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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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tion, she lived at Kethulia when that town was besieged of the American Society of Wood-Engravers. In 1883
by Holofernes, a general of the King of Assyria. Having one of his pictures was awarded a second-class meilal at
by insidious arts gained admission to his tent and per- Munich. After a visit to Europe in search of health, he
suaded him that she designed to betray the town to him, died in New York, December 31, 1889.
she cut off his head and carried it in a sack to Bethulia, Ju 6nin, zhii-a'naN', (GASPARD,) a French
which was, consequently, saved from capture.

See the Apocryphal Hook of Judith; ALFONSO NICCOLAI,
Giuditta; Dissertazione," 1765.

Judith, zhu'det', MADEMOISELLE, the stage name



. . ..

writer, and professor of philosophy in Paris, born at
Varambon, in Bresse, in 1650; died in 1713.

Juglaris, yoo-gll'res, (ALOlsro,) an Italian Jesuit and
professor of rhetoric, born at Nice in 1607. He was also



of JULIE Bernat, afterwards Madame BERNARD-DE- j employed as preceptor to Prince Charles Emanuel of
ROSNE, a French actress, born at Paris, of a Hebrew' Savoy. He wrote numerous panegyrics on Louis XIII.
family, January 29, 1827. She was a relative of Made-
moiselle Rachel, the tragedienne, and went upon the
stage in 1842. Her beauty and native talents, however,
failed at tn>t tn win much success ; but in later years her
power and versatility were widely recognized.

Jud'son, (AnoNiRAM,) an eminent Baptist mission-
ary, born in Maiden, Massachusetts, in 1788, graduated
at Brown University in 1807. lie was sent as a mis-
sionary to Burmah in 1812, founded a mission at Ran-

a, e, 1, 5, u, y, long; a, t, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 6, u, y, short; a, c, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fit; m6t; not; good; moon;



and other persons of distinction. Died in 1653.

Jugleb, yooc'lep, or Jugler, yooc'ler, (JoHANN
FRIEDRICH,) a German writer, born near Naumburg in
1718. He published " Biographical and Critical Notices
of Eminent Jurists and Statesmen of Europe," (6 vols.,
1773-80.) and other works. Died in 1791.

Ju-gur'tha, |Gr. 'ImrfoiipSnf or 'loyopOaf,] an African
prince, remarkable for his crimes and tragical death, was
a natural son of Manastabal. He was brought up at the



JUIGNE



1409



JULIAN



court of his uncle, Micipsa, King of Nuraidia, and at an
early age served under Scipio /Emilianus in the Roman
army. During the war with Numantia he gained great
distinction, and at its conclusion was highly commended
to his uncle by Scipio. Micipsa soon after created him
joint heir with his own sons Adherbal and Hiempsal.
Upon the death of that monarch, Jugurtha caused
Hiempsal to be murdered, and forced Adherbal to seek
protection at Rome. Commissioners were sent out by
the Roman senate to divide the kingdom between Ad-
herbal and Jugurtha ; but the latter, having bribed them,
received the largest portion of the territory, and was
declared to be innocent of the murder of Hiempsal.
Resolving, however, to obtain t-he entire kingdom, he
captured Adherbal in the city of Cirta, while he was yet
under the protection of the Roman senate, and put him
to death with the greatest cruelty. War was imme-
diately declared against him by the Romans ; but he
succeeded in forming an advantageous treaty with the
consul Calpurnius, who had been sent to reduce Hm to
subjection. The senate refused to ratify this treaty, and
summoned Jugurtha to Rome to answer the charges
brought against him. He obeyed the mandate ; but
wM'e in that city he procured the assassination of his
cousin Massiva, another claimant of the Numidian crown.
Upon the commission of this outrage he was commanded
to leave Rome. As he was taking his last view of the
capital, he is said to have exclaimed, " Mercenary city,
thou waitest only for a purchaser to sell thyself; and
thou wilt perish if one is found." After his return to
Numidia he defeated a Roman army under Aulus Post-
humius, compelling it to pass under the yoke and to
evacuate the country. The war was afterwards con-
tinued by Metellus ; and, though Jugurtha was one of
the ablest commanders of that age, he was unable to
resist the Roman general, whose skill and prudence made
him ever victorious on the field of battle, and whose
stern integrity rendered him invincible to the golden
offers of the Numidian usurper. Jugurtha, having been
twice defeated by Marius, the successor of Metellus, was
delivered to his enemies by the treachery of his ally,
Bocchus, King of Mauritania. He was carried in chains
to Rome, where he graced the triumph of Marius. He
was then thrown into the Mamertine prison. His death,
which occurred six days later, is generally supposed to
have been caused by starvation. The Jugurthine war,
which was terminated B.C. 106, is the subject of one of
the histories of Sallust.

