Joseph Thomas.

Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

. (page 420 of 425)
Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 420 of 425)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


world or universe is the scene of a conflict between two
lies, the good, called Ormuzd, and the evil called
aan; that each of these possesses creative power

DrVv^ E A g K d Prmciple is eternal ' and wi " finally
.vail over Ahriman, who will sink with his followers
darkness, which ,s their native element. According

or BeTn/r'n ^ 116 al v believed in a " "finite Deity
Being, called "Time without bounds." His religion
gradually degenerated into an idolatrous worship of fire
and the sun. (See ORMUZD.)



Zoppo, (PAOLO,) an Italian painter, noted for the
fineness of his touch, was born at Brescia; died in icie

Zoppo di Lugano. See DISCEPOLI.

Zopyre. See ZOPYRUS.

Zop'y-rus, [Gr. Zi^vpof; Fr. ZOPYRE, zo'peR' i a
Persian officer of Darius Hystaspis. When that king was
besieging the revolted city of Babylon, Zopyrus gained
admission into the city by the following stratagem He
cut off his nose and ears, and presented himself to the
enemy as a deserter who wished to revenge the cruel
treatment he had received from Darius. His story was
credited, and he was appointed commander of the troops
in babylon, which he delivered to Darius.

Zopyrus, a Greek physician or surgeon of Alexan-
dria, flourished about 100 B.C. or 80 B.C. He invented
an antidote for Ptolemy Auletes, and also one for Mith-
ridates. Galen mentions a letter from Zopyrus to Mith-
ndates on the subject of his antidote.

Zorgh, ZORG, written also Sorgh, (HENDRIK,) a
Dutch painter of fairs, markets, etc., born at Rotterdam
in 1621, was a pupil of Teniers. Died in 1684.

eas.- casj; g,



OB plUn. 7, i 8 ' , allen HaKtren, Medcn und Pe

ggS^bfe^e^a-J^rg % o.

?sa5'3 is?SHss S^

"/eligieuse de la Perse," 1848 ; MILMA'" History of ^C
artid'e^r-i;^ 1 ";,"^ 1 .^ . 1 : f?_ th Parsees-1' See, \



i. See ZOROASTER.



Moral, thor-rel'yi e mo-ril', (Don JosB.i
n eminent Spanish poet and dramatist, born at Valla-
lolid in 1817. Being destined by his father for the legal

P . j'??'- e ? as Sent to the Se "ii"ario de los Nobles
at Madrid in 1827, but, instead of the study of law he
devoted himself to poetry and literary pursuits, 'and
became a contributor to the journal " El Arti=-ta." His
elegy on the death of the poet Larra (1837) was received
with enthusiastic admiration, and raised the highest
hopes of his future excellence. In 1841 he published
his ''Songs of the Troubadour," ("Cantos del Trova-
dor ) which were equally successful. His other prin-
cipal works are the comedies of "The Shoemaker and
the Kmg" (" El Zapatero y el Rey," 1840) and " Don
Juan Tenario," a "Collection of Historical Legends and
traditions, (1840,) and " Granada, an Oriental Poem
with the Legend of Al-Hamar," (1853.) Died in 1893.'
Zor'tan, (PETRATSCH,) a Hungarian peasant, bom
near Temesvar in 1537; died in 1724, at the age of one
hundred and eighty-five years.

: Explanations, p. 2;.



ZORZ.I -5

Zorzi, dzoRt'see, [Lat. GEOR'GIUS,] (ALESSANDRO,) an
Italian Jesuit and metaphysician, born at Venice in 1747.
He published a " Prospectus of a New Italian Ency-
clopedia," (1775,) but only lived long enough to give
a small specimen of it Died in 1779.
Zosime. See ZOSIMUS.

Zosl-mus, [Gr. Zuai/a>f ; Fr. ZOSIME, zo'ztm',] a
Greek historian of the fifth century, lived under Theo-
dosius II. He was the author of a " History of the
Roman Empire down to 410 A.D.," in six books, all of
which is extant. He was a pagan, and is accused of
partiality by some orthodox writers. His style is neat
and pure.

Zosimus, a Greek ecclesiastic, succeeded Innocent
I. as Bishop of Rome in 417 A.D. He confirmed the
sentence of heresy pronounced against the Pelagians,
and was the author of letters and controversial treatises.
Died in December, 418.

Zoubof or Zoobov. See ZOOBOF.
Zouch, zootch, (RICHARD,) an English jurist, born in
Wiltshire about 1590, became regius professor of law at
Oxford in 1620. He afterwards rose through several
offices to be judge of the high court of admiralty. He
was the author of a number of legal works, in Latin
Died about 1660.

