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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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REYNOLD, reVold; Danish, REINHOLD, rln'holi/;
Dutch, REINOLD, ri'nolt ; Fr. RENAUD, re.h-no'; Ger.
REINHOLD, rin'holt ; Lat. REYNAL'DUS or REGINAL'DUS ;
Sp. REYNALDO, ra-nal'do ; Sw. REINHOLD, rin'hold.

RHODA, ro'da, or RHO'DE, (a " rose ;") Gr. '
(Rhodt;) Lat. RHO'DA.

RICH'ARD, (" firm or strong king ;") Dutch, RICHARD,
tee'shiRt ; Fr. RICHARD, re'shSV; Ger. RICHARD,
SRI, or REICHARD, ri'KaRt; It. RICARDO, re-kaR'do;
Lat. RICHAR'DUS ; Port. RICARDO, re-kaR'do ; Sp. Ri
CARDO, re-kaR'do.

RIDOLFO. See RUDOLPH.

ROB'ERT, (" bright fame" ?) Danish, ROBERT, n/bSRt
Dutch, ROBERT, rSb'^Rt; Fr. ROBERT, ro'baiR'; Ger.
ROBERT, ro'bjRt ; It ROBERTO, ro-beR'to ; Lat Ro
BER'TUS; Sp. ROBERTO, ro-beVto; Sw. ROBERT, rob'
Cut

ROD'ER-ICK, ("rich in fame"?) Fr. RODRIGUE, ro'-
dReg'; Ger. RODERICK, ro'deh-riK'; It RODRIGO, ro-
dRee'go ; Lat. RODERI'CUS ; Russ. RU'RIK ; Sp. Ro
DRIGO, ro-DRee'go, RODERIGO, ro-ol-ree'go, or RUY,
roo-ee' orRwee.

RODOLFO. See RUDOLPH.

RODOLPHE. See RUDOLPH.

RODRIGO. See RODERICK.

RODRIGUE. See RODERICK.

RODRIGUEZ, (Sp.,) ro-DRee'ge'th, (the "son of Rode-
rick.")

ROELAND. See ROLAND.

ROGER, roj'?r, ("famous spear"?) Dutch, RUTGER,
rut'ger or rut'Her; Fr. ROGER, ro'zhi'; It RUGIERO,
roo-ja'ro; Lat ROGE'RUS; Sp. ROGERIO, ro-Ha're-o.

ROLAND or ROWLAND, ro'land, (the " fame or glory
of the land"?) Danish, ROLAND, ro'lfni/; Dutch, ROE-
LAND, roo'lint; Fr. ROLAND, ro'loN'; Ger. ROLAND,
ro'lant; It. ORLAN'DO, oR-lan'do, or ROLANDO, ro-ldn'-
<3o ; Lat. ROLAN'DUS ; Port. ROLANDO, ro-lin'do ; Sp.
ROLANDO, ro-lan'do.

ROSA. See ROSE.

ROSAMOND, roz'a-mond, (" rose of peace ;") Dutch,
ROZAMOND, ro'za-mont'; Fr. ROSEMONDE, ro'zeh-moNd'
or roz'moxd'; It. ROSMONDA, ros-mon'd3 ; Lat ROSA-
MUN'DA.

ROSE, roz ; Danish, ROSA, ro'za ; Dutch, ROSA, ro'-
ti ; Fr. ROSE, roz ; Ger. ROSE, ro'zeh ; It ROSA, ro'sJ ;
~at RO'SA ; Sp. ROSA, ro'sa ; Sw. ROSA, roo'sa, or
ROSINA, roo-see'nl

ROWLAND. See ROLAND.

ROZAMOND. See ROSAMOND.

RUBEN. See REUBEN.

RU'DOLPH, (see note under RALPH ;) Dutch, RUDOLF,
rii'dolf; Fr. RODOLPHE, ro'dolf; Ger. RUDOLF, roo'-
ilolf ; It. RO-DOL'FO or RIDOLFO, re-dol'fo ; Lat. Ru-
DOL'PHUS.

RUFIN or RUFINUS. See GRIFFITH.



e as k; 5 as s; g harj; g as /; G H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as 3; th as in this.

160



Ru'PUS, (" reddish," " having red hair ;")
RUGIERO. See ROGER.

RU'PERT, ("bright fame"?) Ger. RUPRECHT. nw*'
pR?Kt ; Lat RUPER'TUS.
RURIK. See RODERICK.
RUTGER. See ROGER.
RUTH, rooth ; Fr. RUTH, rut ; Lat RUTH.
RUY. See RODERICK.

