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rare talents for intrigue, he soon raised himself to the
highest position in the state. About 1850 he visited"
England as ambassador, and while in that country was-
the object of much attention. In 1857 he offered the
English government his co-operation in suppressing the
mutiny of the Sepoys, and, with about 9000 Goorkhas,
(a race of probable Aryan origin,) took part in the capture
of Lucknow, for which, and other services, he received
the grand cross of the Bath. Died February 25, 1877.

Junger, yoong'er, (^EoiDlus,) D.D., a bishop, born
at Burtscheid, in Rhenish Prussia, April 6, 1833. He
was educated at Aix-la-Chapelle and at Louvain, and
was for many years a Roman Catholic priest in Wash-
ington Territory. In 1879 he was consecrated bishop
of Nesqually in that Territory.

Junger yoong'er, (JOHANN FRIEDRICH,) a German
littirateur, born at Leipsic in 1759. He was the authoi
of numerous popular romances and dramatic works.
Among his novels are " Vetter Jakobs Launen," (6 vols.,
1786-92,) and "Der Schein triigt," (1787.) Died in 1797.

, (1605,;
classical works. Died in 1610.

Jungermann, (LUDWIG,) a botanist, born at Leipsic
in 1572, was a brother of the preceding. He was pro-
fessor of botany at Altdorf. Died in 1653.

Junghans, yoong'hans, (SOPHIE,) a German novelist,
born at Cassel, December 3, 1845. Ir > 1877 she married
Professor Joseph Schumann, but retained her maiden
name for her literary work. Her writings include "Kathe,"
(1876,) " Haus Eckberg,"(i87S,) and other novels, marked
by masculine force in style and in characters.

Junghuhn, yoong'hoon, (FRANZ WILHELM,) a Prus-
sian naturalist, bom at Mansfelcl in 1812. He was em-
ployed as army physician or officer of health in India,
and explored the island of Java. He published, besides
other works, an account of the topography, botany, and
geology of Java, ("Java, seine Gestalt, Pflanzendecke
und innere Bauart," 3 vols., 1852,) which is esteemed
the best work on that subject Died April 24, 1864.

Jungius. See JUNG.

Jungmann, yoong'man, (JOSEPH JAKOB,) a learned
Slavonian philologist, born at Hudlitz, in Bohemia, in
1773. He was appointed in 1815 professor of languages
and rhetoric at the Gymnasium of Prague, where he was
afterwards prefect His greatest work is a " Bohemian-
German Dictionary," (5 vols., 1835,) which gives evi-
dence of immense learning and industry. He also wrote
a " History of the Bohemian Language and Literature,"
(1825,) and a " Bohemian Chrestomathy." He wrote
other works, in prose and verse, and made a number of
translations from eminent English and French writers.
Jungmann is regarded as one of the most zealous and
efficient promoters of Slavonian literature. Died in 1847.

See L. CKLAKOVSKV, "Dodavky ke Slovniku J. Jnngr^nna,"
1850; " Foreign Quarterly Review" for April, 1828.

Ju-nlll-ua, a bishop who flourished in Africa ibout

as k; 9 as j; g hard; g as/- G, H, K,guttura/; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (J^=See Explanations, p. 23. \




550 A.D. He wrote a Latin work "On Parts of the
Divine Law," which was printed at Bale in 1545.

Ju'nl-us, the assumed name of a political writer who
in January, 1769, began to issue, in London, a series
of famous letters, which first appeared in Woodfall's
" Public Advertiser." Junius opposed the ministry then
in power, and denounced several eminent persons with
great severity of invective and pungency of sarcasm.
His style is eminently pure, terse, and vigorous. These
letters had a great popularity, and powerfully promoted
the cause of civil liberty. "The myrmidons of the court,"
said Burke, in the House of Commons, "have been long,
and are still, pursuing him in vain. They will not spend
their time upon me, or you, or you. No : they disdain
such vermin when the mighty boar of the forest, that
has broken through all their toils, is before them. . . .
Kings, Lords, and Commons are but the sport of his
fury. Were he a member of this House, what might
not be expected from his knowledge, his firmness and
integrity 1" Among the numerous persons to whom
these letters have been attributed were Sir Philip Fran-
cis, Lord Chatham, Edmund Burke, Henry Grattan,
Colonel Barre^ Gibbon the historian, John Home Tooke,
Horace Walpole, John Wilkes, and Wedderburn, (after-
wards Lord Loughborough.) The publication of the
Letters of Junius continued until January, 1772. In
his dedication to the people of England, he said, " I am
the sole depositary of my own secret, and it shall perish
with me."