Zouch, (THOMAS,) an English divine and writer, born
in Yorkshire in 1737, became rector of Scrayingham
in 1793, and subsequently a prebendary of Durham.
He published "An Attempt to illustrate some of the
Prophecies of the Old and New Testament," (1800,)
" Memoir of the Life and Writings of Sir Philip Sid-
ney," (1808,) and other works. Died in 1815.
Zouiski. See ZOOISKI.
Zoust See S6sT.
Zrinyi zRen'yee, written also Zriny, (NICHOLAS,) a
celebrated Hungarian general, born in 1518, was Ban
of Croatia, which he defended twelve years against the
Turks. In 1566 he was besieged in the town of Szigeth
by Solyman the Magnificent, at the head of 65,000 men,
while his own forces were but 3000. After a resistance
of a month, the city was taken, and Zrinyi, with his few



! ZUCCHI

_jin Leben und seiu Werken," 1849: MUENCH, " Zschokke geschil-
dert nach seinen vorziiglichsten Lebensmomenten," 1830; "Foreign
Quarterly Review" for April, 1844.

Zuallat t, zu't'lSR', (JEAN,) a Belgian traveller, visited
the Holy Land in 1586, and published a "Journey to
ferusalem," (1587.) Died after 1632.

Zuazo, thoo-i'tho, almost Mwi'Mo, (ALFONSO,) a
Spanish jurist, born at Olmedo about 1466. He was
sent by Cardinal Ximenes to America in 151610 protect
:he natives from the cruelty of the Spaniards. He re-
ceived from Ximenes full power to govern the colonies,
and he used his power in favour of justice and humanity.
In 1522 he became Governor of Cuba, where he reformed
the courts of justice. Died in Saint Domingo in 1527.
Zuber, tsoo'ber, (MATTHAUS,) a German writer of
Latin poetry, born at Neuburg, on the Danube, in 1570.
He published " Various Poems," (" Poemata varia,"
1598,) and " Epigrammata," (1605.) Died in 1623.

Zuccardi, dzook-kaR'dee, (TJBERTINO,) an Italian
jurist, born at Correggio about 1480; died in 1541.

Zuccarelli, dzook-kl-rel'lee, or Zuccherelli, dzook-
ki-rel'lee, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian landscape-painter,
born near Florence in 1702. He visited England in
1752, and became one of the first members of the Royal
Academy. After a residence of more than twenty years
in England, where he was extensively patronized, he
returned to Florence, and died in 1788.

Zuccarini, tso"6k-kl-ree'nee, (JOSEPH GERARD,) an
eminent German botanist, born at Munich in 1798. He
was professor of botany at that city, and described the
plants collected by Siebold, in the " Flora Japonica,"
(1835.) Among his works is "Instruction in Botany,"
(1834.) Died in 1848.

Zuccaro, dzook'kl-ro, or Zucchero, dzookTta-ro,
(FEDERIGO,) an Italian painter, born at Sant' Angelo, in
the duchy of Urbino, in 1543. He was instructed by his
elder brother Taddeo, several of whose unfinished pic-
tures he completed. Having executed some important
works at Florence and Rome, he visited the Netherlands
and England, where he painted portraits of Queen Eliza-
beth, Mary Queen of Scots, Sir Francis Walsingham,
and other eminent persons. After his return to Rome



remaining followers, defended themselves for a time in ne completed the frescos of the Pauline Chapel, in the
the citadel, and, in the final assault, rushed forth and " - '- ' <-



fell fighting. His heroic achievements have been immor-
talized in one of Kbrner's dramas.

Zrinyi, (NICHOLAS,) a Hungarian warrior and poet,
a great-grandson of the preceding, born in 1616, became
Ban of Croatia, and greatly distinguished himself in war
against the Turks. Died in 1664.

"Zschackwitz, tshJk'wits, (JoHANN,) a German jurist,
born near Naumburg in 1669, lectured on law at Halle,
and wrote on history and public law. Died in 1744.

