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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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burgomaster of Konigsberg. He claimed for women
admission to civil offices and a greater social equality.
Among his works are a " Treatise on Marriage," (" Ueber
die Ehe," 1774,) " Designs after Nature," (1790,) an Au-
tobiography, (1800,) and "The Education of Women,"
(1801.) His character was eccentric. Died in 1796.

See GERVINUS, " Geschichte der Deutschen Dichtung," fourth edi-
tion, vol. v. ; W. G. KEBER, " Nachrichten und Bemerkungen dey
Eheimen Kriegsrath von Hippel betrefifend," 1802; " Biographic T
von Hippel's zum Theil von ihm sclbst vertasst," 1800.

Hippias. See HIPPARCHUS and HARMODIUS.

Hip'pl-as, I'lmrioc,] a Greek sophist, born at Elis,
was a contemporary of Socrates. His character is ex-
hibiteH by Plato in his dialogue called " Hippias Major."



i, e, i, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, u, y,s&ort; a, e, j, o, obscure; fir, fall, lit; met; not; good ; moon.



HIPPO



1291



HIRSCHING




was elected president in 1890.



held that moisture, or water, is the principle of all things,
and derived much of his system from Thales.

Hippocrate. See HIPPOCRATES.

Hip-poc'ra-tes, [Gr. 'ImroxpuTjif ; Fr. HIPFOCRATE,



HIPPOLYTE ; It. IPPOLITO,]

SUNT, a Christian bishop and ecclesiastical writer,
who has recently attracted great attention on the
part of scholars and theologians. He was dissident

..... Bishop of Portus, (the harbour of Rome,) and the

e'po'kRa-t'; It. IPPOCRATE, ep-pok Ra-ti,] the most emi- aut h O r of numerous learned works, highly extolled by
nent physician of antiquity, justly styled the " Father of EusebiuS; T er ome, and other Christian Fathers. After
Medicine," was born in the island of Cos in 460 B.C., occ ing the see of Portus eighteen years or more,
and was contemporary with Socrates and Plato. He was he ba |j died in exile in Sardinia about 2^8 A.D.
the son of Heraclides, a descendant of Esculapius, from jfrypafa^ [n ^ 6 ArTOf,] a son of Theseus and Hip-
whom he derived, his first lessons ,n medicine His , t F or y Anti ' o l e . T he poets relate that his step-
family the Asclepiad* .for many generations had prac- mot y he ' r Phsdra ade to him amorou. overtures which
tised the same art Ihematenals for writing his per- she thfin fc , jnduced Theseus

sonal history are deficient. He is said to have studied . '_ u: _ 1 iU _. _, J

medicine at Athens under I

philosophy of Gorgias of

tised and taught in Cos also in Thessaly, and at the court Hip-pom'e-don, ftao^dui/,1 a Spartan

of Perdiccas, King , of Macedonia, etc. Soranus relates * f A u | an( f a co ' usin </ Ki A ^ s Iv ;

that he acquired fame by checking the ravages of the ted | is in ' his efforts to reform & | partan

plague m Athens, and was rewarded with the freedom institu [ ns . He * vas ]ivi in 22O B . c .

? f '_ ha '. a ^l^ n l^ L'^^ h n U ^^I h !^ ! r L t ^' Hip-po'na, the name of g a goddess v



him



of Theseus, Nep-



warrior ,



he refused the invitation and magnificent offers of Ar
taxerxes, is by some discredited.

His superior talents, his rare sagacity, his signal suc-
cess, and his devoted humanity, inspired universal con-
fidence and respect. He had a great number of pupils,
from whom he exacted an oath that they would never
abuse their trust by criminal piactice, nor divulge pro-
fessional secrets. He held that the body is composed
of four primary elements, fire, air, earth, and



Hip-po'na, the name of a goddess who presided over
horses. Her statues were placed in stables.

