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on the First Principles of Natural Philosophy," (1762,)
" A Course of Lectures on the Figurative Language of

as/t; 9asf; ghard; gas_/'/G, n,K,gutturaI; N, nasal; K,trillid; sasz; thasinM/j. (Jg^See Explanations, p. 23.)


O (




the Haly Scriptures," (1786,) and two political treatises
against the French Revolution, entitled " A Letter from
Thomas Bull to his Brother John," and " The Scholar
armed against the Errors of the Times." He was per-
petual curate of Nayland. Died in 1800.

See WILLIAM STEVENS, "Life of W. Jones of Nayland," 1801.

Jones, [Lat. JONE'SIUS,] (Sir WILLIAM,) an eminent
Orientalist, son of William Jones, noticed above, (1680-
1749,) was born in London September 28, 1746. He
lost his father when he was three years of age ; but his
mother, a lady remarkable both for her learning and
accomplishments, ably superintended his education. In
1753 he was placed at the Harrow School, of which Dr.
Thackeray was preceptor. Jones early distinguished
himself for his classical acquirements, and at the age of
seventeen entered University College, Oxford, with more
learning than many good scholars have carried thence.
The following year he left Oxford, to become tutor to
the son of Earl Spencer, in whose family he continued
to reside for five years. During this period he devoted
much of his time to the acquirement of the Oriental
languages. He was also versed in nearly all the Euro-
pean tongues. In 1768, at the request of the King of
Denmark, he translated the "Life of Nadir Shah" from
the Persian into French. The year following he issued
a valuable Persian Grammar. In 1770 he began the
study of law, and in 1774 he was admitted to the bar.
In March, 1783, he was appointed judge of the supreme
court of judicature at Fort William, in Bengal, and re-
ceived the order of knighthood. Soon after he married
Anna Maria Shipley, a daughter of the Bishop of Saint
Asaph. In the following September Sir William Jones
reached India, where he continued to pursue his Oriental
studies with unabated zeal. He also organized (about
1785) the " Asiatic Society," for the purpose of obtaining
further information relative to the sciences, antiquities,
languages, and history of Asia. He died at Calcutta
on the 27th of April, 1794, after a short illness. In the
branch of literature to which he devoted his attention
he undoubtedly surpassed all other Europeans. He is,
however, to be equally esteemed for his noble qualities
and Christian virtues as for his vast erudition. Among
his numerous works are " Commentaries on Asiatic
Poetry," commenced in his twenty-first year, and contain-
ing translations from the most distinguished Hebrew,
Persian, Arabic, and Turkish poets, treatises " On the
Gods of Greece, Italy, and India," " On the Second
Classical Book of the Chinese," " On the Musical Modes
of the Hindus," and a translation of the " Institutes
of Manu," and a prose translation of Kalidasa's cele-
brated poem "Sacontala," (" Sakoontala,") both from
the original Sanscrit. He was also author of several
works on the laws of England and of India.

See LORD TBIGNMOUTH, " Lite of Sir William Jones," 1804 ;
" Autobiography of William Jones." published by his son, London,
1846; H. A. HAMAKER, "Oratiode Vita et Mentis G. Jonesii,"
Leyden, 1823; " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale :" "Edinburgh Re-
view" for January. 1805: GARY, "Lives of English Poets from
Johnson to Kirke white."

Jones, (WILLIAM ALFRED,) an American writer and
critic, was born in 1817. He graduated at Columbia
College in 1836. He has contributed largely to various
periodicals, and published several volumes of essays.

His " Characters and Criticisms" (2 vols.,
highly commended by Washington Irving.


Jones, (WILLIAM BASIL,) D.D., an English bishop,
born at Cheltenham in 1822. He graduated at Trinity
College, Oxford, in 1844, was a Fellow of Queen's Col-
lege, 1848-51, and of University College, 1851-57, and
a tutor, 1854-65. In 1867 he became archdeacon and
canon of York, In 1874 he was consecrated Bishop of
Saint David's. Among his works are "Vestiges of the
Gael in Gwynedd," (1851,) "History of Saint David's,"
(1856,) " Notes on the CEdipus Tyrannus of Sophocles,"
" New Testament, with a Plain Commentary," and "The
Peace of God." Died January 14, 1897.

