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course of his life travelled above seven miles from hia
native city. Although his writings embrace a great va-
riety of subjects, his fame rests chiefly upon his achieve-
ments as a metaphysician. As a deep and close thinker



he has perhaps never been equalleu.* Our limits will
not permit us to give even an outline of the Kantian
system of philosophy, which could only be rendered
intelligible in an extensive treatise. It will be sufficient
here to observe that Kant's great aim was to determine
the laws and limits of the intellect of man, and thus to
guard, on the one hand, against the arrogant dogmatism
f those who overestimate, and, on the other, against
the absurd skepticism of those who underestimate, the
powers of the human mind. He does not pretend to
have made any important discoveries respecting ques-
tions which belong properly to religion, (such, for ex-
ample, as the immortality of the soul, the moral attributes
of the Deity, etc.,) but he claims that the great points
of faith are not only undisturbed by his system, but are
rendered more secure against the attacks of those who
use their reputation for philosophic insight to give weight
to arguments against religion, in questions where, from
the necessary laws of the human intellect, the profoundest
philosopher can know no more than the great mass of
mankind. " Only by this means," (i.e. by a critique
determining the laws and limits of the human reason,)
says he, " can the roots of materialism, fatalism, atheism,
. . . be cut off;" and he proposes in this manner "to
make an end for all future time of all objections against
morality and religion, by presenting the clearest proofs
of the ignorance of their assailants." It is claimed by
some of the admirers of Kant (indeed, he himself sug-
gested the parallel) that he performed for mental phi-
losophy a service similar to that which his countryman
Copernicus performed for astronomy. As the latter may
be said to have determined the relative importance as
well as the true position of the earth in the solar system,
so the former has determined the proper limits and true
position of the human intellect in relation to the objects
of knowledge ; and as Copernicus has demonstrated that
many of the apparent motions of the heavenly bodies
are not real, but caused by the motion of the earth, (the
standpoint of the observer,) so Kant has shown that
many mental phenomena are to be explained, not by
referring them, as most philosophers have done, to in-
dependent external causes, but to those essential laws
which regulate the movements of the mind itself.

For an excellent popular notice of the influence exerted
by Kant's philosophy, the reader is referred to De Quin-
cey's chapter on German Literature in the volume of his
works entitled "Life and Manners." He will also find
many interesting observations on Kant and his writings
in Madame de Stael's "Germany," Part III. chap. vi.

See, also, F. BOUTHRWEK, "I. Kant, ein Denkmal," 1804: F.
W. SCHUBERT, "I. Kant's Biographie," etc., 1842; JACHMANN, "I.
Kant, geschildert in Briefen," etc., 1804; BOROWSKI, " Darsteilung
des Lebens und Characters I. Kant's," 1804; F. T. RINCK, "An-
sichien aus 1. Kant's Leben," 1805 : AMAND SAINTES, " Histoire
de la Vie et de la Philosophic de Kant," 1844 ; J. WII.LM, " Histoire
de la Philosophic Allemande depuis Kant jusqu'a Hegel," Paris,
4 yols., 1846 ; M. V. COUSIN, " Kant dans les deniieres Annees de sa
Vie," 1857: HASSE, "Letzte Aeusserungen Kant's," 1804; WASI-
ANSKI, " Immanuel Kant," etc., 1804; F. HORFER, article in th
" Nouvelle Biographic Ge"ne>ale :" HEDGE, " Prose Writers of Ger
many;" " Blackwood's Magazine" for February, 1827, (by DsQuiH
CEV,) and August, 1830; " Edinburgh Review" for January, 1803.

Kantacuzenus. See CANTACUZENUS.

Kantemii. See CANTEMIR.

Kao-Tsoo or Kao-Tsou, ki'o tsoo, the name of
several emperors of China, of whom one reigned in the
seventh and two others in the tenth century.

Kao-Tsoong or Kao-Tsoung (ka'o tsoong) I, of
the dynasty of Tang, succeeded his father, Thai-Tsoung,
on the imperial throne of China about 648 A.D. He was
a wise and just ruler, and enacted many good laws.
He reduced the Khan of the Turks to complete subjf.c-
tion. Died in 684.

See MAILLA, " Histoire gene'rale de la Chine ;" PAUTHIBR,
"Chine ancienne."