A multitude r'!:ooks and essays have been written in
the attempt to solve this mystery. But all the efforts
in that direction seemed for a long time to be wholly
unsuccessful ; so much so that a very able lawyer and
antiquary, Sir N. H. Nicolas, writing in 1843, declared
his conviction that all the Junius-seekers had completely
failed in their undertaking. Macaulay, however, in his
essay on Warr;n Hastings, (1841,) says that "the evi-
dence [against Sir P. Francis] would support a verdict
in a civil nay, in a criminal proceeding." At the
present time (1885) the question is still doubtful. A
great number of circumstances seem to point to Sir
Philip Francis as the true Junius. Among the various
incidental proofs bearing on this question, one of the
most curious is given in "Lippincott's Magazine" for
January, 1870. But Abraham Hayward has since then
adduced strong reasons for rejecting the Francis theory.

See JOHN TAYLOR, "The Identity of Junius with a Distinguished
Living Character Established," 1816; JOHN MASON GOOD, "Essay
on Junius and his Writings ;" MACAULAY, review of Gleig's "Life
of Warren Hastings;" LORD BROUGHAM, article in the "Edinburgh
Review" for November, 1817, (vol. xxix ): "Quarterly Review" lor
December, 1851; ALLIBONE, " Dictionary of Authors;" HAYWARD,
" More about Junius." 1878.

Ju'nl-ua, (FRANCIS,) [Fr. FRANC.OIS DJ JON, frft.N'-
swa' dii zhiN, | a learned Protestant theologian, was born
at Bourges, in France, May I, 1545. He studied at Lyons
and Geneva, and was appointed pastor of a Walloon
church in Antwerp in 1565, but at length was com-
pelled to fly to Germany to escape the tortures of the
Inquisition. In 1568 he became chaplain to the army
of the Prince of Orange. Five years later, at the re-
quest of the Elector-Palatine, he went to Heidelberg,
where, with the assistance of Tremellius, he translated
the Old Testament into Latin, (1575-79.) This work,
which established his reputation, is known as the version
of Junius and Tremellius. He afterwards filled succes-
sively the chairs of theology at Neustadt, Heidelberg,
and Leyden. He wrote numerous works on divinity and
the classics. Died at Leyden in October, 1602.

See "Vita F. Junii Biturigensis ab ipsomet conscripta," 1595;
BAYLH, "Historical and Critical Dictionary;" NICBRON, "M6-
moires ;" F. GOMAR, "Oratio funebris in Obitum F. Junii," 1602.

Juniua; (FRANCIS or FRANCISCUS,) an eminent phi-
lologist, son of the preceding, was born at Heidelberg
in 1589, and was educated at Leyden. He passed over
to England about 1620, and became librarian to Thomas
Howard, Earl of Arundel, with whom he remained thirty
years. He devoted his attention chiefly to the study of
the Teutonic languages. He published a rare and valu-
able work, a translation of the Gospels into the ancient
Gothic, (made by Bishop Ulphilas about 360 A.D.,) with
a Commentary, (1665.) Junius was the author of a work

"On the Painting of the Ancients," ("De Pictura
Veterum," 1637,) and of an Etymological Dictionary,
(" Etymologicum Anglicanum," 1743,) in which he ex-
plains the derivation and origin of numerous English
words. He left his choice collection of manuscripts to
the University of Oxford. Died at Windsor in 1677.

See GR^vtus, " Life of Francis Junius," in the zA edition of hii
"De Pictura Veterum," 1694; BAYLE, "Historical and Critical Dic-
tionary;" NICBRON. " Me'moires ;" WOOD, "Athena Oionienses."

