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FISCHER, "Denkschrift auf Klaproth," Berlin: "Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Ge'ne'rale;" "Monthly Review" for October, 1814.

Klaproth, (MARTIN HEINRICH,) an eminent German
analytical chemist and mineralogist, born at Wernigerode,
in Prussian Saxony, in December, 1743. He served an
apprenticeship as an apothecary, and about 1768 went to
Berlin, where he studied chemistry. Having gained dis-
tinction by the analysis of mineral substances and by
discoveries in chemistry, he was elected a member of the
Academy of Berlin in 1788, and a foreign associate of the
French Institute. He discovered the metals Uranium
and Titanium, and the earth Zirconia, He published the
results of his researches and experiments in his " Con-
tributions to the Chemical Knowledge of Mineral Bodies,"
(5 vols., 1796-1810.) About 1809 he became professor
of chemistry in Berlin. Died in Berlin in 1817.

See " Biographic MWicale ;" KOPP. "Geschichte der Chemie."

Klass, klis, (FRIEDRICH CHRISTIAN,) a German land-
scape-painter, born at Dresden in 1752 ; died in 1827.

Klass, (KARL CHRISTIAN,) a historical painter, a
brother of the preceding, was born at Dresden in 1747.
Died in 1793.

Klauber, klow'ber, (!GNAZ SEBASTIAN,) a German
engraver, was born in Augsburg in 1754. He was
invited to Saint Petersburg by the empress Catherine,
who appointed him professor in the Imperial Academy
of Fine Arts. Died about 1820. Among his engravings
is a portrait of the empress Catherine.

Klauber, (JOSEPH,) an engraver, born at Augsburg
in 1710, was an uncle of the preceding. Died in 1768.

Klaus, a surname of NICOLAS VON DER FLUE. See
FLUE, DE.

Kleander or Kleandros. See CLEANDER.

Kleantb.es. See CLEANTHES.

Klearchus. See CLEARCHUS.

Kleter, [Fr. KLI*BER, kllTjaiR',] (JEAN BAPTISTE,)
a celebrated French general, born at Strasburg in 1754.
Having studied at the military school of Munich, he
returned to France in 1788, and soon attained the rank
of adjutant-major. For his gallant conduct at the siege
of Mayence, in 1793, he was made general of brigade.
He subsequently gained several advantages over the
Vendeans ; but his generous treatment of the prisoners
called down upon him the censures of the committee of
safety. He was removed to the army of the North, in
which, as general of division, he served under Jourdan.
He gained distinguished laurels in 1794 at the battle
of Fleurus, where he commanded the left wing of the
French army. He soon after captured Mons and the
fortress of Maestricht, In 1797, displeased with the
Directory, he retired to a country-seat near Paris ; but
he left this retreat at the request of Bonaparte, whom he
accompanied in 1798 to Egypt. He was severely wounded
at the siege of Alexandria, of which city he was appointed
governor. The following winter he marched into Syria
at the head of the French vanguard, reduced El Arish,
Gaza, and Jaffa, and gained in April, 1799, the decisive
victory of Mount Tabor. On his return to Egypt he
added to his already brilliant reputation at the battle of
Aboukir. In August, 1799, he was made commander-
in-chief by Bonaparte, who returned to France. Though
Kleber was very popular, this event caused general dis-
satisfaction in the army. The soldiers were greatly re-
duced in numbers, and provisions were scarce. The grand
vizier, with over 40,000 men and several English officers,
having captured the important fortress of El Arish, was
marching against the French. For these reasons Kleber
formed a treaty with the Turks and the English admiral
Sir Sidney Smith, by which, upon the surrender of all
the fortresses in his possession except three, he was to
receive from the Turks a large amount of gold and per-
mission to return peaceably to France. He accordingly
delivered up several strongholds, and was preparing to
lail from Egypt, when he was informed by Admiral Keith
that the English government, on the ground that Smith
was not vested with full authority, would not consent
that the French should leave the country except as pris-
oners of war. This infraction of the treat*/ thoroughly



a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long: a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, J, 6, u, J, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fit; m4t; not; good; moon;