Kao-Tsoo-Ootee or Kao-Tsou-Outi, ka'o-tsoo'oo'-
tee, called also Soong-Ootee or Soung-Outi, soong-
oo'te, Emperor of China, and founder of the dynasty of
Soong, was born about A.D. 355. By his intrigues anH



* M. Stapfer, author of the article on Kant in the " Biographii
Universelle," calls him "the most profound thinker with whom the
history of the human mind has made us acquainted," ("le penseul
le plus profond que nous fosse connaitre 1 histoire de Pesprit hu-
main.")



a, e, T, 6, \\, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fit; mSt; n6t; good; moon;



KAPILA



1421



KARR



military skill he reduced many of the rival chiefs to
subjection, and, after putting the emperor and his son
to dea'h, ascended the imperial throne. Died in 422.

Kap'I-la or Capila, (Hindoo pron. kupl-la,] an In-
dian philosopher, regarded as an avatar of Siva, was
th founder of a celebrated sect named Sankhya, and of
a philosophic system called the Sankhya philosophy,
supposed to have been the germ or commencement of
Booddhism. The Sankhya philosophy was a system of
rationalism pushed to the borders of atheism. (See

VASUDEVA.)

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale," under " Capila."

Kapnist, klp'nist, (VASILI VASILIEVITCH,) a cele-
brated lyric poet and dramatist, born in Russia in 1756.
His translation of the Odes of Horace first fixed his
reputation as a man of letters. He was an intimate
friend of the poet Derzhavin, and a member of the Im-
perial Academy of Saint Petersburg. Among his works
are the comedy of " labeda," and an " Essay upon the
Odyssey." Died in 1813.

Kapodistria. See CAPO D'ISTRIAT,

Kapp, kap, (FRIEDRICH,) a German author, born at
Ilamm, in Westphalia, April 13, 1824. He became a
lawyer, lived in New York, 1850-70, and in 1872 was
chosen a member of the German Diet. He published,
partly in German, "The Slave Question in the United
States," (1857,) " Life of Steuben,"( 1859,) "A History of
Slavery in the United States," (1860,) "A History of
German Migration into America," (1868,) a "Life of John
Kalb-," (1870,) and other works. Died in 1884.

Kara-George. See CZERNI-GEORGE.

Kara-Moustapha. See CARA-MUSTAFA.

Kara-Yusuf See CARA-YOOSEF.

Karajitch, Karadjitch, or Karadachitsch, ka-ra'-
jitsh, (VuK,) a learned Servian, born near Lasnitza in
1787. Having fled to Vienna in 1813 to escape the cruel-
ties of the Turks, his attention was turned to the national
ballad-poetry of his country, said to exceed in richness
and extent that of almost every other nation. His
collection was issued in Vienna in 1814, under the title
of "Servian National Songs." He published a Servian
Grammar, a Servian-and-German Dictionary, and various
other works. Died February 7, 1864.

See BOWRING, " Servian Poetry ;" JUNGMANN, " History of Bo-
hemian Literature."

Karamzin or Karamsin, ka-ram-zeen' or ka-ram-
zin', (NIKOLAI MIKHAELOVITCH,) one of the most emi-
nent of Russian historians, was born in the province of
Orenburg in December, 1765, and was educated in Mos-
cow. In 1789 he commenced a tour through England,
France, Switzerland, and other countries of Europe. On
his return he published " Letters of a Travelling Rus-
sian." He afterwards issued various literary productions,
which were written in a finished and elegant style. He
was one of the editors of the "European Messenger," a
literary journal. In 1803 he was appointed historiogra-
pher of Russia, and the same year commenced his great
work, the " History of the Russian Empire," (u vols.,
1815-24.) He did not live to finish the work, which ends
about the year 1610. No work in the Russian language
has obtained greater popularity. The first edition, of
eight volumes, brought the author 100,000 rubles. The
emperor Alexander created him councillor of state and
knight of the order of Saint Anne ; and after the death of
the historian his widow received from the same monarch
an annual pension of 50,000 rubles. " The History of
the Russian Empire" has been translated into French,
German, and Polish. Died in May, 1826.

See DHPPING, notice of Karamzin in the *' Re"vue Encyclope'dique ;"
PRINCE A. GALITZIN, article in the " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'-
rale ;" " British and Foreign Review" for September. 1828 :" Monthly
Review," vol. xci., 1820, (Appendix ;) " Foreign Quarterly Review"
for September, 1828.