See SALLUST, " Jugurtha ;" PLUTARCH, " Marius ;" LIVY, " Epi-
tome," books bdi., bdv., Ixvii. ; " Nouvelle Biographic G^ne'rale."

Juign6,de,dehzhu-en'ya',(ANToiNEEL6oNORELoN
LECLERC,) a French prelate, born in Paris in 1728, dis-
tinguished himself by his persecution of the Jansenists.
In 1781 he became Archbishop of Paris. Died in 1811.

See LAMBERT, "Vie de Messire A. fi. Leclerc de JuigneV' 1821.

Juigne-Broissiniere, de, deh zhii-en'ya' bRwa'se'-
ne-aiR', a French lawyer and compiler, was torn in
Anjou, and lived about 1650. His principal work is a
"Theological, Historical, Poetical, and Cosmographical
Dictionary," (1644.)

Juillard or Juilhard. See JARRY.

Jukes, juks, (JOSEPH BEETE,) F.R.S., an English
geologist, born near Birmingham about 1812. He pub-
lished, besides other works, " Popular Physical Geology,"
(1853.) Died July 29, 1869.

Jules, the French for JULIUS, which see.

Jttig, yiilo, (BERNHARD,) a German philologist, born
at Ringelbach, Baden, August 20, 1825. He studied at
Heidelberg and Berlin, and held professorships of clas-
sical philology in the Universities of Lemberg, Cracow,
and Innspruck. His principal original investigations
were in the Mongolian and other East-Asian languages.
He published several volumes of " Mongolian Legends"
with German translations. Died August 14. 1886.

JuTI-a, [Fr. JULIE, zhirte',] a Roman lady, remarka-
ble for her beauty and virtues, was the daughter of Julius
Csesar. She first married Cornelius Caepio, but, by her
father's command, procured a divorce and became the
wife of Pompey the Great. She died 53 B.C., before the
dissensions arose between her father and her husband.

Julia, only daughter of Augustus Caesar, born about



39 B.C., was distinguished for her beauty, accomplish-
ments, and disgraceful intrigues. She was married tc
Marcellus, upon whose death she became the wife of
Agrippa, by whom she was the mother of five children.
After the death of her second husband she was given in
marriage to Tiberius, who divorced her, and afterwards
caused her to be poisoned, 14 A.D.

Julia, a daughter of the preceding, born about 18 B.C.,
was married to L. jEmilius Paulus. Her character is
said to have resembled that of her mother. Some writers
identify her with the Corinna of Ovid. Died 28 A.D.

Julia, a daughter of Drusus and Livia, born about 5
A.D., was a niece of Germanicus. She was married to
Nero, who was her cousin-german.

Julia, daughter of Cassar Germanicus, was born 1 7 A.D.
At the age of sixteen she was married to a Roman sena-
tor named Vinucias. She was soon after suspected of
conspiracy and banished by her brother Caligula, but
was subsequently recalled by Claudius. She was put
to death in her twenty-fourth year, at the instigation
of Messalina.

Julia de FonteneUe, zhu'le-S' deh foN'teh-nel',
(JEAN SEBASTIEN EUGENE,) a French chemist, born at
Narbonne in 1790, published a "Manual for Glass-
makers," and other works. Died in 1842.

See HENRI JULIA DE FONTENELLE, " Notice sur M. Julia de Fon-
teneUe," 1843.

JuTI-a Dom'na, wife of the Roman emperor Septi-
mius Severus, and the mother of Caracalla and Geta, was
born in Syria about 170 A.D. She was the daughter of
Bassianus, a priest of the sun. After the death of Seve-
rus she endeavoured to heal the dissensions between her
sons, but in vain ; Geta was murdered in her presence
in 212, by his brother's orders. During the remainder of
Caracalla's reign she exerted great influence in the affairs
of government. Died in 217.