Jonesius. See JONES, (SIR WILLIAM.)

Jong, de, deh yong, (LUDOLF,) a Flemish painter
of battle- and hunting-scenes, born near Rotterdam in
1616 ; died in 1697.

Jongelingx, yong'eh-links', (JACOB,) a Flemish sculp-

tor, born at Antwerp in 1531. Among his works is a
monument to Charles the Bold at Bruges. Died in 1606.

Jonin, zho'naN', (GiLEF.RT,) a French Jesuit and poet,
born in Auvergne in 1596. He translated into Latin,
with many modifications, the Odes of Anacreon, which
he published under the title of " The Christian Anacreon."
He wrote several Greek and Latin odes. Died at Tournon,
March 9, 1638.

Jonsius, yon'se-Os, (JoHANN,) a German scholar, born
at Flensburg in 1624. He wrote, besides other works,
"De Scriptoribus Historian Philosophical," (1659,) which
was nnce highly prized. Died at Leipsic in 1659.

Jon'spn or Johnson, (BEN,) one of the most cele-
brated English poets and dramatists, was born at West-
minster in 1574. His father, a Protestant clergyman,
died a month previous to his birth. Jonson's mother
subsequently married a master-bricklayer, who sent him
to Westminster, then under the charge of Camden, to
whom he afterwards dedicated the drama entitled " Every
Man in his Humour." Jonson regarded his preceptof
through life with esteem and affection. In his sixteenth
year he entered the University of Cambridge ; but, on
account of his straitened circumstances, he was obliged
to leave college and to assist his step-father as a mason.
Becoming disgusted with this employment, he enlisted
in the army in Flanders, and greatly distinguished himself
by his bravery. When he returned, as Gifford observes,
"he brought little but the reputation of a brave man, a
smattering of Dutch, and an empty p.irse." He soon
afterwards joined a company of actors ; but, having killed
one of them in a duel, he was thrown into prison, and
- "'- During his confinement
to the Roman Catholic

narrowly escaped with his life.
he was converted by a priest
religion. Subsequently, after a careful examination,
he renounced his adopted faith, and was again received
into the communion of the Church of England. In 1598
he produced "Every Man in his Humour," drama,
which at once brought him into notice. One of the
characters of this play is said to have been performed
by Shakspeare. It was followed by numerous produc-
tions, which added to the fame he had already acquired.
About 1605 he assisted Chapman and Marston in writing
"Eastward Hoe." This was regarded as a libel on the
Scots, and his associates were thrown into prison, whither
he voluntarily accompanied them. The three poets were
condemned to lose their ears and noses ; but, through
Jonson's influence at court, they escaped. I le was shortly
afterwards created poet-laureate by James I., with an
annual pension of 100 and a tierce of Spanish wine.
Jonson died in 1637. On his death-bed he expressed
the deepest penitence for the profanity that he had intro-
duced into his plays, which, with this exception, are far
purer in morals than the other dramas of that age. Jon-
son's convivial habits (perhaps his greatest weakness)
caused him to suffer from poverty in his declining years.
He was accustomed to meet Shakspeare and other dis-
tinguished persons at the drinking-houses of London.
He also gave costly entertainments at his own residence.
He was brave, generous, and benevolent, and governed
by the highest principles of honour. Towards his friends
he was unwavering in his attachment, and was easily
reconciled to those who had injured him. As a poet he
exhibits uncommon classical learning, great intellectual
power, and acuteness of perception. He unquestionably
deserves much praise for refining English poetry and
the morals of the English stage. " I think him," says
Dryden, "the most learned and judicious writer which
any theatre ever had. ... If I would compare him with
Shakspeare, I must acknowledge him the most correct
poet, but Shakspeare the greater wit. Shakspeare was
the Homer or father of dramatic poets. Jonson was the
Virgil, the pattern of elaborate writing. I admire him,
but I love Shakspeare." Jonson was most successful in
satirical comedies, the style of which he obtained from
the ancients. To the refinement and thought displayed
in his writings may be attributed the ill success which
many of them first met with among the English people,
whose taste had been vitiated by the low wit and ob-
scenity which they had been accustomed to hear from
the stage. Among the most important of his dramas
are "Cynthia's Revels," (i6oo,)"Sejanus," (1603,) " Vol-

, e, T, o, u, y, long; a, e, o, same, lea 5 prolonged; a, e, i, 6, u, f,sAorl; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; ndt; gdod; moon-





pone," (1605,) "The Alchemist," (1610,) and "Catiline's
Conspiracy," (1611.)