Karasin, ka-ra'sin, (NicoLAi NIKOLAYEVITCH,) a
Russian soldier, artist, and author, born in 1842. His
writings include various novels and stories, as well as
some ethnological papers.

Karburis. See CARBURIS.

Karim or Kareem. See KEREEM.

Karl, (FRIEDRICH ALEXANDER,) Prince of Prussia,
German field-marshal, a brother of the Emperor Wil-
liam I., was born at Charlottenburg, June 29, 1801. He



held prominent commands in the Austrian war of 1866
and in the French war of 1870-71. Died at Berlin,
January 21, 1883.

Karl, (FRIEDRICH AUGUST,) Duke of Mecklenburg-
Strelitz, born at Hanover in 1785. Having distinguished
himself in several actions against the French, he was ap-
pointed lieutenant-general by the King of Prussia in 1813.
He entered Paris at the head of the royal guard in 1815.
In 1825 he became a general of infantry and president
of the council of state. Died in 1837.

Karl Albrecht, Elector of Bavaria. See CHARLES
VII., EMPEROR.

Karl Alexander, Duke of WUrtemberg, born in 1684,
was the successor of Ludwig Eberhard. He was an
ally of the emperor Leopold in the war of the Spanish
succession. He distinguished himself at the battle of
Turin in 1706, defended Landau against Marshal Villars
in 1713, and obtained the rank of field-marshal. Died
in 1737.

Karl der Funfte. See CHARLES V.

Karl der Grosse. See CHARLEMAGNE.

Karl Eugen, (oi-gan',) or Charles Eugene, a son
of Karl Alexander, noticed above, was born in 1728,
and became Duke of Wiirtemberg in 1737. He pro-
moted commerce, arts, and agriculture, and founded the
university called Carolina, at Stuttgart. Died in 1793.

Karloman. See CARLOMAN.

Karlstadt. See CARLSTADT.

Karmarsch, kaR'maRsh, (KARL,) a German savant,
and director of the Polytechnic School at Hanover, born
at Vienna in 1803. He wrote " First Sketches of Me-
chanical Technology," and other scientific works. Died
March 24, 1879.

Karmat, Karmath, Carmath, kaR'mat, or Kar-
mathi, kaR'ma-tee, called also Hamdan, ham-din', the
founder of a fanatical and numerous sect which made
great ravages in the Arabian empire in the ninth cen-
tury. He attempted to establish a community of property,
and taught a contempt for religion and morality. His
followers were called Karmatians (Carmatians) or Kar-
mattians. Died about 900 A. D.

Karneades. See CARNEADES.

Karnkowski, kaRn-kov'skee, written also Karn-
cov, kaRn'kov, or Karnowski, (STANISLAS,) a distin-
guished prelate, born in Poland about 1525. In 1581
he was created Archbishop of Gnesen and Primate of
Poland. He was a liberal patron of learning, and a
successful promoter of reforms among the priests. He
wrote a " History of the Interregnum in Poland," and
several other works. Died in 1603.

See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Karoly, kl'rol, written also Karoli, (JASPER,) a
Protestant minister, who lived in Hungary about 1580.
He was distinguished for his knowledge of philosophy,
theology, and philology. He produced a valuable trans-
lation of the Bible from the original Hebrew into the
Hungarian, (1589.)

Karpinski, kaR-pen'skee or kaR-pin'skee, (FRANCIS,)
a Polish poet, born in Galicia about 1760. He wrote a
tragedy entitled "Judyta," and a number of popular
songs and idyls. Died in 1823.

Karpinski, kar-pen'skee, (HYACINTH,) a Russian
theological writer, born in Ukraine in 1721; died in
Moscow in 1798.

Karpocrates. See CARPOCRATES.

Karr, kSR, (JEAN BAPTISTE ALPHONSE,) a popular
French novelist, born at Munich in 1808, was a son of
Henri Karr, a pianist. He produced in 1832 a novel
entitled " Sous les Tilleuls," in which the public admired
the mixture of irony and sentiment, of fancy and good
sense. About 1837 he became editor of the "Figaro,"
and of a satirical monthly periodical called "The Wasps,"
(" Les Guepes.") Among his numerous novels are " Fa
diese," (1834,) " Vendredi Soir," (1835,) and "La Famille
Alain," (1848.) He also wrote an ingenious work on
flowers and gardens, " Voyage autour de mon Jardin,"
(2 vols., 1845.) D > e( i September 30, 1890.