Julia Mammaea. See MAMM^A.

Jull-an, [Lat. JULIA'NUS; Fr. JULIEN, zhule^.N',]
or, more fully, Ju-H-a'nus Fla'vl-us Clau'dl-usTsur-
named THP APOSTATE, a Roman emperor, was born in
Constantinople in 331 A.D. He was the son of Julius
Constantius, and a nephew of Constantine the Great
On the death of the latter, the soldiers, in order to
secure the succession of his sons, massacred all the other
members of the Flavian family except Julian and his
elder brother Gallus. The jealousy of the emperor
Constantius afterwards banished the brothers to Cap-
padocia, where they were educated in the principles of
the Christian religion and officiated as lecturers in the
church of Nicomedia. In 351 Gallus was created Caesar
by the emperor, and Julian was permitted to return to
his native city, but in a short time was again exiled to
Nicomedia. He subsequently embraced the philosophy
of the Platonists, and, having obtained permission to
visit Athens, he pursued his studies in that city and was
privately initiated in the mysteries of the religion of
Greece. After the execution of his brother, in 355, he
was recalled to Constantinople through the influence of
the empress Eusebia. Constantius created him Caesar,
and gave him command of the armies in Gaul. Julian
also received in marriage Helena, sister of the emperor.
He made four successful campaigns against the Germans,
who had overrun Gaul, expelled them from that country,
took captive Chnodomarfus, their most powerful king,
invaded Germany, and gained a high distinction for
military skill and personal bravery. Constantius.
envious of the fame of Julian, and wishing to destroy his
power, commanded him to send his best troops to
the East, in order that they might assist in the Persian
war. The soldiers, who had become greatly attached to
Julian, refused to obey, and, notwithstanding his remon-
strances, proclaimed him Augustus. It is even stated
that they threatened him with death if he refused the
purple. He then sent an embassy to Constantius, re-
questing that he might be recognized as Augustus in
Gaul. This not having been granted, he marched
towards Constantinople ; but the sudden death of the
emperor, in 361, enabled Julian to ascend the imperial
throne unopposed. Immediately after his accession he
threw off the hypocrisy which had shielded him for
so long a time, and, renouncing Christianity, in which



as k; c as s; g hard; g as /'; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as ; th as in this.

89



(JE3f = See Explanations, p. 23.)



JULIAN



1410



JULLIAN



probably he was never a true believer, declared his faith
in the divinities of Greece and Rome. He proclaimed
liberty of conscience to all, commanded the pagan tem-
ples to be reopened, and even attempted to restore Ju-
daism by rebuilding the Temple at Jerusalem. He was
prevented from completing this project by remarkable
eruptions of fire, which rendered it impossible for the
workmen to continue their labours. In the spring of
363 he set out from Antioch, at the head of 65,000 well-
disciplined troops, on his contemplated invasion of Per-
sia. He crossed the Euphrates and Tigris, and gained
several important victories over the Persians ; but the
oppressive heat and the scarcity of provisions compelled
him to retreat, and in June of the same year, as he was
bravely repelling an attack of the enemy, a javelin
wounded him fatally in the side. He died the following
evening, while he was calmly conversing with his friends
on philosophy. Julian was the author of an account of
his Gallic and German wars, which has been lost, "The
Caesars," "Misopogon," a satire against the citizens
of Antioch, whom he had offended by his philosophical
austerity and his slovenly habits, and of about eighty
letters upon various subjects.



1735; Jo

1'Empereur Julien," 2 yols., 1817 ; WILLIAM WARBURTON, "Julian,
or a Discourse concerning the Earthquake and Fiery Eruption which
defeated that Emperor's Attempt to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem, "



ory 01 the Decline and r all ot the Roman t.mpi

1 Historia Ecclesiastical" MILMAN, " History of Christianity."

Julian. Hoo-le-an' ( COUNT, Governor of Andalusia
under the Gothic kings of Spain. After King Roderick
had ravished the daughter of Julian, the latter formed a
treaty with the Moslems for the invasion of Spain, and
rendered them efficient service at the battle of Xeres,
where Roderick was defeated in 711 A.D.

See MURPHY, *' History of the Mahometan Empire in Spain;' 1
SOUTHEY, "Roderick, the Last of the Goths."

