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of Lisbon and killed about sixty thousand persons. In
1758 an attempt was made to assassinate him, in which
he was severely wounded. He discovered that the Jesuits
were implicated in the plot, and immediately caused all
against whom any evidence was brought to be executed.
He also issued an edict by which all the Jesuits in Por-
tugal were declared traitors. In 1762 he united with
England in a war against France and Spain. He enacted
several laws to encourage education and to advance
religious toleration, and restricted the powers of the
Inquisition. Died in 1777.

See "Leben Joseph Emmanuels Konigs von Portugal," Nurem-
berg, 1778.

Joseph Meir, (miR,) a French Jew, born at Avig-ion
in 1496. He wrote a work, in Hebrew, on the Kinjjs of
France and the Sultans of Turkey. Died in 1554.

Josephe, the French of JOSEPHUS, which see.

Josephine, jo'ze-feen', [Fr. pron. zho'za'fen',] origin-
ally Marie Joseph Rose Tascher de la Pagerie,
(tS'shi' deh It pizh're',) wife of Napoleon I. of France,

a, e, T, o, u, y, /cva, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, ii, y\ short; a, e, i, o, obscure; fir, fill, fat; met; not: good; n>on



was born in 1763 in the island of Martinique. At a
very early age she attracted attention by her remark-
able beauty and vivacity. About 1778 she went to
reside in France with an aunt by whom she had been
adopted, and thus became the heiress to a large for-
tune. She was soon after married to Viscount de Beau-
hatnais, one of the most polished noblemen of the French
court. In 1780 she gave birth to Eugene, who was sub-
sequently appointed Viceroy of Italy by Bonaparte, and
in 1783 to Hortense, afterwards Queen of Holland, and
mother of Napoleon III. Jealousies having arisen be-
tween Beauharnais and his wife, the former sued for a
divorce before the Parliament of Paris. The case was
decided in favour of Josephine, who in a short time
sailed for Martinique with her daughter. At this period
her circumstances were so straitened that she was glad
to accept from the captain of the vessel a pair of shoes
for Hortense. At the expiration of three years she re-
turned to France and was reconciled to her husband.
During the French Revolution Beauharnais boldly op-
posed the measures of the Jacobins, by whom he was
executed in 1794. His wife, who was then in prison,
escaped the same fate only by the sudden fall of Robes-
pierre. Through the influence of Barras and Tallien,
she regained part of her husband's property, which had
been confiscated. She now became one of the leaders
of fashion. Her talents and personal attractions enabled
her also to exert no little influence in the politics of that
period. In 1796 she was married to Bonaparte, who had
recently been appointed commander-in-chief of the army
in Italy. At the time Josephine was thought by her
friends to have formed a misalliance. After Bonaparte
became First Consul, she exerted all her influence to alle-
viate the sufferings of the royalists, and even endeavoured
to persuade him to restore the Bourbons. While Napo-
leon was in Egypt, she had bought for her favourite resort
the estate of Malmaison, which she fitted up with royal
magnificence. At length her expenditures for this and
other luxuries became so enormous as to occasion the
First Consul serious embarrassment. When Napoleon
was raised to the imperial throne and she became Empress
of France, to her was due in a great measure the honour of
having imparted to the court of the Tuileries the splendour
and taste for which it was then distinguished. From the
time of her coronation her influence over the emperor
rapidly diminished ; and, as there was no longer hope of
her bringing him an heir, he finally resolved to divorce
her. The announcement of this decision plunged the
empress into the deepest despair. Napoleon himself
is said to have been greatly affected ; but his resolu-
tion was fixed, and the bill of divorce was passed in 1809.
Josephine, still retaining her former dignities and titles,
retired to Malmaison. Napoleon occasionally visited
her, and appeared to cherish a sincere affection for her.
When the allied armies invaded France, she was treated
with the greatest respect by the emperor Alexander.
She died in 1814, soon after the abdication of Napoleon.
The character of Josephine has been greatly admired.
The cause of this is to be attributed more to her pleasing
manners than to any exalted virtue which she possessed.
It is said that there was a fascination in her countenance
which no painter could transfer to canvas. She had a
very remarkable memory, was accomplished, educated,
and witty ; but vanity seems to have had an unlimited
ascendency over her, and it does not appear that she
was endowed with so many uncommon qualities as several
modern writers have attributed to her. (See BONA-