SABINA, sa-bi'na; Dutch, SABINE, sa-bee'ne.h ; Fr
SABINE, sf ben'; It. SABINA, si-bee'na ; Lat. SABI'NA i
Sp. SABINA, sa-Bee'ni ; Sw. SABINA, sJ-bee'nL

SALAMON. See SOLOMON.

SALOMXO. See SOLOMON.

SALOMON. See SOLOMON.

SAMSON, sdm'son ; Danish, SAMSON, sSm'son ; Dutch,
SAMSON, slm'son ; Fr. SAMSON, sflN'sdN'; Heb. pty^^;
Lat SAM'SON, (genitive, SAMSO'NIS;) Port. SANSAO,
san-sowN'; Sp. SANSON, san-s6n'; Sw. SIM'SON.

SAM'U-EL, (" heard by God ;") Danish, SAMUEL, sa'-
moo-gl ; Dutch, SAMUEL, sa'mii-51, (almost sl'moo-21 ;)
Fr. SAMUEL, sS'inu'e 1 !'; Heb. ^NlDBf; Hungarian, SAM-
UEL, sha'moo-Sl ; It. SAMUELE, sa-mdo-1'li ; Lat. SAM'-
UEL, (genitive, SAMUE'LIS;) Sp. SAMUEL, sJ-moo-41'.

SANSON or SANSSO. See SAMSON.

SARAH or SARA, sa'ra, (a " princess ;") Dutch, SARA,
sl'rS; Fr. SARA, si^ri'; Ger. SARA, sl'ra; Heb. m;
It. SARA, sa'ra ; Lat SA'RA ; Port SARA, sa'rS ; Sp.
SARA, sa'ra ; Sw. SARAH, sa'ra.

SAUL, ("desired;") Fr. SAUL, si'iil'; Heb. VMVt
Lat SAU'LUS.

SCZEPAN. See STEPHEN.

SEBASTIAN, se-bist'yan, (perhaps "inclined to
reverence;") Dutch, SEBASTIAAN, sa-bas'te-3n ; Fr.
SgBASTiEN, sa'bJs'ts-l.N'; It SEBASTIANO, sl-bas-te-
i'no; Lat SEBASTIA'NUS; Port SEBASTiSo, si-bis-te-
OWN'; Russ. SEVASTIAN, si-vas-te-3n'; Sp. SEBASTIAN.
si-Bas-te-ln'; Sw. SEBASTIAN, sl-bis'te-an.

SIBYL, slb'il ; Dutch, SIBYLLA, se-bil'li; Fr. SIBYLLE,
seTiel'; Gr. Si'fo^Aa, (Sihtlla;) Lat. SIBYL'LA.

SlGlSMUN'D, sij'is-mund, ("victorious protection," of
" he who affords protection by victory ;") Dutch, SlGls-
MUNDUS, se-gis-mun'dus or se-His-mun'dus; Fr. SlGIS-
MOND, se'zhess'mfi.N'; Ger. SICISMUND, see'gis-moont'
or SlGMUND, seec'mdont; Lat. SIGISMUN'DUS,; Sp.
SIGISMUNDO, se-Hes-moon'do ; Sw. SIGISMUND, sig'i
moond.

SIL-VA'NUS, ("belonging to the woods," or "inhabit-
ing the woods;") Dutch, SILVANUS, sil-va'nus; Fr.
SYLVAIN or SILVAIN, sel'vaN'; It SILVANC, stl-vi'no}
Lat SILVA'NUS; Sp. SILVANO, stl-va'no.

SILVESTER or SYLVESTER, sil-veVter, ("belonging to
the woods ;") Fr. SILVESTRE, s61'v5stR'; It SILVESTRO,
sel-v?s'tRo; Lat. SILVES'TER, (genitive, SILVES'TRIS;)
Sp. SILVESTRE, sel-ves'tRi.

SILVIA. See SYLVIA.

SIM'E-ON, ("hearing with acceptance;") Fr. SiMfioN,
se'ml'd.M'; Ger. SIMEON, see'ma-on ; Heb. p>'3t7; It.
SIMEONE, se-mi-o'ni; Lat. SIM'EON, (genitive, SIMEO'-
NIS;) Port. SiMEAO,se-ma-owN'; Sp. SIMEON, se-mi-6n'.



anatioos, p. 23.)
2545



VOCABULARY OF CHRISTIAN' NAMES.