Zschokke, tshok'keh, (JoHANN HEINRICH DANIEL,)
a popular German writer, born at Magdeburg on the 22d
of March, 1771. He was educated at the University of
Frankfort-on-the-Oder. He produced in 1793 a drama
called " Aballino the Bandit," which was successful. His
next work was "Julius von Sassen," a drama, (1796.)
About 1796 he left Frankfort, and travelled through
Germany and France. He settled in Switzerland, and
took an active part in the political affairs of that country
(between 1798 and 1803) as a civil officer of the republic.
He wrote several works on Swiss history, among which
is a "History of the Combats and Fall of the Swiss
Mountain and Forest-Cantons," (1801.) In 1803 or
1804 he was appointed a member of the council of mines
and forests. He resided many years at Aarau, whither
he removed about 1808. From 1807 to 1813 he edited
a popular periodical called " Miscellany of the Most Re-
cent Events," (" Miscellen fur die neueste Weltkunde.")
He was a prolific writer of novels, tales, poems, and
histories. His novels are commended for their good
moral tone, and are remarkable for humour. He wrote
a "History of Bavaria," (4 vols., 1813-18,) and a " His-
tory of Switzerland for the Swiss People," (1822,) which
is highly esteemed. Among his most popular works are
"Hours of Devotion," ("Stunden der Andacht,") an
eloquent exposition of modern rationalism, and "The
Goldmaker's Village," a tale. He died in January, 1848.
See his autobiography, entitled " Selbstschau," 1841 ; E. FRHNS-



in sculpture and architecture, and
:itled " L'Idea de' Pittori, Scultori



Vatican, which he had previously begun at the request
of Gregory XIII. On the invitation of Philip II., he
repaired to Spain about 1585, and was employed to paint
the Escurial. In 1595 he became the founder and the
first president of the Academy of Saint Luke, at Rome,
He was also skilled ii
published a work entii

ed Architetti." Zuccaro was one of the most admired
artists of his time ; but later critics have not assigned
him so high a rank. Died in 1609.

See WALPOLR, " Anecdotes of Painting ;" VASARI, " Lives of th
Painters."

Zuccaro, (MARIO,) an Italian medical writer, born
in the sixteenth century at Naples, where he became
professor of medicine. Died in 1634.

Zuccaro, (TADDEO,) a brother of Federigo, noticed
above, was born in 1529. At an early age he visited
Rome, where he lived for a time in great destitution and
was employed as a colour-grinder. He was afterwards
patronized by the popes Julius III. and Paul IV., and
Cardinal Alexander Farnese, for whom he painted a
series of frescos in the palace at Caprarola, illustrating
the glories of the Farnese family, since engraved by
Prenner. Died in 1566.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters."

Zucchelli, dzook-kel'lee, (ANTONIO,) ol Gradisca,
Capuchin monk, who went as a missionary to Congo in
1697. In 1712 he published an interesting "Account of
his Travels, with a Description of Angola and Congo."

Zuccherelli. See ZUCCARELLI.

Zucchero. See ZUCCARO, (FEDERIGO.)

Zucchi, dzook'kee, (ANTONIO,) a Venetian painter,
born in 1726, resided several years in England, where
he executed a number of frescos, and became an asso-
ciate of the Royal Academy. Died at Rome in 1795.

Zucchi, (BARTOLOMMEO,) an Italian writer, born at
Monza about 1560, became a priest. He wrote several



oee nis auiouiugidjjiiy, enuiicu ociuootiiau, 1041 , *^. * * i i T\' j

DOF, "Notice sur la Vie de Zschokke," 1844: BAER, "Zschokke, biographies and historical works. Jied in 1631.

i, e, i, 6, u, y, long: k, 4, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, u, y, short; a, e. i, p, obscure; far, fall, fit; met; not; good; moon:



zuccm



2529



ZWELFER



Zucchi, (GIACOMO,) an Italian painter, born at Flor
ence, was a pupil of Vasari. He went to Rome abou'
1572, and worked there with success. Died about 1590

Zucchi, (MARCO ANTONIO,) a famous Italian inv
provisatore, born at Verona. He composed verses
extempore in public. Died in 1764.

Zuccolo, dzook'ko-lo, (Luici,) an Italian writer
born at Faenza about 1570. He published several works
on moral philosophy and other subjects.

Zuccolo, (Luici.) an Italian jurist, born in 1599
He wrote " De Ratione Statfls," (1663.) Died in 1668.

Zucconi, dzook-ko'nee, (GIUSEPPE,) an Italian poei
and bibliographer, born at Venice in 1721, was appointee
censor of books. He died prematurely in 1754.

Zuckert, tsSok'keRt, (JoiiANN FRIEDRICH,) a Ger-
man medical writer, born at Berlin in 1737. He wrote
several works on diet and regimen, which are com-
mended. Died in 1778.