See "Josephine, " in the " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale," vol.
rxxvii. For the private life of Josephine, the reader may consult
AOBENAS' " Histoire de I'lmperatrice Josephine," 2 vols. 8vo, Paris,
iSs7-sy ; also the letters of Napoleon to Josephine, and of Josephine
to Napoleon and to her daughter. For a very curious account of
the empress Josephine's descendants, see "London Review" for
June, 1866: MARIE ANNE LE NORMAND, " Memoires historiques
et secrets de Josephine," 2 vpls., 1820, (English version of the same,
1848 ;) P. C. HEADLBV, " Life of the Empress Josephine," 1852.

Josephsou, yo'sef-spn, (LuDWiG,) a Swedish dram-
atist, born at Stockholm, of Jewish parents, February
20, 1830. Among his pieces are " Kunstens Vapen, '
"Kapten Gars," and "Thord Hasle," (1881.) He also
prepared a history of the Swedish stage. His brother
JAKOB (1818-80) was a noted composer of music.

was born at Jerusalem A.D. 37. His mother was of the
royal house of the Asmonasans, and his father belonged to
the sacerdotal order from which the chief pontiffs were
chosen. He pursued his studies in his native city with
such assiduity that at the age of fourteen he was often
consulted on abstruse points of Jewish law. He after-
wards joined the sect of the Essenes, and passed three
years with a hermit in the desert. At the age of nine-
teen he became a Pharisee. In the year 63 he visited
Rome, in order to procure the liberation of some Jew-
ish priests whom the governor Felix had sent there as
prisoners. lie was favourably received at the imperial
court, and succeeded in his enterprise through the in-
fluence of Poppaea, the wife of Nero. On his return to
Judea he opposed the revolutionary spirit that was then
gaining ground among his countrymen. Perceiving his
efforts to be of no avail, he accepted the government of
the twoGalilees, and in 67 A.D. bravely defended for forty-
seven days the city of Jotapata against a powerful Roman
army under Vespasian. The Romans finally triumphed,
however, and of the Jewish warriors Josephus alone was
saved, on account of his predicting that Vespasian would
soon receive the imperial purple. He was treated with
the greatest respect by Vespasian and Titus, and at the
destruction of Jerusalem his influence procured the
liberation of his brother and fifty of his friends. He
afterwards accompanied Titus to Rome, where Vespasian
granted him a pension and raised him to the rank of a
Roman citizen. As a mark of gratitude for these and
other favours, Josephus assumed the emperor's family
name of Flavius. The date of his death is unknown ;
but some writers have placed it A.D. 95. The most im-
portant works of Josephus are his " History of the Jew-
ish War," in seven books, " The Antiquities of the Jews,"
lovdaiKf/ 'Apjoiofoym,) in twenty books, two treatises

Against Apion of Alexandria," a "Discourse on the
Martyrdom of the Maccabees," and an account of his
own life. All of these were written in Greek, with the
exception of the first, which was originally composed in
Syro-Chaldaic and afterwards translated into Greek by
himself. On account of the beauty of his style, he has
been called " the Grecian Livy." His works have been
translated into Latin and most of the modern languages
of Europe.

See G. R. VAN HOBVELL, " F. Joseph! Vita," 1835 : J. F. ECK-
HARU, " Biographic des beriihmten F. Josephus," 1785 ; FABRICIUS,
" Bibliotheca Grzca ;" CAVE, " Scriptorum ecclesiasticorum Historia
literaria :" C. F. BOEHMERT, " Ueber des Flavius Josephus Zeu^niss
von Christo," 1823 ; PHILARK.TECHASLES, "De 1'Autorite historique
de F. Josephe," 1841.

Jos^pin. See CESARI, (GIUSEPPE.)