SIMON, si'mon, (originally the same as SIMEON;
Dutch, SIMON, see'mon; Fr, SIMON, se'mdN'; Ger
SIMON, see'mon; Hungarian, SIMON, shee'mon ; It
SIMONE, se-mo'ni; Lat SI'MON, (genitive, SIMO'NIS;
Sp. SIMON, se-m6n'; Sw. SIMON, see'mon.

SIMSON. See SAMSON.

SOFIA. See SOPHIA.

SOL'O-MON, (" peaceable ;") Arabic, SOLIMAN, so-Ie
man', or SULEYMAN, soo'la-min'; Dutch, SALOMO, si'
lo-mo; Fr. SALOMON, si'lo'moN'; Ger. SALOMON, sl'lo
mon ; Gr. ZoXo^Ov, (Solomon ;) Heb. nzhly ; Hungarian
SALAMON, shol'o-mon ; It. SALOMONS, sa-lo-mo'na; Lat.
SAI.'OMON, (genitive, SALOMO'NIS;) Polish, SALOMON
si-lo'mon ; Port, SALOMAO, sa-lo-m5wN'; Sp. SALO-
MON, sj-lo-m6n'.

SOPHIA, so-fi'a, ("wisdom;") Danish, SOPHIE, so-
fee'eh ; Dutch, SOPHIE, so-fee'eh ; Fr. SOPHIE, so'fe';
Ger. SOPHIE, so-fce'eh ; Gr. Zo#a, (Sophia;) It. SOFIA,
so-fee'a ; Lat. SO'PHIA ; Russ. SOFIA, so-fee'J or so'-
fe-1; Sp. SOFIA, so-fee'a; Sw. SOFIA, so-fee'a.

SOPHRONIA, so-fro'ne-a, ("of a sound mind;") Fr.
SOPHRONIE, so'fRo'ne'; Lat. SOPHRO'NIA.

SOSTHENES, sos'Me-nez, ("of sound strength;") Fr.
SOSTHENE, sos'tjn'; Gr. ZuoOcvK, (Scsthenis;) Lat.
SOS'THEN-ES.

STEPHEN, stee'ven, (a "crown" or "garland;") Da-
nish, STEPHAN, stef'an; Dutch, STEVEN, sta'ven, or
STEPHANUS, sta'fa-nus; Fr. ETIENNE, i'te'ln'; Ger.
STEPHAN, stef'an ; Gr. 2rc (Savor, (Stephanos;) Hungarian,
IsrvAN, esht'vSn ; Lat. STEPH'ANUS ; Polish, SCZEPAN,
s'cha'pan ; Port. EsTEvSo, Js-ta-vowN'; Russ. STEPAN,
sti-pan', or STEFAN, sta-fan'; Sp. ESTEBAN, Js-ta'san,
(almost Js-ta'vJn ;) Sw. STEFAN, stef'an.

SULEYMAN. See SOLOMON.

SUSAN, soo'zan, or SUSANNA, soo-zan'na, (a "lily;")
Danish, SUSANNA, soo-sin'na; Dutch, SUSANNA, sii-
Bln'nl ; Fr. SUSANNE, sU'zin'; Ger. SUSANNE, soo-zln'-
neh; It. SUSANNA, soo-san'na; Lat. SUSAN'NA; Sp.
SUSANA, soo-sa'ni; Sw. SUSANNA, soo-sln'ni.

SYLVAIN. See SILVANUS.

SYLVAN.US. See SILVANUS.

SYLVESTER. See SILVESTER.

SYLVIA or SILVIA, sil've-a," ("of the woods," or
"delighting in the woods;") Fr. SlLVlE, sel've'; It.
SILVIA, s&'ve-a; Sp. SILVIA, sel've-1

TABITHA, tab'e-tha, (often incorrectly pronounced
ta-bi'tha.) (a " roe ;") Lat. TAB'ITHA.

TADDEO or TADEO. See THADDEUS.

TAMAS. See THOMAS.

TEOBALDO. See THEOBALD.

TEODORICO. See THEODORia

TEODORO. See THEODORE.

TEODOSIO. See THEODOSIUS.

TEOFILO. See THEOPHILUS.

TERESA. See THERESA.