Zuichem or Zuichemue, (VIGLIUS.) See AYTA.

Zuingli. See ZWINGLE.

Zuinglius. See ZWINGLB.

Zukertort,tsook'er-toRt',(J.H.,) a noted chess-player,
born at Riga, Russia, of a German family, September
7, 1842. He was educated at Breslau, and in 1867-71
edited a chess-journal at Berlin. In 1872 he removed to
England. He has often played eight or ten simultaneous
games while blindfolded. Died in 1888.

Zumala-Carreguy, thoo-ma'lS kar-ra'f ee, (Don To-
MAS,) a celebrated Spanish commander in the service
of Don Carlos, was born near Villareal in 1788. He
served under General Mina in 1813, and attained the
rank of colonel in 1825, being appointed at the same
time governor of Ferrol. After the death of Ferdinand
VII. he became leader of a band of insurgents in the
Basque provinces, with whom he defeated General Rodil
in the valley of Amescoas in 1834, which was followed
by several other signal victories over the forces of Queen
Christina. He was mortally wounded while preparing
to besiege Bilbao, in 1835.

See HENNINGSEN, " Twelve Months of CampaieTi with Zumala-
Carresiiy.* 1 2 vols., 1836: MADRAZO, " Historia milltar y politics de
Zumnlacarreguy," 1844.

Zumbo, dzoom'bo, or Zummo, azoom'mo, (GAE-
TANO GiULlo,) a Sicilian artist, born at Syracuse in
1656, was celebrated as a modeller of figures in coloured
wax. He was a skilful anatomist, and his anatomical
preparations in wax were greatly admired. Died in 1701.

Zumbuach, tsoom'boosh, (KASPAR CLEMENT,) a
German sculptor, born at Herzebrock, Westphalia,
November 23, 1830. In 1873 he was called to Vienna
as professor of sculpture. His medallions, portrait-busts,
and statues are numerous.

Zumpt, tsoompt, (AUGUST WILHELM,) nephew of Karl
Gottlob, noticed below, was born at Konigsberg in 1815.
He published, among other works, "Commentationes
epigraphies ad Antiquitates Romanas pertinentes," (2
vols., 1850-54.) Died at Berlin, April 23, 1877.

Zumpt, (KARL GCTTLOD,) a German scholar, born at
Berlin in 1792. He studied at Heidelberg under Creu-
zer, and in 1828 became professor of Roman literature
in the University of Berlin. His "Latin Grammar,"
published in 1818, enjoys a very high reputation, and
has been translated into English. He was also the
author of several valuable essays on Roman customs
and antiquities, among which we may name "On the
Architecture of the Roman Dwelling-House," (1844,)
and "On the Religion of the Romans," (1845.) He
likewise prepared editions of Quintilian's " Institutiones
Oratoriae," and other Latin classics. Died in 1849.

Zurasteeg, tsdom'stac, (JOHANN RUDOLF,) a German
composer, born in 1760. His songs and ballads are
particularly admired. He was an intimate friend of
Schiller, several of whose lyrics he set to music. Died
in 1802.

Zuaiga, de, di thoon-ye'gJ, (Don DIEGO ORTIZ,) a
Spanish historian, born at Seville. He wrote a " His-
tory of Seville," (1677.) Died in 1680.

Zunz, tsoonts, (LEOPOLD,) a learned German Jew,
born at Detmold in 1794, became principal of the Jewish
Seminary at Berlin. He published "The Synagogal
Poetry of the Middle Ages," etc. Died in 1886.



Zurbano, thooR-bl'no, (MARTIN,) a Spanish general,
born about 1780, served in the army of Queen Christina,
and, when she was compelled to leave Spain, attached
himself to Espartero. He was betrayed into the hands
of the enemy in 1845, and shot.

Zurbaraii, thooR-ba-ran', (FRANCISCO,) an eminent
Spanish painter, born in Estremadura in 1598. He
studied under Juan de Roelas at Seville, where he
produced a great number of his best works. Among
these maybe named his "Saint Thomas Aquinas," an
altar-piece in the church of the College of Saint Thomas
Aquinas, esteemed one of the most admirable pictures
ever executed in Spain, and the altar-pieces in the
churches of San Lorenzo and Sant' Antonio Abad. A
few of his works are to be seen in the galleries of Paris,
Berlin, and Dresden ; and at Munich, a " Virgin and
Saint John returning from the Sepulchre of Christ."
Zurbaran received the title of painter to King Philip HI.,
and was patronized by his successor, Philip IV. He is
sometimes called "the Spanish Caravaggio," from the
resemblance of his style to that of the Italian master ,
but he is thought in some respects to have surpassed
him. He was remarkable for his fidelity to nature,
richness of colouring, chiaroscuro, and exquisite repre-
sentation of velvets, brocades, and white draperies.
The Spanish friar was a favourite subject, in the treat-
ment of which he was eminently successful. Died in 1662.