See "Revue des Deux Mondes," February, 1842; CLEMENT DI
Ris, " Portraits a la Plume," 1853 : " Fraser's Magazine" for May,
1851, and February, 1854; " Blackwood's Magazine" for July, 185*',
"Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."



tas.- casj,- ghard; gas/; C,K,K., guttural; N, nasal; ^trilled; sass; thasinMw. (J^=See Explanations, p. 23.)



KARSCH



1422



KAUFMANN



Karsch, kaRsh, or Karschin, kaRshln, (ANNA
LUISE,) a German poetess, whose original name was
DURBACH, was born near Schwiebus in 1722. After
living a long time in poverty and obscurity, she visited
Berlin, where she was patronized by Gleim and Men-
delssohn. Her "Select Poems," published in 1764, were
very favourably received, and procured for her the title
of "the German Sappho." Died in 1791.

See L. VON KLEUKE, " Lebenslauf der Karschin," 1792; HIR-
SCHING, " Historisch-literarisches Handbuch."

Kars'lake, (Sir JOHN BURGESS,) Q.C., an English
lawyer and statesman, born at Bencham, nea-r Croydon,
in 1821. In 1867 he became a member of the House of
Commons, and in the same year was appointed solicitor-
general, in which capacity he also acted for a time under
Disraeli in 1874, but was compelled to resign on account
of failing sight. Died in London, October 4, 1881.

Karsten, kaR'sten, (DIETRICH LUDWIG GUSTAV,) a
German mineralogist, born at Biitzow in 1768. He wrote
many able treatises on mineralogy. Died in 1810.

See LEOPOLD VON BOCH, "Lobrede auf Karsten." in the "Ab-
handlungen der Berliner Akademie," 1814; "Nouvelle Biographic
Gc'ne'rale."

Karsteu, (FRANZ CHRISTIAN LORENZ,) a German
agriculturist and writer, an uncle of the preceding, was
born at Biitzow in 1751 ; died in 1829.

Karsten, (KARL JOHANN BERNHARD,) an eminent
Prussian mineralogist, son of the preceding, was born at
Biitzow in 1782. He was appointed privy councillor of
mines in the ministry of the interior in 1819. He pub-
lished a treatise " On the Carbonaceous Substances of
the Mineral Kingdom," (1826,) a " System of Metallurgy,"
(5 vols., 1832,) a" Philosophy of Chemistry," (1843,) and
other important works. In his peculiar department of
science Karsten occupied the highest rank. Died in 1853.

See BROCKHAUS, " Conversations- Lexikon."

KartlkSya, kSR-tl-ka'ya, written less correctly Car-
ticeya or Cartikiya, otherwise named Skan'da, a
son of Siva and Parvati, and brother of Ganesa, is the
Hindoo god of war and commander of the celestial armies.
He is sometimes called AGNiBHOs or AGNIBHU'VA,
("born of Agni" or Fire,) SRIMANA, and many other
names. One of his greatest exploits was the destruction
of the mighty giant Tripurasura, who had acquired such
power that Indra and the other gods trembled for their
dominion.

See MOOR'S " Hindu Pantheon."

Kartikiya. See KARTIKEYA.

Kasuyapa. See KASVAPA.

Kassiopeia, See CASSIOPEIA.

Kas'spn, (JoHN ADAMS,) an American statesman,
born near Burlington, Vermont, January n, 1822. He
graduated at the University of Vermont in 1842, and
became a lawyer. Having removed to Iowa, he was
made first assistant postmaster-general under President
Lincoln in 1861, was United States postal commissioner
to Europe, and signed postal conventions with nearly
every important nation in Europe, was a Republican
member of the Thirty-Eighth, Thirty-Ninth, Forty-Third,
Forty-Fourth, Forty-Seventh, and Forty-Eighth Con-
gresses, and served as United States envoy and minister
to Austria-Hungary, 1877-81. He went to Germany as
United States minister in 1884.