THADDEUS, thad'de-us or thad-dee'us, ("praise"?)
It. TADDEO, tad-da'o; La^ THADDE'US; Sp. TADEO,



THE'O-BALD, ("bold for the people"?) Danish, THEO-



BALD, ta'o-bSW; Dutch, TIEBOUT, tee'bowt ; Fr. THI-
BAUT, te'bo'; Ger. THEOBALD, ta'o-balt'; It TEOBALDO,
ti-o-bal'do ; Lat THEOBAL'DUS ; Sp. TEOBALDO, ti-o-
Bal'do ; Sw. THEOBALD, tii'o-bild'.

THE-OD'ER-ICK or THE-OD'O-RIC; Dutch, DIEDER-
ICK, dee'der-ik, commonly contracted to DIRK or DlRCK,
de?Rk ; Fr. TH^ODORIC, ti'o'do'rek'; Ger. THEODORICH,
ti-od'o-riK', or DIETRICH, dee'tRiK ; It. TEODORICO, ta-
o-do-ree'ko ; Lat. THEODORI'CUS ; Sp. TEODORICO, ta-
o-Do're-ko.

THEODORE, ///ee'o-dor, (the "gift of God;") Danish,
THEODOR, ta'o-doR; Dutch, THEODORUS, ta-o-do'rusj
Fr. THEODORE, ti'o'doR'. Gr. Qeolupot, (Theodoras;)
It. TEODORO, tl-o-do'ro . Lat. THEODO'RUS ; Port THEO-
DORO, ti-o-do'ro ; Russ. FEODOR, fi-o-doR'; Sp. TEO-
DORIO, ta-o-Do're-o ; Sw. THEODOR, tn'o-doR.

THEODOSIA, Me-o-do'she-a, (the feminine of THEO-
DOSIUS ;) Fr. THEODOSIE, ti'o'do'ze'; It TEODOSIA, tl-
o-do'se-3; Lat THEODO'SIA,

THEODOSIUS, Me-o-do'she-us, ("given by God;") Fr.
THEODOSE, ta'o'doz'; It. TEODOSIO, ti-o-do'sc-o ; Lat
THEODO'SIUS ; Sp. TEODOSIO, ta-o-oo'se-o.

THEOPHILUS, Me-of'e-lus, (a "lover of God;") Da-
nish, GOTTLIEB, got'Ieep; Dutch, THEOPHILUS, ta-o'-
fe-lus ; Fr. THEOPHILE, ti'o'ftl'; Ger. GOTTLIEB, got'-
Ieep ; Gr. Of<i(>aof, ( Theophilos ;) It. TEOFILO, ti-of'e-lo ;
Lat. THEOPH'ILUS ; Port THEOPHILO, ta-o'fe-lo; Sp.
TEOFILO, ta-o'fe-lo.

THERESA, te-ree'sa; Dutch, THERESIA, ta-ra'se-J;
Fr. THERESE, ti'rjz'; Ger. TIIERESE, ti-ra'zeh ; It
TERESA, ti-ra'sJ ; Lat. THERE'SA ; Sp. TERESA, ta-ra'sj ;
Sw. THERESA, ti-rli'sl

THIBACT. See THEOBALD.

THOMAS, tom'ass or tom'us, (a " twin ;") Danish,
THOMAS, tom'Ss ; Dutch, THOMAS, to'mas ; Fr. THO-
MAS, to'mi'; Ger. THOMAS, t^mils; Gr. Qu/jZ;, ( TAd'
mas;) Hungarian, TAMXs, tom'ish ; It. TOMMASO,
tom-ma'so; Lat. THO'MAS; Polish, TOMASZ, to'mish;
Port. THOMAS, to-mas', or THOMAR, to-maR'; Sp
TOMAS, to-mas'; Sw. THOMAS, tom'as.

TIBERIUS, ti-bee're-us ; Fr. TIBERE, teTjaia'; It Tl-
BERIO, te-ba're-o; Lat. TIBE'RIUS.
TIEBOUT. See THEOBALD.

TIMOTHY, tim'o-Me, ("fearing God;") Danish,
TIMOTHEUS, te-mo'ti-is; Dutch, TIMOTHEUS, te-
mo'ta-us; Fr. TIMOTIIEE, te'mo'ti'; Ger. TIMOTHEUS,
e-mo'ta-us; Gr. Ti/iofeof, ( Timotheos ;) It. TIMOTEO,
e-mo-ta'o; Lat. TIMO'THEUS; Port TIMOTHEO, te-
mo-ta'o; Sp. TIMOTEO, te-mo-ta'o; Sw. TIMOTHEUS,
te-mo'te-us,

TITUS, tl'tus ; Fr. TITE, let ; Ger. TITUS, tee'tus ; It
TITO, tee'to; Lat TI'TUS; Sp. TITO, tee'to.