Zurita, thoo-ree'ta, (GERONIMO,) a Spanish historian,
born at Saragossa in 1512. He studied at Alcala, and
rose through several important offices to be a member
of the supreme council of Castile, in 1543. He was
afterwards sent on an embassy to Germany, and in 1549
appointed historiographer of the kingdom. His prin-
cipal work, entitled "Annals of the Crown of Aragon,"
(" Anales de la Corona de Aragon," 4 vols., 1580,)
enjoys a high reputation. His candour and impartiality
are praised by Prescott in his " History of Ferdinand
ind Isabella," (vol. ii. part ii.) Died in 1581.

Zurla, dzoou'll, (PLACIDO,) a learned Italian cardinal,
born in the Venetian States in 1769, became vicar-general
to Pope Leo XII. He published a treatise " On Marco
Polo and other Venetian Travellers," and "On the
Voyages and Discoveries-of Cadamosto." Died in 1834.

Zurlauben, ziiR'lo'boN' or tsooR'low'ben, (BftAT
JACQUES,) a Swiss general in the service of France, com-
manded a brigade at Steenkerke, (1692,) and at Neerwin-
den. He died ofwounds received at Blenheim, in 1704.

Zurlauben, de, deh ziiR'lo'bJ.N', (BEAT FIDEI.E AN-
TOINE JEAN DOMINIQUE,) Baron de la Tour-Chatillon,
a Swiss general and writer, born at Zug in 1720, served
in the French army many years. He wrote, besides
many historical ana antiquarian treatises, "A Military
History of the Swiss in the French Service," (8
vols., 1751-53,) and a "Description of Switzerland,"
["Tableaux topographiques, pittoresques, physiques,"
etc., 4 vols., 1780-86.) Died in 1795.

Zurlo, dzooR'lo, (GIUSEPPE,) COUNT, an able Italian
minister of state, born at Naples in 1759. He became
minister of finance in 1798. He followed the court to
Palermo in 1806, when the French regime was es-
tablished at Naples; but he returned in 1809, and was
appointed minister of justice and of the interior by
Vlurat. He reformed the administration, and protected
earning, commerce, and agriculture. In 1815 he retired
"rom office. Died in 1828.

Zurner, tsooR'ner, (ADAM FRIEDRICH,) a German
reographer, born near Oelsnitz about 1680, produced
several maps of Saxony and other parts of Germany.
Died in 1742.

Zuylichem. See HUVGENS.

Zuzzeri, dzoot-sa'ree, (GIOVANNI LUCA,) an Italian
antiquary and numismatist, born at Ragusa in 1716;
died at Rome in 1746.

Zwanziger, tswin'sic-er, (JOSEPH CHRISTIAN,) a

erman writer, born in Hungary in 1732. He was
jrofessor of philosophy at Leipsic, and wrote against
he philosophy of Kant. Died in 1808.

Zweera, zwairs, (PHILIP,) a Dutch poet, lived at
Amsterdam. He wrote "Semiramis," a tragedy, and
ither poems, which were admired. Died in 1774.

Zwelfer, tswel'fer, JOHANN,) a German chemist and



; cast; gtartf; gas/; G, H,K,gulfnra/; y,nasaJ; R, trilled; 5 ass; thasinM;>.



: Explanations, p. 23.)



ZWICKER



2530



ZWINGL1



physician, born in the Palatinate in 1618. He practised
fa Vienna, and wrote several works. Died in i66S,

Zwicker, tswik'ker, (DANIEL,) a German religionist,
born at Dantzic in 1612. He was once a Socinian, and
afterwards an Arminian. He wrote, besides other works,
"Irenicon Irenicorum," (1658,) the aim of which was to
promote union among Christian sects. Died in 1678.

Swinger, tswlnc'er, (JAKOB,) a Swiss physician and
philologist, born at Bale in 1569, was a son of Theodore.
He became professor of Greek at Bale, and wrote a
"Life of Lucian," (1602,) and " Examination of Chemi-
cal Principles," (" Principiorum Chymicorum iixamen,"
1606.) Died in 1610.