Greek poet, who lived
Ephesus. Having been
expelled from that city by its tyrants, he removed to
Clazomene. He wrote satires, of which only a few frag-



Hi'ram, King of Tyre, began to reign about 1025 B.C.



gfiyg^aaagjRS

bile, ana black bile, rie knew Dut little ot anatomy. ,. . .. . tr . f , ,

H . d f dth f b b h's s " len dly relations. He was a wise and successful ruler.

in substituting experiment and observation for specula- See ' Krags * and I- chronlcles Hv -

rive theories. He paid more attention than his prede- Hiranyakasipu. See NARASINGHA.

cessors to diet and changes of weather. Among the Hire, de la. See LA HIRE.

most remarkable of his discoveries is that of critical days Hirnheim, hdeRn'him, or Hernhaym, heRn'hlm,

in fevers. Of the numerous (Greek) works ascribed to (HlHRONYMUS,) a German monk and writer, born at

him, it is probable that some were composed by other Troppau in 1635 ; died in 1679.

writers, as there were several noted physicians of the Hirsch, hSSRsh, ( JOHANN CHRISTOPH,) a German

same name. He died at Larissa, at an age which is | economist and^numismatist^born^m 1698^; diedjn 1780.

variously stated between eighty-five and one hundred

and nine years.



As an inventor he is unrivalled by



any physician of ancient or modern times. Among his
chief works are " Prognostics," " Epidemics," " On Regi-



Hirsch, (MAX,) a German (Hebrew) author and
liberal politician, born at Halberstadt, December 30,
1832. Besides books of travel, etc., he has written much
on social and labour questions, politics, etc., and has



men," and "On Air, Water, and Locality." Of the taken a prominent place in the German Reichstag,
eighty-seven extant treatises ascribed to him, only a few Hirsch, (SAMUEL,) Ph.D., an eminent Jewish rabbi,
are undoubtedly genuine. i born at Thalfingen, Rhenish Prussia, June 8, 1815. He

S SORANUS, "Vita Hippocratis," in FABK.CIUS, " Bibliotheca ' was educated at Metz, Bonn, Berlin, and Leipsic, where




jiedes Hippocrates und seiner Grundsitze," = vols., 1789^ movement among Amejican Jews.
P. GESNHR, "De Divino Hippocrate," 1739: KARL F. MAR- works



hppocrat
Hippocratis,"



739:
1838 ; A. OBTTINGKR,



Among his chief

orks are "Religious Philosophy of the Jews,""Hu-
anity as Religion," " Messiah-Lore of the Jews,"



Uqi

" Apolo]

9*: C.I

cus, " Dissertatio de Vita

" Hippocratis Vita," 1836.

Hippocrates, a Syracusan, shared with his brother
Epicvdes the command of the army which defender 1 ,
Syracuse against Marcellus, 213 B.C. ^Died in 212 B.C. Austnan &ncier, born at Munich in 1831.



Hippocrates OF CHIOS, a noted Greek geometer,



Hirsch de Gerenth, (MAURICE DE,) BARON, an

Left a



large fortune by his father, and marrying a woman



who lived in the fifth century before Christ He studied v/ith a dowry of $20,000,000 he engaged in ex-
at Athens, where he opened a celebrated school. He tensive business operations, and gained a fortune of
first discovered the quadrature of the lune. $200,000,000. With this he entered upon large b

Hip-po-da-mi'a[Gr. 'Imroia/ieia] or Hip-pod'a-me, ne.-olent schemes for the benefit of his fellow- Jews,
A daughter of O2NOMAUS, which see. his gifts aggregating $50,000,000, while those of his

Hip-pod'a-mus ['Imroda/tof] OF MILETUS, an emi- wife were proportionately liberal. He died Decem-
nent Greek architect, lived about 440 B.C. He built ber 10, 1896, and his wife April I, 1899.
the Pirzus of Athens, under the order of Pericles, and Hirscher, heSRsh'er, (JoHANN BAPTIST,) a Swiss
planned the city of Rhodes, about 408 B.C. Catholic theologian, born near Altorf in 1788. His prin-

Hippolyte. See HIPPOLYTUS. cipal work is "Christian Morality," ("Christliche Mo-

Hip-pol'y-te, ['Imro^wn;,! the Queen ol the Amazons, Ia \," 3 vols., 5th edition, 1851.) Died September 4, 1865.
was called a daughter of Mars. The poets feigned that Hirsching, he^Rsh'ing, (FRIEDRICH KARL GOTTLOB,)
she had a girdle coveted by Eurystheus, who ordered , a German antiquary, born at Uffenheim in 1762, became
Hercules to bring it to him. She was killed by Hercules. p ro fessor of philosophy at Erlangen in 1792. He pub-



Hippolyte, (Louis MODESTIN FLORVIL,) a
president of Hayti, was born at Cape Haytien in 1827.
He was educated in France, joined the Haytian army,
and distinguished himself. In 1889 he headed the in-
surrection that overthrew President Legitime, and seized



lished several useful works, among which are a "De-
scription of the Best Libraries of Germany," (4 vols.,
1790,) and a "Historical and Literary Manual of Emi-
nent Persons who died in the Eighteenth Century,"
I" Historisch-literarisches Handbuch beriihmter Perso-



j; g hard; g as>; G, H,K,guttural; y,najat; f.,trilled; sasz; thasinMu. (2^="See Explanations, p. 23.)