Junius, de, deh yoo'ne-us, or Jonghe, yong'eh,
(ADRIAAN,) a learned Dutch physician, was born at
Hoorn, in Friesland, in 1512. He went to England
near the close of the reign of Henry VIII., and became
physician to the Duke of Norfolk. After the accession
of Edward VI. he published a Greek-and-Latin Lexi-
con, which he dedicated to that sovereign. For this he
was severely censured by the Roman pontiff. He wrote
in honour of the marriage of Queen Mary with Philip
of Spain a Latin poem entitled "Philippeis." About
1564 he was appointed physician to the King of Den-
mark. Died at Middelburg in 1575. As a philologist
and linguist his contemporaries regarded him as second
only to Erasmus. In addition to the works previously
mentioned are his "Nomenclature of All Things," a
vocabulary in seven different languages, several Latin
poems and epistles, and various commentaries on the
writings of the ancient authors.

See P. SCHELTHMA, "Diatribe in H. Junii Vitamingeniumet Merita
Uteraria," 1836.

Junker, yoonk'er, or Juniker, yoo'ne-ker, (GEORG
ADAM,) a teacher and translator, born at Hanau a!>out
1720. He translated numerous German dramas, etc.
into French. Died in 1805.

Junker, (WILHELM JOIIANN,) a traveller, born at
Moscow, Russia, April 6, 1840. He studied medicine at
Gottingen, Berlin, and Prague. He travelled extensively
in Tunis, (1874 rf^y.,) Egypt, the Upper Nile Valley, and
Central Africa. Died February 13, 1892.

Junkermann, yoonk'er-mln', (AUGUST,) a very pop-
ular German comic actor, born at Bielefeld, December
15, 1832. He is best known for his renderings of various
characters in Fritz Reuter's works, which have been
dramatized for him, and, in part, by himself. He has
played chieflly in Treves and Stuttgart.

Junk'in, (GEORGE,) D.D., LL.D., an American Pres-
byterian divine, born at New Kingston, Pennsylvania,
November I, 1790. He graduated at Jefferson College
(in Western Pennsylvania) in 1813, and was ordained in
1819, was made president of Lafayette College in 1832,
was president of Miami University from 1841 to 1844,
and of Washington College, Lexington, Virginia, from
1848 to 1861. In his numerous published works he was
an active defender of the Old School theology. Died
in Philadelphia, May 20, 1868.

Ju'no, ll r. JUNON, zhii'niN' ; It. GIUNONE, joo-no'-
na,l a goddess of the Roman mythology, called the queen
of heaven and the wife of Jupiter, corresponding to the
Greek Hera, ("Hpa or "Hpi;.) She was regarded as the
protecting deity of the female sex, and as the patroness
of marriage and maternity. She was surnamed MATRON*
and REGINA, and was worshipped by the Roman women
at an annual festival called Matronalia. As the patroness
of marriage, she was called Pronuba, Gamelia, Jugalis or
Juga, and various other names. Her aid was implored
by women in childbirth under the name of LUCINA, (which
see.) She is usually represented as a majestic woman,
crowned, with her favourite bird, the peacock, near her.
The name Juno is in all probability related etymologically
to the Sanscrit word YonT* signifying "matrix," and
hence denoting maternity and femineity.

See SMITH, "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and
Mythology;" KEIGHTLEY, "Mythology," article "Hera;" GUI-
GNIAUT, " Religions de rAntiquite," vol. ii. chap. ii.

Junon. See JUNO.

It is scarcely necessary to remind the etymologist how nearly u is
related to o: in Arabic and Persian they have but a single letter to
represent both ; in Norwegian and Swedish there is but little differ-
ence in the pronunciation of the two vowels, o being pronounced pre-
cisely like the Italian or German u. y (i.e., /consonant) in the Latin
(as it does in many of the modern languages) corresponded to our
f. The terminal o in Jvna is merely the feminine termination so
common in Greek an ' Latin proper names.