See CHETWOOD, "Life of Ben Jonson," 1756: "Memoir of Ben

onson,' prefixed to an edition of his works, (9 vols., iSi6.) by W.

."iiFFGRD ; BAKER, " Biographia Dramatic* ;" VON BAUDISSIN, " B.
Jtonson und seine Schule," 2 vols., 1836; "Lives of British Drama-
tists," by CAMPBELL, LEIGH HUNT, etc. : "Retrospective Review,"
vol. i., 1820; "North British Review" for February, 1856.

Jonsson, (ARNGRIM.) See JONAS.

Jonsson, yons'son, (FiNN,) [Lat. FIN'NUS JOHAN-
NJ'E'US,] a clergyman and historical writer on the church
and literature of Iceland, was born in that island in
1704. After receiving his education at the University
of Copenhagen, he returned to Iceland. Died in 17^9.
His most important work is the "Ecclesiastical History
of Iceland," ("Historia Ecclesiastica Islandiae.")

Jonston, (ARTHUR.) See JOHNSTON.

Jordaens, yoR'dins, (JAKOB,) a distinguished painter,
born at Antwerp in 1594. He studied under Van Oort,
but was indebted for the most of his artistic knowledge
to Rubens, by whom he was subsequently employed. He
painted with rapidity and ease, and his colouring was
rich and harmonious ; but he was deficient in elegance
and loftiness of conception. Among his numerous works
are "Jesus Christ in the Midst of the Doctors," (a paint-
ing which has been frequently attributed to Rubens,)
"The Adoration of the Shepherds," "Saint Peter Cut-
ting off the Ear of Malchus," and "The Satyr and the
Man who Blew Hot and Cold." Died in 1678.

Jordan, zhoR'doN', (CAMILLE,) a French politician
and orator, born at Lyons in 1771. He was distinguished
for his moderate principles during the Revolution, and
his attachment to the Catholic religion, which he bravely
defended. Having been proscribed by the Directory, he
sought an asylum in Switzerland in 1797, and afterwards
in Germany, where he became acquainted with Goethe,
Schiller, and other men of note. Jordan returned to
France about 1800. During Bonaparte's administration
he led a private life ; but upon the accession of Louis
XVIII. he was ennobled, and elected to the Chamber
of Deputies. He wrote several works of a political
nature. Died in 1821.

Jordan, (CHARLES ETIENNE,) a French Protestant
minister and writer, born at Berlin in 1700. He was
appointed privy councillor by Frederick the Great in
1740. He rendered important services to Berlin by the
suppression of mendicity and the promotion of educa-
tion. Among his works is "Travels in France and
England," (1735.) Died in 1745.

Jor'dan, (DAVID STARR,) Ph.D., M.D., an American
zoologist, was born at Gainesville, New York, January
19, 1851. He graduated in the scientific department of
Cornel] University in 1872, and as M.D. at Indiana Uni-
versity in 1875, was a special agent of the United States
census for the marine industries of the Pacific coast from
1879 to iSSl, was professor of biology in Butler Univer-
sity, Indianapolis, from 1875 to 1879, and in the Indiana
University 1879-85, president of Indiana University
1885-91, and became president of Leland Stanford,
Jr., University in 1891. He was president of the
California Academy of Sciences 1896-98. Among
his works are a " Manual of Vertebrates," (1876,)
and a " Synopsis of the Fishes of North America,"
(1883,) with other books and a great number of sci-
entific papers.

Jor'dan, (DOROTHEA,) or DOROTHY Bland, a cele
brated actress, born at Waterford, Ireland, about 1762.
In 1785 she made her appearance in London at Drurj
Lane Theatre, where she enjoyed the highest popularity.
She subsequently became the mistress of the Duke of
Clarence, (afterwards William IV.,) to whom she bore
ten children. This connection being suddenly broken
off by the duke in iSn, Mrs. Jordan retired to France,
where she died in 1816 in great poverty. As an actress
she possessed uncommon versatility, and excelled both
in comedy and tragedy.