Ju'li-an, [Lat JULIA'NUS; Fr. JULIEN, zhu'le-lN';
It GIULIANO, joo-le-i'no,] an Italian bishop, distin-
guished for his opposition to the doctrines of Saint Au-
Tistine, was born about 380, and studied theology under
i>elagius. In 416 Innocent I. raised him to the see of
Eclanum ; but about 420 he was banished from Italy on
account of his Pelagian doctrines. Having been con-
demned by several councils, he settled in Sicily. Died
about 455.

Julian, Archbishop of Toledo, and a saint of the
Roman calendar, was born in Spain, of Jewish descent,
He was raised to the see of Toledo in 680, and presided
over four different councils held in that city. He was
the author of a work on death, the resurrection, and the
final judgment Died in 690.

Julian, (MARCUS AURELIUS,) a Roman Governor of
Venetia, who in 285, while aspiring to the imperial
purple, was defeated and slain near Verona by Carinus.

Julian Cesarini. See CESARINI, (GIULIANO.)

Ju-11-a'na, a woman of Portuguese descent, b^rn in
Bengal in 1658. Having gained the favour of Aurung-
Zeb, she was appointed governess to his son, Shah Alum,
who succeeded to the crown in 1707. In a battle between
that prince and his brothers, who disputed the succession,
she rode by his side on an elephant and greatly contrib-
uted to his success. Shah Alum raised her to the rank
of a princess, and conferred upon her many other honours.

See "Biographic Universelle."

Julianus. See JULIAN.

Ju-11-a'nus or Julian, (S ALVIUS,) a celebrated Roman
jurist, and great-grandfather to the emperor Didius, was
born about 100 A.D. He was twice chosen consul. His
principal work is entitled " Digesta," in ninety books,
and is often referred to by writers on Roman law.

See J. G. HHINECCIUS, " Prograrama de S. Juliano," 1733.

Julie. See JULIA.

Julien, the French for JULIAN, which see.

Julien, zhii'le-aN', (PIERRE,) a celebrated French
.sculptor, born at Saint-Paulien in 1731. He commenced
his studies at Lyons, under Perache, whom he left in
1765 to become the pupil of Coustou, the king's sculp-



tor, at Paris. In 1768 he went to Rome, where he re-
mained four years, to perfect himself in his art In 1779
his statue of " The Dying Warrior" gained his admission
to the Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris.
Died in 1804. Among his most admirable productions
are "La Baigneuse," the statues of La Fontaine and
Poussin, and copies of Apollo Belvedere and " The Dying
Gladiator," from the Italian.

See J. LEBRETON, " Notice historique sur la Vie et les Ouvrages
de P. Julien," 1805.

Julien, (SiMON,) or Julien of Parma, a French artist,
born at Toulon in 1736, studied in Paris under Vanloo,
resided ten years at Rome, and after his return was
elected a member of the Academy of Painting. He was
called JULIEN THE APOSTATE, because he abandoned
the French style. Died in 1800.

Julien, (STANISLAS,) an eminent French Orientalist,
born at Orleans in 1799. He studied under Abel Re"-
musat, and devoted himself particularly to the Chinese
language. He succeeded Abel Re'musat as professor of
Chinese in 1832, and afterwards became administrator, in
the College of France. He made translations from Meng-
tseu (Mencius) and other Chinese authors, and pub-
lished " Practical Exercises of Chinese Syntax and Lexi-
cography," (1842.) Julian's reputation is that of one of
the first Chinese scholars of his time. He was a mem-
ber of the Academy of Inscriptions, and of the principal
learned societies of Europe. Among his works is one of
great interest, " Voyages des Pelerins Bouddhistes," (3
vols., 1853-58,) translated from the Chinese. Died at
Paris, February 13, 1873.

Julio Romano. See GIULIO ROMANO.

Julius [Fr. JULES, zhu'l ; It GIULIO, joo'le-o] X, a
Roman by birth, succeeded Marcus in the papal see in
336. In 340 he convoked a council at Rome to settle
the dispute between Athanasius, the orthodox Bishop
of Alexandria, and the Arians, who had expelled him
from his office. Athanasius appeared ; but his enemies
called at Antioch a council which condemned him.
Julius, finding his interpositions to be in vain, sum-
moned the General Council of Sardica, which restored
the bishop to his see and introduced the custom of
appealing to the pope in all ecclesiastical disputes. Died
in 352 A.D.