TOBIAS, to-bi'ass, or TOBY, to'be, (the "goodness of
he Lord ;") Danish, TOBIAS, to-bee'Js; Dutch, TOBIAS,
:o-bee'as; Fr. TOBIE, to'be'; Ger. TonrA?, to-bee'as j

It. TOBIA, to-bee'J; Lat TOBI'AS; Sp. TOBIAS, to

bee'as.

TOLOMEO. See PTOLEMY.
TOMAS. See THOMAS.
TOMASZ. See THOMAS.
TOMMASO. See THOMAS.



a, e, 1, 6, u, <j,lon S ; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y,
2546



short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; not; good; moon



VOCABULARY OF CHRISTIAN NAMES.



TRISTRAM, tris'tram, (" sorrowful ;") Lat TRISTRA'-
Mus ; Port TRISTXO, tRes-t5wN'.

UGO. See HUGH.

ULIVIERE. See OLIVER.

ULYSSES, yoo-lis'sez ; Fr. ULYSSE, U1css'; Gr. 'Oth/ff-
ri*, (Odussaa;) It ULISSE, oo-Its'si; Lat. ULYS'SES
or ULYX'ES, (genitive, ULYS'SIS.)

URBAN, ur'ban, (" courteous ;") Danish, URBAN, OOR'-
oin ; Dutch, URBANUS, us-bl'nus, or URBAAN, uR'bSn ;
Fr. URDAIN, iiR'baN'; Ger. URBAN, ooR'ban; It. UR-
BANO, ooR-bl'no; Lat. URBA'NUS; Sp. URBANO, OOR-
bl'no ; S\v. URBAN, ooR'ban.

URIAH, yoo-ri'a, (the " fire of the Lord ;") Fr. URIE,
8're'j Ger. URIAS, oo-ree'ls; It. URIA, oo-ree'3; Lat.
UKI'AS.

URSULA, ur'su-la, (a "female bear ;") Dutch, URSULA,
uR'su-11; Fr. URSULE, iiiv'sul'; Ger. URSULA, OOR'-
soo-IJ; It. URSULA, ooR'soo-la; Lat. UR'SULA; Sp.
URSULA, ooR'soo-la ; Sw. URSULA, ooR'soo-13.

UZZIAH, uz-zl'a, (the " strength of the Lord ;") Heb.
; Lat. UZZI'AS.



VALENTINE, val'?n-tln, ("strong" or "healthy;")
Danish, VALENTIN, fa'Ien-teen'; Dutch, VALENTIJN,
va'len-tin'; Fr. VALENTIN, vS'ldN'ta.s'; Ger. VALENTIN,
fi'len-teen' or va'len-teen'; It. VALENTINO, va-lln-tee'-
no; Lat. VALENTI'NUSJ Port. VALENTIM, va-15n-teN';
Sp. VALENTIN, va-l^n-ten'; Sw. VALENTIN, vl'l?n-teen'.

VALERE. See VALERIUS.

VALERIA, va-lee're-a, (the feminine of VALERIUS;)
Fr. VALERIE, vsfli're'; It, VALERIA, va-la're-a; Lat
VALE'RIA.

VALERIAN, va-lee're-an ; Dutch, VALERIANUS, vj-la-
re-a'niis ; Fr. VALERIEN, vfli're^N'; It. VALERIANO,
vS-li-re-i'no; Lat VALERIA'NUS.

VALERIE. See VALERIA.

VALERIUS, va-lee're-us ; Fr. VALERE, vS^aiR'; It.
VALERIO, va-la're-o ; Lat. VALE'RIUS.

VARFOLOMEI. See BARTHOLOMEW.

VASILI or VASILII. See BASIL.

VEIT. See GUY.

VERONICA, ver-o-ni'ka ; Fr. VERONIQUE, va'ro'nek';
It. VERONICA, vi-ro-nee'kl.

VICENTE. See VINCENT.

VICTORIA, vik-to're-a, ("victory;") Fr. VICTOIRE,
vik'twiR'; It VITTORIA, vet-to're-d ; Lat VICTO'RIA ;
Sp. VITORIA, ve-to're-i.