HIRSCHVOGEL



1292



HJ&RNE



nen," etc., 1794-1815, 17 vols.)

Ihis were edited by J. H. M. Ernesti.



The last 12 volumes of "Reports on the Geology of Massachusetts," (1833-41.)
; Died in 1800. Among his numerous works are "The Geology of the



Hirschvogel, hetRsh'fo'fel, (AUGUSTIN,) a German Connecticut Valley," (1823,) "The Religion of Geology
' rn at Nuremberg in 1506 ; died , an d its Connected Sciences," (1851,) and " Illustrations



painter a.tv\ engraver, born
in 1560.

Hirst, (.IENRY B.,) an American poet, born in Phila-
delphia in 1813. He studied law, and was admitted to
the bar in 1843. His first poems appeared in " Graham's
Magazine." He afterwards published " The Coming of



of Surface-Geology," (1857.) By'his exposition of the
fossil footprints of the Connecticut valley he originated
a new branch of science, called Ichnology. He published
in 1848 " Fossil Footprints in the United States." He
was the chief founder and first president of the American

the Mammoth, the Funeral o'f Time, and other Poems," Geological Association. Died in 1864.
(1845, )and "Endymion, a Tale of Greece, in four cantos," See " Silhman's Journal," oL ili.; "North British Review" foi
'1848.) Died March 30, 1874.

Hirt orHirth, (JOHANN FRIEDRICH,) a German Orien- Hitchcock, (ETHAN ALLEN,) an American writer and
talist and writer, born at Apolda in 1719, was professor military officer, a grandson of Ethan Allen, was born in
of theology at Jena. Died in 1784. i Vergennes, Vermont, in 1798. He graduated at West

HirtiuB.hir'she-us, (AULUS,) a Roman consul and gen- Point in 1817, and served in the Seminole war in Florida,
eral, was a patricilnby birth. Cicero, who was his inti- > I" tne war witn Mexico he was attached to the staff of
mate friend, speaks highly of his talents. He served General Scott, and in 1847 promoted to the rank of
under Czsar in the Gallic war, and supported his party brigadier-general. He was subsequently sent to Cali-
in the civil war. After the death of Caesar, Hirtius f rr >ia, as commandant of the Pacific division, but he
joined Brutus against Antony, and was elected consul returned in 1854, and the next year resigned his com-
with C. Vibius Pansa. In 43 B.C. these consuls gained mission. lie wrote "Swedenborg a Hermetic Philo-
a victory over Antony at Mutina, (M6dena;) but Hirtius sopher," (1858.) Died in 1870.

was killed in the action. He is supposed to be the i Hitchcock, (PETER,) an American jurist, born in
author of the continuation of " Csesar's Commentaries" \ Cheshire, Connecticut, in 1780, graduated at Yale in
which forms the eighth book of the "Gallic War," and | l8c "- He represented a district of Ohio in Congress
also of two other treatises on the campaigns of Caesar, from 1817 to 1819, and was subsequently judge of the
viz., the Alexandrian and the African. supreme court of the State for twenty-eight years, for

Hirzel, hetRt'sel, (BERNHARD,) a Swiss Orientalist, ? ix J ears of which P eriod he was chlef J ustic e-
born at Zurich in 1807, translated the "Sakuntala" of m i?53-
Kalidasa from the Sanscrit into German. Died in 1847.



Died



Hitch'cock, (ROSWELL DWIGHT,) D.D., I.L.D., an



Hirzel, (HANS CASPAR,) a Swiss physician and sen- I American clergyman, was born at East Machias, Maine,

- * - <- iit_-.s-_ r. , August 15, 1817. He graduated at Amherst College in

1836, and studied divinity at Andover Seminary, lie
was a professor in Bowdoin College from 1852 to 1855,



ator, born at Zurich in 1725, wrote a "1 realise on Rural
Economy," and " The Rustic Socrates," (1761-74.) Died

'"nisely, hez'le', (JEAN JOSEPH,) a Swiss historian, >; eca .me professor of church historyln Union Theological'
born in 1800, wrote, in French, " Researches on William 3em i" ar y '" New York in 1855, and in iSSo was chosen
Tell," (1843.) and other works on Swiss history. '5 s J ldent - _ Among his works are a " Lite of Edwaid

Hisham. See HE-SHAM.