Julius IL, (Cardinal GIULIANO della Rovere
del'la ro-va'ra,) born in 1441, was elected to the see of
Rome upon the death of Pius III., in 1503. Haughty
and warlike in his disposition, he immedialely turned his
ambition to the aggrandizement of the papal authority.
He drove Caesar Borgia from the Romagna, and attempted
to expel the Venetians from Ravenna, Rimini, and other
parts of his dominions. Failing in this, he formed the
League of Cambrai with the King of France, the Emperor
of Germany, and the Duke of Ferrara, for the destruction
of the Venetian republic. Julius, soon discovering, how-
ever, that he had more to fear from the French than
from the Venetians, made a treaty with the latter in
1510, and took the field in person against the French,
over whom he gained some slight advantages. In 1513
he allied himself with the English, Spaniards, Swiss,
and Venetians, and finally succeeded in expelling the
French from Italy. But little was gained by this success ,
for the Swiss and Spaniards gave him as much trouble
as the French had previously done. He died before
these new difficulties were adjusted, in 1513. Julius
displayed a great taste for the fine arts. He was the
first to commence Saint Peter's Cathedral at Rome, and
was the patron of Michael Angelo, Raphael, and othei
men of distinction. Leo X. %vas his successor.

See RANKE, "History of the Popes;" BRUYS, "Histoire del
Papes," 1732 ; " La Viedu Pape Jules II," (anonymous.) Paris, 1515.

Julius HI., (Cardinal Giocci jot'chee,) born in 1487
at Arezzo, succeeded Paul III. in February, 1550. His
pontificate was marked by quarrels with the King of
France, the Venetians, and other powers. Died in 1555.
See ARTAUD DE MONTOR, " Histoire des souverains Pontifes."
Jullian, zhii'le-&N', (PIERRE Louis PASCAL,) a French
historical writer and politician, born at Montpellier about
1769. He wrote "Fragments historiques," (1804,) and
" Souvenirs de ma Vie," (1808.) Died about 1836.



a, e, 1, 5, u, y long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, c, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, j, 9, ctscu-t; fir, fill, fat; n8t; not; good: moon.



JULLIEN



1411



JUNILIUS



Jullien, zhiiTe^N', ( ANDR,) a writer upon the culture
of the vine, born at Chalons-sur-Saone, in France, in
1766 ; died in 1832.

Jullien, (Louis,) a popular French composer of music
and director of concerts, was born in 1812. He com-
posed music for balls, operas, etc., and performed in
Paris and London. Died in 1860.

Jullien, (MARCEL BERNARD,) a French grammarian
and writer, born in Paris in 1798; died in 1881.

Jullien de la Dr6me, zhii'le-aN' deh \t dRom, (MARC
ANTOINE,) a French Jacobin, distinguished for his vio-
lence, was born i.i Dauphine in 1744; died in 1821.

Jullien de Paris, zhii'le-aN' deh pi're', (MARC AN-
TOINE,) a politician and journalist, born in Paris in 1775,
was a son of the preceding. During the Revolution he
was a Jacob' i. He published several works on politics,
education, etc., and founded in 1818 th^ " Revue Ency-
clopedique." Died in 1848.

See QUERARD. " La France Litte'raire;" "Nouvelle Biographic
Ge'ne'rale :" BOILEAU o'Auxv, "Biographic de M. J. de Paris," 1842

Julus. See IULUS.

Jumel, zhii'meT, (JEAN CHARLES,) a French eccle-
siastic and writer, born in Paris ; died in 1824.

Jumelin, zhum'laN', (JEAN BAPTISTE, ) a French
savant, physician, and writer, born in 1745, visited Greece,
where he directed his attention to the botany as well as
to the antiquities of that country. Died in 1807.

Jumilhac, de, deh zhii'me lik', (ANTOINE PIERRE
JOSEPH CHAPELLE,) MARQUIS, a French royalist, dis-
tinguished as a cavalry officer, was born in 1764. In
1791 Louis XVI. appointed him lieutenant-colonel of
his guard. He served under Napoleon. Died in 1826.

Jumlah. See JEMLAH.