Josh'u-a, [Heb. 1'jyiH' ; Gr. 'IiyooCf ,- Fr. Josut, zho'-
zii'a',] or O'she-a, the son of Nun, (Numbers xiii. 16,)
became commander of the Israelites on the death of
Moses. He was distinguished for his bravery and mili-
tary skill, and gained numerous important victories over
the different Canaanite princes. Much controversy has
arisen in regard to the authorship of the book of Joshua.
Many suppose it to have been compiled from manuscripts
written by himself; others attribute it to Samuel. Died
about 1425 B.C.

Jo-si'ah [Heb. ID'tyX' ; Fr. JOSIAS, zho'se'as'] suc-
ceeded hi's father Amon on the throne of Judah 641 B.C.,
at the age of eight years. He was an able and pious
prince, and during his reign of thirty-one years many
wise and beneficial laws were enacted: idcJatry was
suppressed, the Temple was repaired, and the true forms
of worship were restored. He was killed in a battle
against Pharaoh-Necho, King of Egypt, about 610 B.C.

See II. Kings xiii., xxii. ; II. Chronicles xxxiv., xxxv.

Josias. See JOSIAH.

Josika, yo'she-koh, (MlKL6s,) a Hungarian nobleman
and celebrated novelist, born in 1796 at Torda, in Tran-
sylvania. His first and most successful work, " Abafi,"
a historical tale, appeared in 1836. He produced about
sixty volumes of romances, which were very popular with
the Hungarians. In 1848, as a member of the upper
house of nobles, he took a bold stand against the en-
croachments of Austria, and advocated the measures of

as k; c as j; g hard: g as ;'; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (

nations, p. 2} *




Kossuth. After the defeat of the Hungarians in 1849 he
lived in exile. Died in 1865.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Generale."

Joaquin Desprez or Depres. See DESPRES.

Josselin de Courtenay, zhos'laN' deh kooRt'n^', a
Frenrh nobleman, who went on a crusade to Palestine in
HOI. He was created Count of Edessa by the King of
Jerusalem, and won great distinction by the numerous
victories which he gained over the Saracens. Died in 1147.

Jost, yost, (IsAAK MARCUS,) a learned Jew, born at
Bernburg, in Germany, in 1793, studied philology at
Gottingen and Berlin. His principal work is a " I listory
of the Israelites," (10 vols., 1846.) He also published a
translation of the " Mishna," with a text and commen-
tary. Died November 25, 1860.

Josue. See JOSHUA.

Jo'tham, (Heb. D71V,] King of Judah, was the son
of Uzziah, whom he succeeded B.C. 757.

Jotun, yo'tun, in the plural Jotuns, [an old Norse
word signifying "giant," supposed to be derived from
an ancient form of the verb to "eat," (Anglo-Saxon
fofcn,} the most prominent characteristic of the Jotun?
being their prodigious voracity. (See Thorpe's " North-
ern Mythology," vol. i. p. 148,)] in the Norse mythology,
the name applied to certain mythical beings supposed
to be hostile to men and to the beneficent ^tsir. The
Jotuns, or Giants, are types of the disturbing, untamable,
or destructive forces of nature. Hence the wolf Fenrir,
(supposed to typify 1 volcanic fire,) Midgard's Serpent,
(the vast untamable ocean,) and Hela (the goddess of
death) are all represented as of Jotun birth. Loki him-
self is considered to be of Jotun origin, and is the father
of the mightiest and most terrible beings belonging to
that race. Cold or frost, being one of the principal causes
of desolation and death, is represented as the parent of
a powerful family of Jotuns, termed Frost-giants. The
abode of the Jotuns is called Jotunheim or Utgard,
(oot'glrd, i.e. "outer ward,") and comprises the desert
regions on the outermost boundary of the world. The
Jotun? (i.e. the elements of disorder and desolation) are
represented as being always at war with the /fcsir, the
powers presiding over life and order. (See JSIR.) The
opposition is eternal ; they are never reconciled, as in the
case of the Vanir and /Esir, (see VANIR,) because there
can be no reconciliation between order and confusion, or
between life and death.

See, besides the work above referred to, KEVSER, "Religion of
the Northmen;" MALLKT, "Northern Antiquities;" PBTERSKN,
" Nordisk Mythologi."