Hisinger, hee'sing-er, or Hising, hee'sing, (WiL-
HELM,) a Swedish mineralogist, born in 1766, published,
besides other works, " Lethea Suecica, seu petrificata
Sueciae," (1837-40.) Died in 1852.

HiatiaeuB, his-te-ee'us, |Gr. '[muuof ; FT. HisriiE,
is'te'a',] an able and crafty ruler of Miletus, to whom



Darius intrusted the duty of guarding a bridge over the
Danube during his invasion of Scythia, about 512 B.C.
He refused to desert Darius at the instigation cf Mil-



Robinson," (1863,) an " Analysis of the Bible." (Itioy,)
and "Socialism," (1878.) Died June 16, 1887.

Hit' tell, (JOHN SHERZER,) an American author,
born at Jonestown, Pennsylvania, in 1825. He was
for twenty-five years a journalist in San Francisco,
and wrote " History of the Mental Growth of Man-
kind in Ancient Times," "The Evidences against



Christianity," "The Resources of California," etc.

His brother, THEODORE HENRY HITTELL, bom in
1830, went to California in 1855 and practised law



tiades ; but he afterwards revolted, and was put to death there after 1862. He wrote " History of California,"
by the Persians about 494 B.C. i General Laws of California," etc.

Hittorf, hit'toRf or ^e'toRr*, (JACQUES IGNACE,) an emi-

Hita, de, dk ee'ti, (GiNES PEREZ,) a Spanish chrcmi- nen t architect and antiquary, born at Cologne in 1793,
cler, born in Murcia, lived between 1550 and 1600. He j was a pupil of BeManger. He was appointed architect to



wrote an interesting work, entitled "The Civil Wars of
Granada."



See TICKNOR, "History of Spanish Literature."



the King of France in 1818, after which he visited Italy.
He commenced about 1834 the church of Saint Vincent
de Paul, (in the Italian style,) and designed the remark-
Hitch'cock, (CHARLES HENRY,) Ph.D., an American able works of the Place de Concorde. Among his capital
geologist, a son of Prof. Edward Hitchcock, was born 'works are the Grand Circus, (1840,) the Panorama, the
at Amherst, Massachusetts, August 23, 1836. He grad- roof of which is supported by twelve iron cables, and
aated at Amherst College in 1856. He studied divinity the Cirque-Napoleon, (1851.) M. Hittorf acquired a
at New Haven, and science at the Royal School of European reput lion by these structures, and by his
Mines. London. He was professor of geology at Lafay- writings on classical art, namely, " Polychromic Archi-
ette College, Easton, Pennsylvania, 1866-70, and after- lecture of the Greeks," (1830,) "Modern Architecture
wards was professor of the same science in Dartmouth of Sicily," (1837,) and "Ancient Architecture of Sicily."
College. He publishedmanyscientific papers, andseveral He was a member of the Institute. Died in 1867.
volumes of reports prepared in conneclion wilh various See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

State geological surveys. Hitzig, hit'sic, (JERDINAND,) a German biblical critic,

Hitch'cock, (EDWARD,) an eminent American geol- : born in Baden in 1807. He became professor of theology
ogist, born at Deerfield, Massachusetts, May 24, 1793. at Zurich in 1833. His principal works are a "Transla-
He became pastor of the Congregational church in Con- lion and Exposition of Isaiah," (1833,) and commentaries
way, Massachusetts, in 1821, and professor of chemistry on the other greater prophets, (1841-50.) Died in 1875.
arid natural history in Amherst College in 1825. 1111840 Hitzig, (GEORG HEINRICH FRIEDRICH,) a distin-
he published his "Elementaiy Geology," a valuable guished German architect, born in 1811 ; died in 1881.
work, which passed through rwenty-five or more edi- Hjaerne or Hiaerne, he-eVneh, (URBAN,) a Swedish
tions. From 1845 to '854 he was president of Amherst physician and naturalist, born in 1641, became first phy-
College, the prosperity of which increased greatly under sician to the king Carl XI., and vice-president of tho
his direction. He became about 1845 professor of natu Council of Mines. He wrote, besides other works,



ral theology and geology in that institution. Having
been appointed State geologist for Massachusetts, he
made a geological survey of that State, ami