\. e, i, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, ii, J, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; not; good; moon:




Junot, zhii'no', (ANDOCHE,) Due d'Abrantis, a distin-
guished French general, was born near Semur in 1771.
At the age of twenty he enlisted as a common soldier,
but, on account of his uncommon bravery, was soon made
lieutenant. While serving at the siege of Toulon, he
gained the approbation of Bonaparte, who made him his
first aide-de-camp, with the rank of captain. He ac-
companied that general on his Italian campaigns, and
fought with his accustomed bravery at the battles of Lodi
Arcola, Castiglione, and Lonato. During the invasion of
Egypt and Syria he became the favourite of Bonaparte,
and gained great distinction at the battle of Nazareth,
where, with three hundred horsemen, he attacked and
held in check a body of three thousand Moslems. After
his return to France he rendered efficient service to
Bonaparte in the subversion of the Directory. In 1800
he was appointed commandant of Paris, and afterwards
governor of that city and colonel-general of hussars.
He also received the decoration of the grand eagle of
the legion of honour, and was sent as ambassador to
Portugal. He took part in the battle of Austerlitz, in
1805. In 1807 he commanded an army which invaded
Portugal and took Lisbon. He was soon afterwards
created Due d'Abrantes. In August, 1808, he was
defeated by Sir Arthur Wellesley at Vimiera, and com-
pelled to evacuate Portugal. The emperor then deprived
him of the governorship of Paris, but appointed him
Captain-General and Governor of the Illyrian provinces.
His misfortunes and disgrace shortly after affected his
mind so deeply that he was obliged to retire from public
life. He died at Montbard in July, 1813.

See MADAME D'AnsANTfts, "Memoires;" THIERS, " Histoire du
Consulate! de 1' Empire ;" NAPOLEON, " Correspondance ;" ALISON,
' History of Europe;" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Junot,(LAURE PERMON,)MADAME, Duchesse d'Abran-
tes, was born in Montpellier in 1784, and was married
to General Junot about 1800. Her family was related to
that of Bonaparte, to whom her mother had shown great
kindness before he became a general. At her marriage
Mademoiselle Permon received from the First Consul
one hundred thousand francs as a marriage-portion.
In 1806 she accompanied her husband to Lisbon, and
in 1807 became Duchesse d'Abrantes. On the restora-
tion of the Bourbons she was kindly received by Louis
XVIII. She wrote, besides other works, "Memoirs or
Historical Souvenirs of Napoleon, the Revolution, the
Directory, etc.," (18 vols., 1831-34.) Died in 1838.

See A. D. ROOSMALEN, " Les derniers Moments de la Duchesse
d'Abrantes," Paris, 1838; ICNAZIO CANT(J, "Relazione della Du-
chessa d'Abrantes," 1837; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ntele."

Junquieres, de, deh zhuN'ke^aiR', (JEAN BAPTISTE,)
a French poet and officer, born 3.1 Paris in 1713 ; died
in 1786.

Junta or Junte, (FiLiPPO.) See GIUNTA.

Junta, (TOMMASO,) a Venetian physician, flourished
about 1550. He wrote a treatise "On the Battles of
the Ancients," which displays considerable erudition.

Junte. See GIUNTA.

Junterbuck, yoon'ter-bdok', (JAMES,) a Polish writer,
and professor of theology at Erfurt, was born about 1385 ;
died in 1465. He wrote various works, among which is
a "Tract on Mental Apparitions."

Ju'pl-ter or Jup'pl-ter, [Fr. pron. zhii'pe'taiR' ; It.
GIOVE, jo'vi, whence the English JOVE,*] the supreme
deity of the Roman mythology, corresponding to the
Greek ZEUS, and represented as the eldest son of Saturn
and Rhea. He was the greatest of all the gods of the
classic mythology, and was supposed to control all earthly
and human affairs and to foresee futurity. The Romans
ascribed to him power over all changes in the sky, and


etc. As presiding over marriage, he is sometimes called
Gamelius; and as the protector of the rights of hospi-
tality, he was invoked as Jupiter Hospitalis. He was
sometimes called Jupiter Capitolinus, because his tem-

* Or, to speak more accurately, both the Italian and English ari
derived from jfovu, the Latin genitive case of Jupiter. The German,
Spanish, and Portuguese names for Jupiter, in spelling and accen-
tuation, are the same as the Latin.