Kastner or Kaestner, kfct'ner, (ABRAHAM GOTT-
HELP,) an eminent German mathematician, astronomer,
and poet, born at Leipsic in September, 1719. He be-
came assistant professor of mathematics at Leipsic in
1746, and obtained the chair of mathematics and physics
at Gottingen in 1756. In 1762 he succeeded Tobias
Mayer as director of the Observatory at Gottingen. He
wrote, besides numerous works on mathematics and
astronomy, and witty epigrams, a " History of Mathe-
matics from the Revival of Science to the End of the
Eighteenth Century," (in German, 4 vols., 1796-1800.)
Died in June, 1800.

See "Vita Kaesmeri," by himself, Leipsic, 1787: KIRSTKN, "De
A. G. Kzstnero," 1787 ; C. 'G. HEYNE, " Elogium Kzstncri," 1801;
"Nouvelle Biographic Gc'ne'rale."

Kastner, kast'ner, (KARL WILHELM GOTTLOB,) a
German physician and naturalist, born at Greifenberg,
in Pomerania, in 1783. In 1821 he was professor of



chemistry and medicine at Erlangen. He wrote, among
other treatises, "Outlines of Physics and Chemistry,"
(1821,) and a "Manual of Meteorology," (3 vols., 1823-
30.) Died in 1857.

Kas'ya-pa or Casyapa, (modern Hindoo pron.
kus'ya-pa,) (etymology obscure ; perhaps from the San-
scrit kas or kaf, to "shine,"] written also Kashyapa
and Ka$yapa, in the Hindoo mythology, the name of
a celebrated sage (Rishi) or demi-god, the father (by
Aditi) of the Suras, including Indra, and (by Dili) of
the Asuras, or giants.

See MOOR, "Hindu Pantheon;" MOMER WILLIAMS, "Transla-
tion of Sakoontala," (by KALIDASA.)

Kasyapa, kis'ya-pa, called also Kan'a-da, a cele-
brated Hindoo sage or philosopher, was a son of the
preceding, and was one of the greatest of Hindoo
Ijgicians. He founded the atomistic philosophy called
" vaiseshika."

Kate, Ten, tjn ka'teh, (JAN JAKOB LODEWYK,) a
Dutch clergyman, born at the Hague, December 23,
1819. He was enucated at Utrecht, and became a pastor
at Amsterdam. Besides eight volumes of poems, largely
religious, he published many translations from foreign
languages, and a number of scientific works having a
religious tone.

Kate, Ten, t8n ka'teh, (LAMBERT,) a Dutch clergyman,
who lived about 1720. He is known for his valuable
grammar of the Dutch language, (Amsterdam, 1723.) He
also wrote "On the Connection between the Gothic and
Dutch Languages," and a "Life of Jesus Christ." -

See SAX. "Onomasticon."

Ka'ter, (HENRY,) F.R.S., a skilful mathematician,
born in Bristol, England, in 1777, was educated in the
Royal Military College in Sandhurst. He was distin-
guished for his investigations of the principles of reflect-
ing telescopes ; for his experiments to determine the
exact length of the seconds-pendulum ; for his important
advice and improvements on measures and weights ; and
especially for his invention of the floating collimator, an
instrument for adjusting the telescope. In 1814, when
the emperor Alexander of Russia visited England, Kater
was decorated by him with the order of Saint Anne.
He wrote several mathematical treatises. Died in 1835.

Katona, kot'o-noh, (STEPHEN,) an eminent H ungarian
scholar and historian, was born at Papa in 1732, and
became a Jesuit at the age of eighteen. He afterward*
filled the chairs of poetry, rhetoric, and history in thr
University of Buda. Died in 1811. His chief produc-
tion is a History of Hungary, written in Latin, (" I listorii
critica Regum Stirpis Austriacae," 41 vols., 1795 ct seq.)
This is regarded as the most valuable and accurate
work upon the subject It closes with the year 1801.
Katona was also the author of several other historical
works, in the Latin and Hungarian languages.

See G. FElrfR, " Memoria S. Katonz," 1812.

Katt, von, fon kit, a Prussian officer, born in 1681,
was an intimate friend of Prince Frederick, afterwards
Frederick the Great For having aided him in his
attempt to escape to England, Katt was executed before
the prison-windows of the prince, in 1730.

Kauer, kow'er, (FERDINAND,) a German musical com-
poser, born in Moravia in 1751. His works, amounting
in all to nearly two hundred, consist of church music,
operas, symphonies, concertos, etc. Died in 1831.

