the Ukraine in 1802. His chief works are " The Spirit
if the Steppes," and "The Holy Family." D. in 1886.

Za-leu'cus, [ZdXfWiof,] an eminent Greek legislator,
supposed to have been born about 700 B.C. According
to tradition, he was the first of the Greeks who pre-
pared a code of written laws. This code which, he
declared, was revealed to him by Minerva was made
for the Epizephyrian Locrians, in Southern Italy. He
is said by some writers to have been killed in battle ;
while others assert that he committed suicide for having
thoughtlessly violated one of his own laws.

See RITTERSHUSIUS, " Oratio de Zaleuco et Charonda," etc.,
1591 ; B. PORTOGHESE, " Frammenti della Legislazione de Zaleuco,"
etc.. 1842.

Zallinger, tsal'ling-er, (FRANZ SERAPHIM,) aTyrolese
natural philosopher, born at Botzen in 1743, published
several works. Died after 1800.

Zallinger, JAKOB ANTON,) a learned Jesuit, born at
Botzen, in the Tyrol, in 1735. He published, besides
other works, in Latin, " The Interpretation of Nature,
or the Newtonian Philosophy Expounded," (3 vols.,
'773-75-) Died about 1802.

Zallwein, tsal'win, (GEORG,) a German canonist,
born in the Upper Palatinate in 1712. He was professor
of canon law at Salzburg, and wrote on that subject
Died in 1766.

Zalmoxia. See ZAMOLXIS.

Zaluski, zi-loos'skee, (ANDREW CHRYSOSTOM,) a
Polish statesman and pulpit orator, born about 1650,
rose to be Bishop of Ermeland and grand chancellor of



Poland under Augustus II. He was the author of a
valuable and interesting work entitled " Historical Epis-
tles," (" Epistolae historico-familiares.") Died in 1711.

Zaluski, (ANDREW STANISLAS,) nephew of the pre-
ceding, was created Bishop of Plock by Augustus II.,
and appointed grand chancellor of the kingdom, (1735.)
He became Bishop of Cracow in 1746. He was distin-
guished for his learning and his patronage of literature.
Died in 1758.

Zaluski, (JOSEPH ANDREW,) a bibliophile, a brother
of the preceding, was born in 1701. Having visited
France, Italy, and Germany, he became after his return
Bishop of Kief. In conjunction with his brother the
Bishop of Cracow, he devoted himself to the task of
forming a library, which in 1748 amounted to 230,000
volumes and was opened to the public at Warsaw the
same year. In 1766 he was imprisoned, by order of
the Russian government, for having denounced the Dis-
sidents protected by that country, and was not released till

1773. While in prison he wrote an account, in verse, of
the Polish histories contained in his library. He died in

1774, and his magnificent collection was, on the partition
of Poland, in 1795, seized by the Russian government
and carried to Saint Petersburg, where it formed the
nucleus of the Imperial Library. Many books were
lost on the way, but the number which arrived safely
amounted to 262,640 volumes, of which the greater part
were French, German, and English. It also contained
about 25,000 engravings.

Zamacois, thi'ma-ko'ees, (EouARDO, ) a Spanish
painter, born at Bilbao in 1837. He was a pupil of
Meissonier, and attained a marvellous popularity as a
genre painter. Died at Madrid in 1871.

Zamagna, dza-man'yi, (BERNARDO,) an Italian Jesuit
and Latin poet, born at Ragusa in 1735. He translated
the poems of Hesiod and Thocritus, and the " Odyssey"
of Homer, into Latin verse. Died in 1820.

Zambeccari, dzJm-bk-ka'ree,(FRANCESCO,) COUNT,
a distinguished Italian aeronaut, born at Bologna in
1756. He maintained the theory that a balloon could
be managed by the use of oars and by increasing or
diminishing the gas, and, while making the experiment,


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 415 of 425)