pie at Rome stood on the Capitol. He was the father
of Apollo, Mars, Mercury, Minerva, Venus, etc. Ac-
cording to the Greek mythology, he kept his court on
Olympus. His most famous Greek temple was at
Olympia, in Elis. He is usually represented as seated
on a throne, with a thunderbolt in his right hand, in his
left a sceptre, and near him his favourite bird the eagle.
The name Jupiter (who was also called Diespiter) is
probably Diu-pater, (or Diovis fater,) (" father of the
heavens," or "heavenly father.") Dium, Divum, and
Dies originally signified the same, viz., the "sky" or
"heaven." The Vedic dyaus pitar, and the Greek Zeut
Pater or Zeu Pater, (i.e. " father Zeus,") are etymologically
(he same as Jupiter. Respecting the probable identity,
or close parallelism, between Jupiter (or Zeus) and the
Hindoo god Siva, see SIVA.

See SMITH, " Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and
Mythology;" GUIGNIAUT, '' Religions de 1'Antiquite'," vol. ii. chap,
i. ; KEIGHTLHV, " Mythology."

Juppin, zhu'paN', (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a Flemish land-
scape-painter, bora at Namur in 1678. He studied in
Brussels, and afterwards visited Italy. Among his works
is the "Crater of Vesuvius." Died in 1729.

Juret, zhii'ri', (FRANCOIS,) a French critic and poet,
born at Dijon in 1553, became canon of Langres. He
published " Senecas ad Lucilium Epistolarum Liber,"
(1602,) and " Panegyric! Veteres cum Notis," (2 vols.,
1652.) Died in 1626.

Jurieu, zhu're-tjh', (PIERRE,) a learned French theo-
logian and controversialist, was born at Mer, in Orl^anais,
in 1637. He became pastor of a Protestant congregation
in Mer after he had studied at Saumur and Sedan. He
was subsequently appointed professor of theology and
Hebrew at Sedan. On the revocation of the edict of
Nantes, in 1685, he retired to Rotterdam, where he was
appointed professor of theology. He wrote numerous
religious works, among which are a " History of Cal-
vinism and Popery compared," (1682,) and a "Critical
History of Doctrine and Worship, Good and Bad,"
(1704,) both in French. Died in 1713.

Ju'rin, (JAMES,) an English physician and philosopher,
was born in 1684, and was educated at Cambridge. He
was elected a member of the Royal Society, of which
he became secretary, and was chosen president of the
College of Physicians. He wrote several treatises on
philosophy and physiology. Died in 1750.

Jusserand, (JEAN AUDRIEN,) a French author,
born at Lyons in 1855. His principal works are
"The English in the Middle Ages," (1884,) "The
English Novel," ( 1 886,) and " The Novel at the Time
of Shakespeare," (1888.)

Jussieu, jus-su', de, [French pron. deh zhu'si-uh',]
(ADRIEN,) a celebrated French botanist, son of Antoine
Laurent, noticed below, was born in Paris, December 23,
1797. He gained the first prize at the competition of
1814, and applied himself to the study of natural history
and medicine. He succeeded his father as professor of
rural botany in the Museum of Natural History in 1826,
and was admitted to the Institute in 1831. He published
a series of memoirs and monographs which have placed
him in the first rank of botanists. Among his best works
are a "Monograph of the Malpighiaceae," (1843,) and
an " Elementary Course of Botany," which has been
translated into all the languages of Europe. In 1845
he became professor of vegetable organography to the
Faculte des Sciences. Died in June, 1853.

Jussieu, de, (ALEXIS,) a French journalist and ad-
ministrator, born in 1797, was a nephew of the great
botanist Antoine Laurent. He was prefect of Ain and
of Vienne in the reign of Louis Philippe. Died in 1865.

Jussieu, de, (ANTOINE,) professor of botany in the
Royal Garden of Paris, was born at Lyons in 1686. He
travelled in France, Spain, and Italy for the purpose
of making botanical explorations, succeeded Tournefort
as professor of botany in 1708, and was the author of
several treatises on that science. He published a new
edition of Tournefort's "Institutions." Died in 1758.