Joubert, zhoo'baiR', (BARTHELKMY CATHERINE,) a
French general, born at Pont-de-Vaux, in Bresse, in
1769. In 1791 he enlisted in the army of the Rhine,
and served with distinction against the Austrians. Two
years later he was taken prisoner by the Sardinians, fie
soon after regained his liberty and returned to France,
where he boldly opposed the Jacobins. In 1794 he re-
ceived the appointment of adjutant-general, and in 1795,
having displayed great bravery at Loano, he was raised
to the rank of a brigadier-general on the field of battle.
He subsequently gained distinguished honours at several
battles in Italy and in the Tyrol. In 1799 he was ap-
pointed general-in-chief of the army in Italy, and fell at
the battle of Novi, in August of that year.

Joubert, (FRANCOIS,) a French priest and Jansenist,
distinguished for his learning, born at Mompellier in
1689. On account of his principles, he was persecuted
by the Jesuits and was imprisoned in the Bastille. 1 le
wrote commentaries on the Apocalypse and on a number
of the Hebrew prophecies. Died in 1763.

Joubert, (JOSEPH,) a French Jesuit, born at Lyons,
known as the author of a valuable work, entitled " French
and Latin Dictionary, taken from the Original and Clas-
sical Authors in both Languages." Died in 1719.

Joubert, JOSEPH,) a French moralist, born at Mon-
tignac (Perigord) in 1754, became a resident of Paris
about 1778. He was an intimate friend of Fontanes, by
whose influence he was appointed inspector-general of
the University of Paris in 1809. He died in 1824, leaving
many manuscripts, a part of which Chateaubriand edited,
with the title of "Pensees." A more complete edition
of the "Pensees, Essais," etc. appeared in 2 vols., 1842.

Joubert, (JOSEPH ANTOINE RENE,) a French general,
born at Angers in 1772. He served with distinction at
Heliopolis, Wagram, (1809,) Smolensk, (1812,) and Liit-
zen, (1813.) Died in 1843.

Joubert, (LAURENT,) an eminent French physician,
born at Valence in 1529. He graduated at the Univer-
sity of Montpellier, of which he was afterwards chosen
chancellor. He was also appointed first physician-in-

Joubert, (LEO,) a French author, born December 13,
1826. He very early won distinction as a critic and re-
viewer. He was chief editor of the "Moniteur Univer-
sel," (1868-77,) and wrote " Leaena," a romance, (1869,)
"La Bataille de Sedan," (1873,) and other works.

Joubert, (PIETRUS JACOBUS,) a Boer general,
born in 1831 or later in Cape Colony, or, as some
accounts state, in Pennsylvania. He served with the
United States forces in the civil war. Subsequently
he became a prominent citizen of the Transvaal Re-
public, and was acting president during the term of
President Burgess. He went with Paul Kruger to
England in 1878 to protest against the annexation of
the Transvaal, and in 1880 joined with Kruger and
Pretorius in proclaiming its independence. In the war
that followed he commanded the army and won the
famous victories of Laing's Nek and Majuba Hill.
He was elected vice-president in 1883, contested the
presidency in 1888, and in 1899 took command of the
| army in Natal, defeating the British in several en-
! gagements and holding General White besieged for
' months at Ladysmith, despite General Buller's efforts
at relief. He died at Pretoria, March, 1900.

Jouenneaux. See JUVENAL.

Jouffroi, de, deh zhoo'fRwJ', [ Lat JOFFRF/DUS,]

(JEAN,) a French prelate, born at Luxeuil about 1412.

He obtained the favour of Louis XL, who procured for

him a cardinal's hat in 1461, and made him his almoner.

in 1473.

Jouffroy, zhoo'fRwi', (FRANC.OIS,) a French sculptor,
1 born at Dijon in 1806. He gained the grand prize in
I 1832, and received a pension. He became a member of
the Academic des Beaux-Arts in 1857. Died in 1882.