Zwinger, [Lat. ZWI.NGE'RUS,] (JOHANN RUDOLPH,)
a Swiss physician, born at Bale in 1692, was a son of
Theodore the Younger. He was professor of medicine
at Bale for fifty-two years. Among his pupils was the
famous Haller. Died in 1777.

See BUXTORF, " Vits J. R. Zwiogeri," 1778.
Zwinger, [Lat ZWINGE'RUS,] (THEODORE,) THE
ELDER, an eminent Swiss physician and scholar, born
at Bale in 1533, was the father of Jakob. He studied
at Paris and Padua. In 156? he obtained the chair of
Greek at Bale. He published, besides other works,
a collection of anecdotes, etc., entitled "Theatre of
Human Life," ("Theatrum Vitae humans," 1565,) and
"On the Rural or Agricultural Method of Cato and
Varro," ("Methodus Rustica Catonis et Varronis,"
1576.) Died at Bale in 1588.

See a " Life of Zwinger" in "Athena Rauricz."
Zwinger, (THEODORE,) a grandson of the preceding,
torn at Bale in 1597, was a son of Jakob. He became
first pastor and superintendent of the churches of Bale
in 1630. He was also professor of divinity in that city
for twenty-four years. Died in 1654.

Zwinger, (THEODORE,) a Swiss physician and bot
anist, born at Bale in 1658, was a grandson of the pre-
ceding. He was a son of Johann Zwinger, (1634-96,)
professor of Greek and theology at Bale. He became
in 1687 professor of physics in his native city, where he
also gained a high reputation as a practitioner of meet
cine. In 1703 he exchanged the chair of physics for
that of anatomy. He wrote several works on medicine
and botany. Died in 1724.
See "Athenx Raurice."
Zwingerua. See ZWINGER.

Zwingle, zwfng'g'l, Zwiagli or Zuiagli, rwlng'-
glee, fLat. ZWIN'GUUS or ZUIN'GI.IUS; Fr. ZWINGLE,
zvaNg'l ; Ger. ULRICH or HULDREICH ZWINGLI, h&olt'riK
ts<Hng'Iee,] a Swiss Reformer of great eminence, waa
born at Wildhaus, in the canton or valley of Tcggen-
burg, on the 1st of January, 1484. He was liberally
educated at Bale and Vienna, at the former of which
places he studied theology under Thomas Wyttenbach.
He was a diligent reader of Plato, Aristotle, Horace,
and Seneca. In 1506 he took the degree of M.A. at
Bale, and was appointed priest of Glarus. About this
lime he acquired a profound knowledge of the original
(text of the New Testament, and began to test the sound-
ness of the doctrines of the Roman Church by the
standard of the gospel. "The Holy Scriptures," says
Hottinger, "had been his daily and nightly study, and
he knew the greater part of them literally by heart."
He performed a journey to Bale to become personally
acquainted with Erasmus, whose writings he admired.
He served as chaplain to a body of Swiss troops em-
ployed in Lprabardy in 1515, and witnessed the great
battle of Marignano. He afterwards raised his voice to
dissuade the Swiss from the practice of enlisting as
mercenaries in foreign armies.

In 1516 he removed from Glarus to Einsiedeln, the
monastery of which was in high repute as a sanctuary
and was visited by numerous pilgrims and devotees, who
came to buy indulgences for their sins. Zwingle was
employed there as preacher to the monastery. He had
previously been convinced that several doctrines and
practices of the Roman Church were not consistent with
tho pure religion of the gospel ; but he had hitherto
refrained from the public avowal of his convictions.
Zwingle and Luther began about the same time to con



demn the safe of indulgences, and other corruptions of
the Church of Rome. He was supported by Theobald
of Geroldseck, administrator of the abbey, and found at
Einsiedeln another coadjutor, Leo Juda. In his sermons
he insisted on the necessity of practical virtue and new-
ness of life, instead of exterior observances, ceremonies,
and superstitious practices. He also urged the bishops
and other high functionaries to undertake the refor-
mation of the Church by removing the impostures
and ignorance and depravity of the priests. He corre-
sponded with Erasmus, Capito, and Beatus Rhenanus.
In December, 1518, he was appointed preacher to the
collegiate church or great Munster of Zurich, where he
found the priests and the people in a benighted spiritual
condition. He insisted that the people should read and
understand the Holy Scriptures. His bold and novel
mode of preaching produced, of course, much agitation.

In 1523 the Great Council of Zurich, at the request
of Zwingle, summoned the clergy of that diocese to


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 420 422 423 424 425

Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 420 of 425)