"Acta et Tentamina chimica," (" Chemical Experiments,"
1712,) and " Oryctographia Suecana," (1716.) Died in
1724-



a, e, i, o, u, y, long; A, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, s/iart; a, e, i, p, obscure; fir, fill, fit; mil; nfit; good; moon:



HJORT



1293



HOBBES



Hjort, he-oRt' or hyoRt, (PEDER,) a Danish granv
manan, born near Copenhagen in 1793. After an ex-
tensive tour in France and Italy, he became professor
of German at Sorbe. He wrote several successful works
on grammar, among which are "Tydsk Grammatik for
Dansktalende," ("German Grammar for the Use of
Danes," 5th edition, i85l,)"Tydsk Lasebog for Dansk-
talende," (" German Reader for the Use of Danes," 3d
edition, 1843,) and "Den Danske Borneven," ("The
Danish Child's Friend." Died November n, 1871.

Hliii, hleen, Hlina, hlee'na, or Lyna, lee'na, [sup-
posed to be derived from klyna t to " warm" or " become
warm,"] in the Northern mythology, a goddess, whose
office it is to watch over those whom Frigga wishes to
guard from peril. As Frigga represents the earth's
fertility, so Hlin typifies the mild warmth which protects
the tender plants from the breath of the Frost-giants.

Hlodyn, hlo'din, [in all probability the same as HLU-
_DANA, the Latin name of a deity of the ancient Germans,]
in the Norse mythology, the mother of Thor, and prob-
ably another name for Fiorgyn or Fiorgvin, (also called
the mother of Thor,) the goddess of the earth. Thorpe
derives it from Hafta, (allied to the English "lade" and
" load,") to " heap up," to " load." Fiorgynn (as a mas-
culine noun) was said to be the father of Frigga.

Hlubek, hloo'bek, (FRANZ XAVER WILHELM,) a Ger.
man writer on rural economy, born in Silesia in 1802. His
principal works are " The Nutrition of Plants and Statics
of Agriculture," (1841,) and a "Complete Treatise on
Rural Economy," (2 vols., 1846.) Died Feb. 10, 1880.

Hoad'ley or Hoadly, (BENJAMIN,) an English divine,
corn at Westerham in 1676, took orders about 1700.
His zeal for religious liberty and opposition to the High-
Church principles caused his promotion in 1715 to the see
ofBangor. In 1717 he preached a sermon before the king,
from which arose the great Bangorian controversy. This
was maintained by Snape, Law, and other partisans of
the High Church on one hand, and Hoadley on the other.
He was made Bishop of Hereford in 1721, and of Win-
chester in 1734. He wrote a "Life of Dr. Samuel
Clarke," and a few other works. Died in 1761.

See " Biographia Britannica,"

Hoadley, (BENJAMIN,) M.D., eldest son of the pre-
ceding, was born in London in 1705, and graduated in
1729. In 1742 he was appointed physician to the king's
household, and in 1746 to that of the Prince of Wales.
He wrote " The Suspicious Husband," a comedy, which
was successful, and assisted Hogarth in the " Analysis
of Beauty." Died in 1757.

Hoar, (EBENEZER ROCKWOOD,) an able lawyer, the
son of Samuel Hoar, noticed below, was born at Con-
cord, Massachusetts, in 1816. His mother was a daugh-
ter of the celebrated Roger Sherman. He graduated at
Harvard in 1835, was admitted to the bar about 1840,
and practised in Boston. In 1859 he was appointed a
justice of the supreme court of Massachusetts, was
attorney-general of the United States, 1869-70. and
member of Congress, 1873-75. Died Jan. 31, 1895.

Hoar, (GEORGE FRISBIE,) LL.D., an American Sen-
ator, born in Concord, Massachusetts, August 29, 1826, a
son of Samuel Hoar, noticed below. He graduated at
Harvard College in 1846, and at the Dane Law School,
served in Congress, 1868-76, and was sent to the United
States Senate from Massachusetts in 1877, and suc-
cessively re-elected. He served on the Tilden-
Hayes Electoral Commission, and presided over the
Republican National Convention of 1880.