Jouflroy, (THEODORE SIMON,) a French philosophical
writer, born near Mouthe (Doubs) in 1796, was a pupil
of Victor Cousin, who influenced the development and
direction of his mind. He was appointed a tutor of
philosophy (Hive ripttiteur) in the Normal School in
1817. This school having been suppressed in 1822, he
began to write for several journals in Paris. In 1830 he
became a professor in the Normal School, then re-estab-
lished. He produced a version of the complete works
.if Thomas Reid, (6 vols., 1828-35.) In '^33 he was
appointed professor of Greek and Latin philosophy in
the College de France. He exchanged this position in
1838 for the office of librarian to the University, and
succeeded Laromiguitre as professor of philosophy in
1837. Among his works are " Melanges philosophiques,"
i (1833.) and "Cours d'Esthetique," (1843.) He also
produced a version of Dugald Stewart's " Essays on
Moral Philosophy," (1826,) to which he wrote a valuable
preface. Died in 1842.

See MIGNKT, "Notice sur Jouffroy," 1853; ADOLPHK GAR-
NIFR, article "Jouffroy" in the " Dictionnaire cies Sciences pKiloso-
phiques," tome iit. : " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'nerale."

Jouffroy, de, deh zhoo'fRwa', (CLAUHK FRANCOIS
DOROTHEK,) MARQUIS, an ingenious Frenchman, born
in Kranche-Comte, about 1750. He studied the con-
struction of different vessels, and went to Paris, where
he conceived the idea of propelling boats by steam. His
first vessel of this kind was launched in 1776. Although
this attempt was far from being successful, Jouffrov was
convinced that his object was attainable. In 17^3 he
completed another steam-vessel, one hundred and forty
feet long, with which he ascended the Saone several
miles, but. on account of his limited means, was unable
to carry his invention to a higher state of perfection.
j The inventions of Jouffroy were highly spoken of by
Robert Fulton. Died in 1832.

a, e, i, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, y, snort; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; mt; n&t; good; moon;





Joule, jool, ? (JAMES P.,) F.R.S., an English experi-
mental philosopher, born at Salford, near Manchester,
in 1818. He was a pupil of the celebrated Dalton. He
made some discoveries in electro-magnetism, and in the
theory of heat. He is considered one of the founders of
the theory of the correlation of forces. Died in 1889.

Jourdain, zhoog'dlN', (AMABLE Louis MARIE MI-
CHEL Brechillet bRi'she'yl',) a distinguished French
writer and Orientalist, born in Paris in 1788. Among
his principal works is "Persia; or, A Description of the
History, Government, Religion, and Literature of that
Empire," (5 vols., 1814.) He was a contributor to the
" Biographic Universelle." Died in 1818.

Jourdain, (ANSELME Louis BERNARD Br6chillet,)
an eminent surgeon-dentist, the father of the preceding,
was born in Paris in 1734. He invented several instru-
ments used by dentists, and wrote numerous treatises on
dentistry. Died in 1816.

See J. R. DUVAL, " Notice historique sur la Vie de M. Jourdain,"

Jourdain, (CHARLES MARIE GABRIEL Brechillet,)
a philosopher, a son of Amable, noticed above, was born
in Paris in 1817. He published, besides other works,
" La Philosophic de Saint Thomas d'Aquin," (2 vols.,
1858.) Died July 20, 1886.

Jourdain, (CLAUDE,) a French Benedictine and
antiquarian writer, born at Poligny in 1696; died in

Jourdan, zhooR'ddx', (ANDR* JOSEPH,) a French
statesman, born in Provence. In 1795 he was elected
to the Council of *Five Hundred, where he opposed the
laws against the emigrants. For this reason, in 1797 he
was obliged to seek an asylum in Spain. On the acces-
sion of Louis XVIII. Jourdan was chosen councillor of
state. Died in 1831.

Jourdan, (ANTOINE JACQUES Louis,) born in Paris
in 1788, published a "Dictionary of Terms used in the
Natural Sciences," (2 vols., 1834.) Died in 1848.

Jourdan, JEAN BAPTISTE,) a French dramatist, born
at Marseilles in 1711 ; died in 1793.