See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Jussieu, de,(ANTOiNE LAURENT,) a celebrated French
botanist, born at Lyons in April, 1748, was the most

as/; casjv ghard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; thasinM. (JJ^=See Explanations, p. 23.)




eminent member of a family which has been called "the
Botanical Dynasty." In 1765 he went to Paris to study
medicine, and became the protege and pupil of his uncle,
Bernard de Jussieu, who lectured on botany in the Jar-
din du Roi, and was meditating a natural method of
classification, near the C'.DSC of a life memorable in the
records of botanical science. This uncle, whose advanced
age and dimness of sight indisposed him to the labours
of authorship, freely communicated his mature reflections
to young Jussieu, who zealously enlisted in the important
enterprise. In 1770, having just graduated ao M.D., he
was appointed demonstrator of botany in the Jardin du
Roi, as the substitute of Lemonnier, chief physician to
the king. His first production was an excellent mono-
graph on the " Ranunculaceae," (1774,) which opened to
him the Academy of Sciences and determined him to
apply himself almost exclusively to botany.

In 1774 the a.rangeruent of the plants in the Royal
Garden, which was conformed to the system of Tourne-
fort, was exchanged for one proposed by Jussieu, founded
on natural affinities. While performing his duties as
professor, he continued to digest and perfect his nsw
system, until 1788, when he developed the same in his
great Latin work, " Genera Plantarum secundum Ordines
naturales disposita," "which," says Cuvier, "forms in
the sciences of observation an epoch perhaps as im-
portant as the ' Chemistry' of Lavoisier in the sciences
of experiment." Although the success of his book was
retarded by the political convulsions of France, his philo-
sophical system has gradually prevailed and superseded
the artificial method of Linnasus. The idea of such a
system had occurred to other botanists ; but Jussieu is
entitled to the honour of laying its broad and impreg-
nable foundations.

In 1793 the school of the Royal Garden was reor-
ganized, under the title of "Museum of Natural His-
tory," and the chair of botany was given to Jussieu, who
was also chosen director of the institution. A few years
later he became a member of the Institute, and in 1808
was appointed a councillor of the Imperial University.
At the restoration of the Bourbons he lost the office last
named, but retained the professorship until 1826, when
he resigned it in favour of his son. Between 1800 and
1820 he wrote many botanical treatises on natural orders
and families, which were inserted in the records of the
Institute or the "Annales du Museum." These are
characterized by the same merits as his principal work,
profound knowledge, patient observation, a correct
estimate of the value of characters, and an admirable
sagacity in perceiving affinities. Died in 1836.

See FLOURBNS, " E"loge de A. L. de Jussieu," 1838 ; A. T. BRONG-
NIART, " Notice hislorique sur A. L. de Jussieu," 1837 ; " Nouvelle
Biographic GeWrale."

Jussieu, de, (BERNARD,) a celebrated botanist,
brother of Antoine, noticed above, was born at Lyons in
1699. After studying in his native city, he accompanied
his brother on several scientific tours. On returning
to France he entered the medical course at Montpellier,
where he graduated in 1720. Six years later he was
chosen Doctor of the Faculty of Medicine at Paris. He
was the first to conceive the idea of the classification of
plants according to their affinities. This method was per-
fected by his nephew, the celebrated Antoine Laurent de
Jussieu. He was held in high esteem by Louis XV., to
whom he gave valuable advice upon the formation of the
garden at Trianon. Jussieu visited England, and was
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. Died in 1777.

See CONDORCBT, "filoge de Jussieu;" "Nouvelle Biographic

Jussieu, de, (JOSEPH,) brother of Antoine and Bernard
de Jussieu, was born in Lyons in 1704. In 1735 ne ac-
companied, as a botanist, trie French and Spanish savants
who had been sent by their respective governments to
Peru. He remained in that country and other parts of
South America until 1771, and collected valuable infor-
mation on natural history. Died at Paris in 1779.

Jussieu, de, (LAURENT PIERRE,) a French moralist
and writer, born at Lyons in 1792, was a brother of
Alexis, noticed above. He wrote a number of popular

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 46 of 425)