Kauflmann, kowfman. ( MARIA ANGELICA, ) the
daughter of a portrait-painter, was born at Coire, in
Switzerland, about 1741. After studying painting in
Italy, she went under the patronage of Lady Wentworth
to England, where in a short time she gained consider-
able celebrity in her art Her popularity was probably
as much due to her accomplished manners and her supe-
rior education as to any excellence which she possessed
as an artist In 1781 she was married to Antonio Zucchi,
a Venetian painter, whom she accompanied to Italy in
the following year. She still retained her maiden name
of Kauffmann. Died at Rome in 1807.

See G- DH Rossi, "Vita di Angelica Kauffmann," 1810; A. FM.
LioN DR WAILLV, "Angelica Kauffmann," Paris, 2 vols., 1838^;
KONIJNBNRURG, " Kunslverdienslen van A. Kauffmann en Raphael,"
1810; " Nouvdle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Kaufmann, kowf'mln, JOHANN GOTTFRIED,) a Ger-



a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, lit; mSt; not; good; moon;



KAUFMANN



KA YSER



man mechanician, born at Chemnitz, in Saxony, in 1751,
was the inventor of several very ingenious instruments,
among which was a flute- and harp-clock, (Floten- ttnd
Harfenuhr,) which was purchased by the Elector Fred-
erick Augustus. Died in 1818. His son FREDERICK,
born in 1785, invented the automaton trumpeter and
other similar works. Died in 1866.

Kaufmann, von, fon kowfrnSn, (KONSTANTIN PE-
TROVITCH,) a Russian general, born at Maidani, February
19, (O.S.,) 1818. He entered the army as an officer of
engineers in 1839, and obtained promotion slowly, though
distinguished for valour. In 1867 he was a'ppointed
Governor-General of Turkestan, where he made impor-
tant conquests and in other ways extended the Russian
influence. In 1874 he was made engineer-general of
the army. He is charged with having acted with extreme
cruelty towards the conquered people of Turkestan.
Died at Tashkent, May 15, 1882.

Kaulbach, kowl'baK, (WiLHELM,) one of the most
eminent painters of recent times, was born in the princi-
pality of Waldeck, Germany, in 1805. Though destined
by his father to be an artist, he showed little inclination
for painting, until a collection of engravings illustrating
Schiller's tragedies fell into his hands and gave the fir.-,:
impulse to hi.- genius. He began his studies under
Cornelius at the Academy of Dusseldorf about 1822, and
in 1829 finished his picture of the" Mad-House," ("Irren-
haus,") a work displaying such originality and power as
entitled him at once to a place among great painters.
About this time he executed the frescos of "Apollo and
the Muses," in the Odeon, and " Cupid and Psyche," in
the palace of Duke Max, at Munich. In 1837 he com
pleted his " Battle of the Huns," founded on the tradition
of the combat before the gates of Rome, between the
Romans and the spirits of the Huns who were slain,
which, rising in the air, continued the fight. This won-
derful production, so strange and unique in its character,
was received with general applause, and is justly re-
garded as a miracle of art. His second great historical
piece, " The Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus," was
finished in 1838; and a copy of it, executed in oil at the
request of King Louis of Bavaria, occupies a conspicuous
place in the Pinakothek. Kaulbach also illustrated,
somewhat in the style of Hogarth, bchiller's "Criminal
from Lost Honour," Goethe's " Faust," and " Renard the
Fox," (" Reineke Fuchs :") the last displays exquisite
humour. Besides the above-mentioned works, he painted
a number of portraits, and furnished illustrations for
Shakespeare and other poets. Kaulbach excelled in the
highest qualities of his art, and was eminently successful
in blending in his style the ideal and symbolic with the
real. He was director of the Academy of Arts at Munich,
and a member of nearly all the similar institutions of
Europe. Died April 7, 1874.

See A. RACZINSKI, " Histoire de 1'Art modeme en AUemagne ;"
H. FORTOUL, "De 1'Art en AUemagne ;" " Nouvelle Biographic
GincYale."

Kauuitz, von, fon kow'nits, (WENZEL ANTON,)
PKINCE, a celebrated Austrian statesman and diploma-
tist, born at Vienna in February, 1711. After travelling
in England, France, and Italy, he was appointed by the


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 49 of 425)