VIN'CENT, (an " overcomer ;") Dutch, VINCENTIUS,
ln-s?n'se-us ; Fr. VINCENT, viN'sSN'; It VINCENTS,
ven-chJn'ti; Lat. VINCEN'TIUS; Port VICENTE, ve-
sSn'tl ; Sp. VICENTE, ve-//5en'ta, or VINCENTE, ven-
MZr/ta.



VIRGINIA, vjr-jin'e-a; Dutch, VIRGINIA vlR-Hec / -
ne-?h ; Fr. VIRGINIE, vcR'zhe'ne'; Ger. VIRGINIA, (368-
gee'ne-a ; It VIRGINIA, v6r-jee'ne-J ; Lat VIRGIN'IA.

VITTORIA or VITORIA. See VICTORIA.

VIVIAN, viv'e-an, ("living;") Fr. VIVIEN, ve'veJ^N'j
Lat VIVIA'NUS.

WALTER, waul't^r, (a " wood-master ;") Dutch, Woo-
TER, w6w't?r; Fr. GAUTIER, gS'te^i'; Ger. WALTER,
<fral'te,r; It GUALTERIO, gwal-ta're-o ; Lat. GUALTE'-
RUS; Port. GUALTER, gwil-ta'iR'; Sp. GUALTERIO>
gwal-ta're-o ; Sw. WALTER, vll'te.r.

WILHELM. See WILLIAM.

WILHELMINE, wll'hSl-meen', (the feminine of Wrj>
S.IAM;) Ger. WILHELMINE, <MI-h41-mee'ne,h ; It Gu-
GLIELMA, gool-yJl'ma.

WILLIAM, wil'yam; Danish, WILHELM, vll'hSlm;
Dutch, WILLEM, wll'Iem; Fr. GUILLAUME, ge'yom';
Ger. WILHELM, ftll'hJlm ; It. GUGLIELMO, gool-ySl'mo;
Lat GULIEL'MUS, WILHEL'MUS, or WILLIEL'MUS ; Sp.
GUILLERMO, ge-y2R'mo ; Sw. WILHELM, vll'hSlm.

WINIFRED, win'e-fred, or WIN'IFRID, ("winning
peace;") Dutch, WINFRIED, wVfReet; Fr. WINIFRED,
ve'ne'fRSd'; Lat. WINFRE'DA ; Sw. WINFRID, vln'fRid.

WOUTER. See WALTER.

YAKOP. See JAMES.
YEKATERINA. See CATHERINE.

ZABULON. See ZEBULON.

ZACARIAS. See ZACIIARIAH.

ZACCARIA. See ZACHARIAH.

ZACCHEUS, zak-fcee'us, (" pure," "just ;") Fr. ZACH*%
zS'shi'; It. ZACHEO, dzl-ka'o; Lat. ZACCHE'US.

ZACHARIAH, rak-a-rl'a, (" remembering the Lord ;")
Danish, ZACHARIAS, za-ka-ree'fe ; Dutch, ZACHARIAS,
za-Ka-ree'as ; Fr. ZACHARIE, zf 'kfre'; Ger. ZACHARIAS,
tsaK-a-ree'as ; Heb. rVOT ; It ZACCARIA, dzak-ki-rec'2 ;
Lat ZACHAKI'AS; Sp. ZACARIAS, Ml-ka-ree'is ; Sw.
ZACHARIAS, z3-ka-ree'is.

ZADOK, za'd?k, ("righteous;") Fr. ZADOC, z^dok',
Heb. p^S ; Lat. ZADO'CUS.

ZEB'U-LON or ZEB'U-LUN ; Fr. ZABULON, zStiUHAN'
Heb. Jl^ai or J^U! ; Lat. ZAB'ULON, (genitive, ZABU-
LO'NIS.)

ZEDEKIAH, zed-e-ki'a, (the "justice of the Lord ;")
Heb. n-pns or irvpiv.

ZE'NO; Fr. ZENON, zl'noN'; Gr. Zyvuv, (Zfrun ;) It.
ZENONE, dzi-no'ni.

ZENOBIA, ze-no'be-a; Fr. ZENOBIE, z^noTje'; Gr.
ZqvoSia, (Zenobia;) It. ZENOBIA, dzl-no'be-2; Lat. Z&
NO'BIA.



as k; c as /; g hard; g as// G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z/ th as in this. (B^=See Explanations, p. 23.)

547



DISPUTED OR DOUBTFUL PRONUNCIATIONS.



PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

LANGUAGE may be said to be a mixed product of cer-
fain accidental elements and the generalizing faculty of
the human mind. Each nation, from some peculiarity,
as it would seem, in its original or acquired character,
tends to develop its language in a particular manner,
and while this tendency operates without the interfer-
ence of foreign influence, a language will generally be
found to grow more and more regular so long as the
nation speaking it exists. But if foreign words, or new
habits of thought, be introduced by the prevalence of
some new philosophical or religious system, irregularity
in language, to a greater or less extent, is the inevitable
result. Accordingly, we occasionally see even among
the Germans (who, of all the nations of Europe, appear
lo have been most successful in preserving their lan-
guage pure from the admixture of foreign elements)
such irregularities as the following, " Dzs Leiden Cfiristi"
(" the suffering of Christ,") with a Latin genitive, instead
of the more regular form, "Dai LeiJen des Christus."

But the most common, as well as most powerful,
cause of irregularity in language, is military conquest
and occupation, as in this case the conquerors invariably
introduce new words and phrases, which often form a
most incongruous mixture with the native dialects. If
the conquest be religious as well as military, the effect is
still more striking. This was remarkably exemplified in
the conquest of Persia* and Hindostan by the followers
of Mohammed. The ail-but unparalleled irregularity of
Ihc English language is to be attributed to the succes-
sive conquests of Britain (originally inhabited by Celtst)
by the Romans, the Saxons, the Danes, and the Nor-
mans, the conquest in each instance being not a mere
overrunning of the country, but followed by a permanent
military occupation.

To the same cause, though operating in a less degree
must likewise be ascribed the irregularity of the French
tongue; though other influences have also contributec
to the same result. The central situation of France, and
the various attractions which the country and peoplr
present to strangers, have induced multitudes of almos
every nation to make it their residence ; so that proba
bly no European country in recent times has had sc
mixed and multifarious a population. To this cause
more than to any other, must be attributed the exceedin-
Jrregularity which prevails in the pronunciation of Frenc
proper names.



See, in connection with this subject, our remarks on the Persia
Language, with accompanying ttale, in the Introduction, p. 10.

1 At least, the Celts were the fast inhabitants of the island known
,o history.



The comparative regularity of the Italian language if
o be accounted for by the fact that though Italy has
ften been overrun by foreign armies it has seldom
een subjected to permanent military occupation.} And
n the comparatively few instances in which this has
ccurreJ, the great and acknowledged superiority of the
talians in literature and the arts has led the conquerors
ather to adopt the customs and language of the con-
uered than attempt to introduce their own. In the
ound of the Italian letters, whether simple or in com-
lination, there is scarcely any difficulty, when the rules
}f pronunciation are once known. The only irregu-
arities that occur in the language may be said to be
imited to diversity of spelling and variation of accent ;
o that, if the orthography of the word or name and
he proper accentuation are ascertained, one cannot
asily err in the pronunciation.

In Spain we find a language of the most heterogeneous
lements, because in early times it was often overrun
and some portions permanently occupied by nations of
he most diverse and even opposite characters, Car-
haginians, Romans, Goths, Arabs, etc. ; but, having
been for nearly six hundred years unsubjected, except
or a short time only, to any foreign power, it has so
assimilated its originally heterogeneous and incongruous
elements, and been so successful (if we may use the
expression) in bringing light and order out of the chaos
of its rude and multifarious dialects, that it may now
justly boast of being, on the whole, one of the most
regular as well as one of the finest among all the lan-
guages of Europe. As regards pronunciation, the most
striking irregularities in the Spanish tongue will be
found in words or names of Moorish origin, such as
Alcacer, (Arabic, al-Kasr, " the castle" or " palace,")
Alcala, (al-qilA, "the fort,) Almodovar, (pl-Modhafer,
" the victorious,") and so on.

Below will be given some of the most remarkable
discrepancies in the pronunciation and spelling of the
principal European languages.

L

ENGLISH.

Notwithstanding the extreme irregularity of our lan-
guage, we find comparatively few instances of discrep-
ancy in the pronunciation of celebrated names, whether
these be of English origin or the Anglicized forms of
foreign names.



t It should be borne distinctly in mind that when this phrase is
used it always has reference to military occupation by tlie troops of
a nation essentially differing in language from the conquered people.



6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obsnirc; fir, fill, fit; m5t; n5t; goOd; moon;



a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6,
25-18



DISPUTED OR DOUBTFUL PRONUNCIATIONS.