Jourdan, (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a marshal of France, born
at Limoges in 1762, was the son of a poor surgeon, who
paid but little attention to his education. At the age
of sixteen he entered the French army, and fought for
the Americans in the Revolutionary war until 1782,
when he returned home on account of ill health. In
1791 he again entered the army, and soon after received
the command of a battalion, and served under La Fa-
yette and Dumouriez. In 1793 he was appointed general
of division. Having distinguished himself at the battle
of Hondschoote, in 1793, he was chosen commander-in-
chief of the French army. He then gained a decisive
victory over the Austrians at Wattignies, near Mau-
beuge, and raised the siege of that town. He was sub-
sequently called to Paris by the committee of public
safety to consult upon the future movements of the
army. He was at first received with great enthusiasm ;
but, having given offence by the candour with which
he expressed his sentiments, he was deprived of his
authority, and Pichegru was chosen in his place. In
1794, however, he was appointed commander of the
annv of the Moselle against the Austrians, over whom,
in a few weeks, he won the important battles of Arlon
nd Fleurus. He also captured Charleroi and many
other towns. In the autumn of 1794 he gained the
victories of Ayvaile and Aldenhoven. He afterwards
took Luxemburg, Dusseldorf, Frankfort, and Wiirzburg,
but in September, 1796, was signally defeated by the
Archduke Charles near the last-named place. Jourdan
oon after resigned, and, having returned to Paris, was
chosen a member of the Council of Five Hundred, of
which a few months later he was elected president. Ii
1798 he was appointed to the command of the army or
the Danube. In 1799, having met with two decisive
defeats from the Archduke Charles, he was succeeded
by Massena. The same year he was dismissed from the
Council of Five Hundred for having opposed the ambi-
tious projects of Napoleon. He was sent as ambassador
to the Cisalpine Republic in 1800. Though created a

'. as k; 9 as ;; g hard; g as/; G, H, K. %utturai; N, nasal; R, tr

marshal of the empire in 1804, no military command of
importance was given to him until he accompanied Jo-
seph Bonaparte to Spain as major-general. He remained
with that monarch through all his vicissitudes, and was
the nominal commander of the French forces when they
were defeated at Vitoria by Wellington in 1813. In 1818
Louis XVIII. created Jourdan a peer of France. Died
in 1833. He was the author of two works, "Opers
tions of the Army of the Danube under the Orders of
General Jourdan," and " History of the Campaign of
1796, containing the Operations of the Army of the
Sambre-et-Meuse." Napoleon, at Saint Helena, con-
fessed that he had ill-treated Jourdan, whom he charac-
terized as a "true patriot."

See THIHRS, " Histoire du Consulat et de 1'Empire;" DB COUR-
CELLHS, " Dictionnaire des Ge'ne'raux Francais ;" M ICHAUD. " Noticei
historiques sur le Mare"chal Jourdan, les GeneVaux KaJckreuth, KU-
maine." etc. ; " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Jourdan, (MATHIEU JOUVE,) surnamed COUPE-TETE,
koop'teV, (" cut-throat,") a French revolutionist, noto-
rious for his inhumanity, was born in Vivarais in 1749.
He was executed in 1794.

Jourde, zhooRd, (GILBERT AMABLE,) a French law-
yer, burn in Auvergne in 1757, in 1795 was elected a
member of the Council of Five Hundred. Died in

Jourdeuil, zhooR'dul' or zhooR'duh'ye, (DiDiER,) a
French Jacobin, was one of the chief instigators of the
massacre in September, 1792. Died about 1800.

Jourgniac Saint-Meard, zhooRn'ye-ik' S!N
(Chevalier FRANCOIS,) a French satirical writer and
royalist, born at Bordeaux in 1745. In 1792 he was
arrested on a charge of treason, but was acquitted. Died
in 1827.

Jousse, zhooss, (DANIEL,) an eminent jurist, born
at Orleans, in France, in 1704. He entered a college
in Paris, where he gained distinction in mathematics.
He subsequently began the study of law. Among his
numerous works are a " Historical Detail of the City
of Orleans," and " New Commentary upon the Criminal

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 43 of 425)