Jumonville, de, deh zhii'm6N'vel', (CouLON,) a
French officer, born about 1725, signalized his bravery
in the Canadian wars. He is said to have been treache-
rously killed in 1753 by the English, to whom he was
bearing a message.

Juucker, yoonk'ker, (CHRISTIAN,) a German phi-
lologist and historian, was born at Dresden in 1668. He
published several works on German history, and a "Life
of Luther," (l'io/>.) Died at Altenburg in 1714.

See SCHADEN, " Ehrengeda'chtniss Junckers," 1714; ERSCH und
GRUBBR. "Allgemeine Encyklopaedie ;" GELLIUS, " Epistola ad J.
A. Fabricium de C. Junckero," 1714.

Juncker or Junker, (GoTTLOii JOHANN,) a German
physician, born near Giessen in 1680. He became pro-
fessor of medicine at Halle in 1729, and maintained the
doctrines of StahL He wrote numerous medical works.
Died at Halle in 1759.

Juncker, yoong'ker, (HENRY DAMIAN,) a bishop,
born at Finstingen, Lorraine, in 1810, took priest's orders
in the Roman Catholic Church in 1834, and in 1857 was
consecrated Bishop of Alton, Illinois. Died at Alton,
October 2, iS68.

Juncosa, Hoon-ko'sJ, (^'ra JOAQUIN,) a skilful Span-
ish painter, born in the diocese of Tarragona in 1631 ;
died near Rome in 1708.

Junc-ti'nus, the Latin name of FRANCESCO GIUNTINI,
an Italian astrologer and monk, born at Florence in 1522.
He wrote several works on astrology, etc. Died in 1590.

Jung, yo"ong, or Junge, yd&ng'eh, [Lat. JUNG'IUS,]
(JOACHIM,) a German physician and botanist, born at
Lubeck in 1587, became successively professor of mathe-
matics at Giessen and Rostock. He was one of the most
able opponents of the scholastic philosophy, and for his
acuteness was compared by Leibnitz to Copernicus and
Galileo. He also, it is said, first suggested, in his "Isa-
goge Phytoscopica," (1678,) the classification of plants
afte-wards developed by Linnaeus. He was rector of a
school at Hamburg from 1629 until his death. Died at
Hamburg in 1657.

See MARTIN VOGEL, " Historia Vitz et Mortis J. Jungii," 1657;
GUHRAUBR, " J. Jungius und sein Zeitalter," 1850 ; " Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Ge'ne'rale."

Jung, (JOHANN HEINRICH,) commonly known by the
pseudonym of STILLING, an original German writer,
born at Im-Grund, in the duchy of Nassau, in 1740.
While studying medicine at Strasburg, he formed an
intimacy with Goethe, who has given an interesting ac-
count of him in his Autobiography. In 1804 he became



professor of political economy at Heidelberg. He pub-
lished in 1777 " Henry Selling's Youth, Early Years, and
Wanderings," which was followed soon after by " Henry
Stilling's Domestic Life." Among his fictitious writings
we may cite "Theobald, or the Enthusiast," "The Chris-
tian Philanthropist," and " Scenes from the Spirit-Land."
Stilling appears to have been a man of great earnestness
as well as simplicity of character, with a strong tendency
to religious enthusiasm and mysticism. Died in 1817.

See J. H. JUNG, " H. Stilling's Jueend, Jiinglingsjahre, Wan-
delschaft und hausliches Leben," 3 vols., 1777-79 : enlarged under
the title of " Lebensbeschreibung J. H. Jungs," 5 vols., 1806:
ScirwARZ, " Jung-Stillings Alter," 1817; JOHN WRIGHT, " Life of
H. Stilling," abridged by SAMUEL JACKSON, 1847 ; " Foreign Quar-
terly Review" for July, 1838.

Jung-Bahadoor, (or -Bahadur,) jung (or jung) ba-
ha'dfjor, (i.e. "brave in war,") [from the Hindostanee
Jung, " battle," " war," and bahadur or bahado&r, " brave,"]
the name, or rather surname, of several Indian princes,
among whom the recent minister of Nepaul and virtual
sovereign of that country deserves particular mention.
He was the son of a Nepaulese general, was born about
1815, and by his unscrupulous audacity, combined with


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 45 of 425)