The following are among the most important :

Augustine, aw'gus-tin or aw-gus'tin.
Bellarrnin, bel'lar-min or bel-lar'min.t
Cowper, kSw'per or koo'per.J
Derby, der'be or dar'be.
Gifford. gif'fgrd or jif ford.||
Raphael, ra'fi-el or rl'fa-eL

Variations in spelling are still more rare.

It

NOTED FRENCH NAMES OF DOUBTFUL SPELLING."!



Angeli,

Cocille,

Chateaubriand,

Fenelon,

Niceron,

Petion,

Remusat,



Angeli.

Cecille,

Chateaubriand.

Fenelon.

Niceron.

Petion.

Remusat



It might be supposed that diversities in spel'ing like
the above would necessarily be followed by diversity of
pronunciation. But this is not always the case. For
example, Vice- Admiral Cecille informs us that although
he never writes the first syllable of his name with an
accent, it is always pronounced as if it had an accent.
Petion, the famous mayor of Paris in the early part of
the French Revolution, always omitted the accent on the
t in his name, which was nevertheless always pronounced
Petion. But though the unaccented letter may in many
cases still be pronounced as if it had the accent, the
omission can scarcely fail, sooner or later, to produce a
permanent change in the pronunciation itself.

NOTED FRENCH NAMES OF DOUBTFUL OR DISPUTED
PRONUNCIATION.

Barras, bi'ras' or bS'ri'.
Biot, beV or be'ot'.*



In favour of the first we have not only the analogy of other
languages, cognate with ours, e.g. the German Augustin' or
Au'gustin, and the Dutch Au'gustijn, but also the authority of some
of our best poets, including Scott and Longfellow. On the other
hand, it must be admitted that the best modern usage, at least in
this country, ia in favour of Augus'line,

t The first pronunciation of this name appears to have been for-
merly very general among the best speakers ; but modern usage seems
to have decided for the second.

3 The first pronunciation 13 pure Saxon : the other (a more aris-
tocratic pronunciation) is intended to give the Norman sound of tnt t
(or ffw,) u and w being formerly often interchanged, (See note to
GifiVd)

The chief reason for adopting the second pronunciation of this
name, so contrary to the general usage of our language, would seem
to be tne consideration that an antiquated pronunciation is appro-
priate to the name of a very ancient family,

I Propet ly speaking, these may be regarded as two different
ames: the one aristocratic, taking the soft sound of g from the
Norman French ; the other plebeian, adopting the common Saxon
pronunciation of that letter.

H The French language at the present time would appear to be
tn a transition state in regard to placing the accent, which is now
onitted from many names on which it was formerly invariably
placed. The omission was probably due ia the first place to haste or
carelessness; but what was originally an error resulting from sheer
negligence, if committed by some eminent author in regard to his
cwn name, gradually came to be regarded as the preferable mode of
writing such name.

* We have been assured, on respectable authority, that in the
uame of the celebrated Bossuet the final / was pronounced in the
early part of the last century.



Chateaubriand or Chateaubriand, sha'lo'bne'SN'
or sha'to'bRe'&.s'.

Dumas, dii'ma' or dii'mas'.

Genlis, zho.N'less' or zho.\'le'.

Guise, gwez (gii-ez') or gez.

Guirot.tt gwe'zo' (gii-e'zo') or ge zo'.

Laennec, li'nek'O or IJ'nek'.

Sieyes, se'i'yess' or se'ess'.

This list might be much extended, including a multi-
tude of names in which the pronunciation of the final
consonant is undetermined, as Audoul, o'dool' or 6'dco .
Bastoul, bis'tool' or bis'too', Dtstutt, variously pro-
nounced dytiit', dj'tii', and deVtu't', etc. etc., and many
others, such as Remilly, Silly, Villers, Villette, Wailly,
Willot, etc., in which it is somewhat uncertain whether
the //should or should not be made liquid. To which
may be added almost every name of recent introduction.
from foreign countries, as Bianchi, Brown-Sequard,
Weiss, Wilhem, Zurlauben, etc. In regard to such
names many French speakers will seek to approximate
the foreign pronunciation, while others will try to make
them conform as nearly as possible to the orthoepical
principles of their own language. The best usage ap-
pears to make a marked difference in the pronunciation
of names of foreign and those of French origin. (See
Section V., 30, Obs. 2, in the Introduction.)

III.

GERMAN.


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 424 of 425)