Hoar, (SAMUEL,) a lawyer, born at Lincom, Massa-
chusetts, in 1778, was the father of the preceding. He
was sent by the Governor of Massachusetts to South
Carolina in 1844, to protect the rights of certain free
negro sailors who had been imprisoned in Charleston ;
but he was driven from that city by a mob before he
could perform his mission. Died in 1856.

Hoare, (PRINCE,) an English artist and dramatist,
born at Bath in 1754, was the son of William Hoare,
noticed below. He studied painting at Rome, and in
1799 was chosen foreign secretary of the Royal Acad-
emy. He is chiefly known as the author of dramas, as
"No Song, No Supper," " Lock and Key," etc. Died
in 1834.



Hoare, (Sir RICHARD COLT,) a noted English anti-
quary, born in 1758, married in 1783 the daughter of
Lord Lyttleton, and inherited the title of baronet in 1787.
He gained distinction as a topographer and antiquarian
by his " Ancient and Modern History of Wiltshire," and
wrote several other works. Died in 1838.

Hoare, (WILLIAM,) R.A., an English historical and
portrait painter, born at Bath about 1706 He was one
of the original members of the Royal Academy. After
studying many years at Rome, he returned to Bath, and
worked with great success, especially in portraits. Died
n 1792.

Ho'bart, (AUGUSTUS CHARLES,) known as HOBART
P \SIIA, a naval commander, born in England, April i,
1822, a son of the Earl of Buckinghamshire. He entered
the royal navy in 1836, commanded the Queen's yacht,
1845-47, and served in the Crimean war. In 1861-65,
being still an officer of the British navy, he commanded
a blockade-runner on the coast of the United States.
In 1867 he entered the Turkish navy, served against the
Cretan insurgents, and was soon made an admiral and
inspector-general of the navy. In 1881 he was made a
marshal of the Turkish Empire. Died in 1886.

Ho'bart, (GARRET AUGUSTUS,) "Vice-President of

the United States, was born in Monmouth county,

Xew Jersey, June 3, 1841. He was admitted to the

l.ar in 1869, was a member of the New Jersey House

1873-78, and of the Senate 1879-85, being president

i if the Senate in 1881. He became very prominent

; in Republican politics, and was elected Vice-President

i for the term 1897-1901. He died November 21,

1899.

Ho'bart, (JOHN HENRY,) D.D., born in Philadelphia
111 '775. was ordained in 1798. He was successively
pastor at New Brunswick, Hempstead, and Trinity
Church, New York, and was chosen Bishop of New
York in 1816. He published numerous theological
works. Died in 1830.

Hobbema or Hobbima, hob'be-ma, (MINDERHOUT j
Ger. MEINDERT; Fr. MINARD,) an excellent Flemish
landscape-painter, was born probably at Coevorden about
1638. Little is known of his personal history. His
favourite subjects were simple rural and sylvan scenes
diversified by a winding stream, a ruined tower, or a dis-
tant village. He excelled in perspective and colouring.
His works are rare, and command very high prices.
'Jver twenty thousand dollars has been paid for one.
Died in December, 1709.

Hobbes, hdbz, (THOMAS,) a famous English philos-
opher, born at Malmesbury in 1588. As tutor in the
family of the Earl of Devonshire, he travelled several
times on the continent with his pupils, and became ac-
quainted with Gassendi, Descartes, etc. In 1628 he pub-
lished a Latin translation of Thucydides, and in 1642
a treatise on government, "Elementa Philosophica o>
Give." He was a royalist in the civil war, and an ad-
vocate of unconditional obedience to the king. In 1647
he was mathematical tutor to the Prince of Wales,
(Charles II.,) then in Paris. His treatise on "Human
Nature" (1650) was followed by the " Leviathan," (a
complete system of his philosophy, including his politi-
cal, moral, and theological views,) which made a great
sensation, and gave offence to theologians, and though
it was hostile to liberal principles even to the royalists.
In 1666 this work and his "De Give" were censured by
Parliament. Soon after the restoration, he received a
pension of one hundred pounds. His paradoxical opin-
ions were warmly controverted by Cudworth, Clarendon,
and others. In 1675 he published a translation in verse
of the "Iliad" and the "Odyssey," which drew from
Pope the assertion that "his poetry is too mean for
criticism." In his old age, which was passed a't the
seat of his patron, the Earl of Devonshire, he publisher)
a " History of the Civil War from 1640 to 1660," ana
other works. " A permanent foundation of his fame,"
says Mackintosh, "consists in his admirable style, which


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 5 of 425)