See J. BOADEN, " Life of D. Jordan," 2 vols., 1831 ; OXBBRRY,

Dramatic Biography '"

Jordan, HOR-dan', (EsTEBAN,) a Spaniard, oorn at
Valladolid in 1543, excelled in painting, architecture.

and sculpture, but devoted his attention chiefly to the
last-named art. Philip II. appointed him his first
sculptor. Among his most admired ] reductions are
"Saint Peter," "Saint Paul," and "The Adoration of
the Kings." Died in 1605.

Jordan, yoR'din, (JoHANN CHRISTOPH,) a noted anti-
quary, and privy councillor to the King of Bohemia,
was the author of annotations on Livy, Dionysius of
Halicarnassus, Polybitis, and Diodorus Siculus. Died
about 1740.

Jordan, (JoHANN PETER,) a German (\Vendish)
scholar, born at Zischowitz, Upper Lusatia, February
15, 1818. He studied at Prague. His works include a
" Wendish Grammar," a " History of Bohemia," a
Polish-German and two Czech-German dictionaries, etc.

Jordan, (Sir JOSEPH,) an English admiral, who com-
manded at the victory of Solebay, which was gained over
the Dutch in 1672.

Jordan, (MAX,) a German author, born at Dresden
in 1837. He was successively director of the Munici-
pal Museums of Leipsic and Berlin, in 1875 lecturer at
Berlin University, and in 1880 councillor in the
Ministry of Public Instruction. He wrote. a number
of works on the history of art.

Jordan, (RUDOLF,) a German painter, born at Berlin
about 1810. His delineations of fisher-life in Helgoland
are greatly admired : among these we may name "The
Shipwreck" and "The Death of the Pilot." Died 1867.

Jordan, (SYLVESTER,) a German jurist and politician,
born near Innspruck in 1792. He was imprisoned about
twelve years for his liberal opinions, and was released
in 1845. Died in 1861.

Jordan, yoR'din, (WiLHEi.M,) a German poet, born
at Insterburg, Prussia, February 8, 1819. He was edu-
cated at Leipsic, Kbnigsberg, and other universities, and
was when young distinguished as a republican agitator
and orator. Besides a "History of Hayti," (1846-49,)
he published a large number of volumes of verse, in-
cluding " Demiourgos," (1852,) a bold and thoughtful
attempt at a poetical theodicy. He also published several
parts of a new " Nibelungenlied," besides translations
of Sophocles, Homer, and Shakspeare.

Jordanes. See JORNANDES.

Jordano, (LucA.) See GIORDANO.

Jordano Bruno. See BRUNO.

Jor'den, (EDWARD,) an English physician and scien-
tific writer, born in Kent in 1569. He was a graduate
of the University of Padua. Died in 1632.

Jordens, yoR''dens, (GEORG,) a Dutch jurist, born at
Deventer in 1718, was known as the author of two legal
treatises, one in defence of the University of Utrecht,
and the other on the Mosaic, Greek, and Roman laws.
Died in 1771.

Jordens or Joerdens, ybR'dens, (KARL HEINRICH,)
a German philologist and biographer, born in the county
of Mansfeld in 1757. He was rector of an academy at
I.auban. His chief work is an excellent "Dictionary of
German Poets and Prose Writers," (6 vols., 1805-11.)
Died in 1835.

See ERSCH und GRUBER, "Allgemeine Encyklopaedie."

Jordy, zhoR'de', (NICOLAS Louis,) a French general,
born at Abreschwiller in 1758; died in 1825.

Jore, zhoR, (CLAUDE FRANCOIS,) a French printer,
lived about 1750, was a friend of Voltaire, for whom
he published several works. He wrote "Six Letters to
Voltaire," and some other productions.

Jorgensou, yoR'gen-son, written also Jiirgensen,
I (JoRGEN,) a Danish adventurer, born at Copenhagen
I in 1779. Having gone to England in early youth, he
was some years later promoted to the command of an
English vessel, and during the war between England
and Denmark sailed for Iceland. On the 25th of June,
1809, he landed with twelve English sailors and took
the governor, Count Trampe, prisoner, and proclaimed
that Iceland was free and independent of Denmark.
With a force of eight Icelanders, he continued to exer-
cise undisputed sway over the island until August, when
the British restored it to its former government. During
this revolution not a gun was fired nor a drop of blood

eas*; casj; ghard; gas/;c, H, K.,gutlural; N, nasal; H, trilled; sasz; th as in MM.

Explanations, p. 23.)




shed. The inhabitants feared to resist, as their capital ' Joseph TL, Emperor of Germany, the eldest son of
lay exposed to the guns of Jorgenson's vessel. Soon J Francis of Lorraine and Maria Theresa of Austria, was

born in Vienna in 1741. In 1764 he was elected King
of the Romans, and in the following year succeeded his
father on the throne of Germany. He married Isabella,
a daughter of the Duke of Parma, in 1760, and Maria
Josepha, a daughter of the emperor Charles VII., about
1764. In 1772 he signed, with the sovereigns of Russia
and Prussia, the treaty by which Poland was divided
between them. At the death of his mother, in 1780,
he came into possession of Hungary and all the other

after his return to England he became very dissipated,
and was finally convicted and transported to New South
Wales, where he is supposed to have died. While in
Newgate, before his transportation, he wrote a work en-
titled "The Religion of Christ the Religion of Nature."

See SIR WM. HOOKER, "Tour in Iceland ;" SKULASON, " J. Jiir-
gensens Usurpation i Island," 1832 ; EESLKW, " FoHktter-Leiicon."

Jorissen, yo'ris-sen, (THOMAS THKODORE HEN-
DRIK,) a Dutch author, born at Utrecht, February 23,
1833. In 1865 he became professor of history at Am-
sterdam. His principal writings are biographies, chiefly
written in a historical spirit. He also wrote useful works
on literary history.

Jorisz, yoR'is, (AUGUSTIN,) a Dutch painter and en-
graver, born at Delft in 1525 ; died in 1552.


Jorjauee, Jorjani, or Djordjaui, jor-ja'nee, (Saeed
Shereef Zein-ed-Deen Abool Hassan, or Said
Scherif Zein-ed-Dm Abou'l Hassan, si-eed' sher-
eef zan (or zin) ed-deen' a'bool has'san,) a renowned
Arabian writer, born in Tagoo, (Tagou,) in the district
of Asterabad and the region called Jorjan, in 1339. He
was the author of numerous works, among which per-
haps the most important is an extremely valuable dic-
tionary, entitled "Tarafat," (i.e. a Definitions.") Jorjanee
enjoyed the favour of the great conqueror Tamerlane.
Died in 1413.

Jor-nan'des or Jor-da'nes, a distinguished Gothic
historian of the sixth century, was secretary to the Gothic
kings of Italy. Having embraced Christianity, he was
ordained Bishop of Ravenna in 552. The most important
of his works is a " History of the Goths" until the reign
of Vitiges, who was conquered by Belisarius, (" De Ge-
tarum sive Gothorum.Origine et Rebus gestis.") It was
first printed at Augsburg in 1515, and is highly prized.
He also wrote an abridgment of universal history, en-
titled "De Regnorum et Temporum Successione."

See Vossius, "De Historicis Latinis;" ERSCH und GRURRR,
" Allgemeine Encyklopaedie ;" D. W. MOLLF.R, " DUputatio Circu-
laris de Joniande," 1690.

Jor'tin, (JOHN,) D.D., an English divine and critic,
of French extraction, born in London in 1698. Soon
after graduating at Cambridge he settled in his native
city, where he gained great distinction for his eloquence
and learning. He was appointed Archdeacon of London
in 1764. Of his works may be mentioned a volume of
"Latin Poems," (1722,) which are classed among the
most finished of the modern productions in that lan-
guage, "Miscellaneous Observations on Authors, An-
cient and Modern," (2 vols., 1732,) "Remarks upon
Ecclesiastical History," (5 vols., 1751-73,) and the "Life
of Erasmus," (1758.) Died in 1770. " Jortin's sermons,"
says Dr. Johnson, " are very elegant."

See JOHN DISNEY, " Life of Jortin," 1792.


Jo'seph, [Heb. ^DV ; Gr. 'loo-?*; Lat JOSE'PHUS;
It JOSEF, yo-sef ; Sp. JOSEF, Ho-sef,] one of the twelve
patriarchs, and the favourite son of Jacob, was born in
Mesopotamia about 1900 B.C. At an early age, on ac-
count of their jealousy, he was sold by his brothers to
some Ishmaelitish merchants, who carried him as a slave
into Egypt, over which kingdom he was subsequently
appointed governor by Pharaoh. The descendants of hii
sons Ephraim and Manassch formed the two half-tribes,
which exerted no little influence in the Hebrew nation.

See Genesis xxxv.-l.

Joseph [Ger. pron. yo'sef] 1, Emperor of Germany,
of the house of Hapsburg, and son of Leopold I., was
born in 1676. In 1687 he was proclaimed King of Hun-
gary, and in 1690 King of the Romans. At the death
of his father, in 1705, lie ascended the imperial throne.
He carried on a successful war against Louis XIV., in
which he was assisted by England, Holland, and Savoy.
The allied armies were commanded by Prince Eugene
and the Duke of Marlborough. Joseph granted, through
the influence (it is said) of Charles XI I. of Sweden, nume-
rous privileges to his Protestant subjects. Died in 1711.

See G. LANGE. " Leben undThaten des Kaysers Joseph I.," 1713;
FRANZ WAGNER, "Historia Josephi I. Cssaris Augusti," 1745.

hereditary dominions of the house of Austria. He
united with Catherine of Russia, six years later, in a
Turkish war, in which his general Laudon gained
several important victories. During his reign he intro-
duced many civil and ecclesiastical reforms, which would
probably have been very beneficial to his subjects had
he acted with more calmness and deliberation. He
abolished feudal serfdom, regulated the taxes, allowed
liberty of conscience and rights of citizenship to all
denominations of Christians, mitigated the condition of
the Jews, suppressed several convents, greatly abridged
the power of the pope and clergy in his dominions, and
encouraged manufactures and industry. But his zeal in
correcting the abuses of the Roman Church caused an
insurrection in Belgium ; while his attempt to establish
the German as the universal language in his dominions
induced the Hungarians to revolt. He died, without issue,
in February, 1790, and was succeeded by his brother,
Leopold II.

See PAGANBL, "Histoire de Joseph II," 1843; F. X. HUBSR,
"Geschichte Kaiser Joseph's II.," 2 vols., 17(32; L. A. DS CARAC-
CTOLI, "Vie de Joseph II, Empereur d'Allemagne," 1700; IGNAZ
CORNOVA, "Leben Joseph II., Rb'mischen Kaisers," 1802; C. T.
HEYNB, " Geschichte Kaiser Joseph's II.," 2 vols., 1848 ; RAMSHORN,
" Kaiser Joseph II. und seine Zeit," 1845.

Joseph, FATHER, |It. Fra GIUSEPPE,) an Italian mis-
sionary, whose family name was SEDASTIANI. He went
to Persia, and obtained no little influence at the court of
the Shah. He used his power in favour of the English
interests and against those of the French. He was
acquainted with several of the Oriental languages, and
translated the works of the Persian poet Hafiz into

Joseph, zho'zef, (FRANCOIS LECLERC du Trem-
blay du tR5m'bl|',) called FATHER JOSEPH, a French
monk, born in Paris in 1577, became the agent and
confidant of Cardinal Richelieu, who employed him in
negotiations and intrigues. Died in 1638.

See ABBE RICHARD, "Vie du Pere Joseph " 2 vols. ; " Le veri-
table Pere Joseph," 1704; RICHELIEU, "Me'moires;" " Nouvelle
Biographic G^ne"rale."


Joseph Al'bo, a Jew, distinguished for his learning,
born at Sora, in Spain, in the fourteenth century. He
was the author of a work on Jewish faith, entitled " Se-
pher Ikkarim." Died in 1430.

Joseph Ben Gorion. See GORIONIDES.

Joseph Emanuel, (Port. Jozfi MANOEL, zho-za' ma-
no-el',] King of Portugal, born in 1714. In 1750 he suc-
ceeded his father, John V. In 1755 his kingdom suffered
from a great earthquake, which destroyed a large part

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