KLEBS



1445



KLENZE



n



aroused the French general. He attacked the Turks,
gained over them the brilliant and decisive victory of
Heliopolis, drove their army from Cairo, and within a
month regained every position which he had previously
abandoned. He then turned his attention to the im-
provement of his conquests. He distributed land among
his troops, formed several companies of native soldiers,
and was using practicable and efficient means to render
Egypt a valuable colony of France, when he was assassin-
ated in June, 1800, by a Mohammedan fanatic. Kleber
stands as one of the very first of the many distinguished
generals of that period. To his great intellectual powers
were joined the generosity of a lofty mind and the hatred
of avarice and cruelty. "Kleber," said Napoleon at
Saint Helena, "was an irreparable loss to France and to
me. He was a man of the brightest talents and of the
greatest bravery. Of all the generals I have had under
me, Desaix and Kleber possessed the greatest talents."

See COUSIN D'AVALLON, " Histoire des Ge'ne'raux Desaix el
KlAer." 1802; LUBERT DE HE>ICOURT, "Vie du Ge'ne'ra] KMber,"
1800; THIEKS, "History of the French Revolution;" E. BARKOIS,
"Notice sur le Ge'ne'ral Kle'ber," 1839; "Nouvelle Biographic
Ge'ne'rale."

Klebs, klSbs, (ERWIN,) an eminent German patholo-
gist, born at Kbnigsberg, February 6, 1834. He held
professorships of pathological anatomy at Bern, Wurz-
burg, and Zurich. He has published important works
on pathology, etc.

Kleeberg, kla'bSRG, (MINNA,) a German poetess,
born of Jewish parents, named COHEN, at Elmshorn,
Holstein, July 21, 1841. She married a rabbi named
Kleeberg in 1862. She afterwards removed to the United
States. She died at New Haven, Connecticut, December
31, 1878. A volume of her lyric poems (all in German)
has been published. They are full of fire and patriot-
ism, and gained for their author a wide reputation.

Kleemau, kla'man, (CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH KARL,)
a German naturalist and painter of insects, etc., was
born near Nuremberg in 1735. He wrote several works
on entomology. Died in 1789.

Klefeker, kla'feh-ker, (JOHANN,) a German writer,
born in Hamburg in 1698 ; died in 1775.

Klein, kiln, (BERNHARD,) a German composer, born
at Cologne in 1794. Among his principal works are the
oratorios of " Job" and " David," and an opera entitled
" Dido." He was an able composer of vocal music.
Died September 9, 1832.

See FETIS, " Biographic Universelle des Musiciens."

Klein, klaN, (DOMINIQUE Louis ANTOINE,) a French
general, born at Blamont in 1761 ; died in 1845.

Klein, (ERNST FERDINAND,) a learned jurist, born
at Breslau in 1743, became privy councillor at Berlin.
He wrote " Principles of German and Prussian Penal
Law," (1795,) "System of Prussian Civil Law," (1830,)
and other legal works. Died in 1810.

See his Autobiography, " E. F. Klein's Selbstbiographie," 1810.

Klein, (JAKOB THEODOR,) a celebrated writer on
natural history, born at Konigsberg in 1685. He was
a member of the Academy of Sciences of Saint Peters-
burg and of the Royal Society of London. Linnaeus
gave the name of Kleinia to a new plant in honour of
this naturalist. The works of Klein are regarded as
valuable contributions to science. Died in 1759.

See CHRISTIAN SRNDEL, " Lobrede auf Herrn J. T. Klein," 1759;
HIRSCHING, " Historisch-literarischea Handbuch;" "Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Ge'ne'rale."

Klein, (JoHANN ADAM,) a distinguished German
painter of landscapes and animals, and a skilful engraver,
was born at Nuremberg in 1792. He visited Rome
about 1820. Died at Munich, May 21, 1875.

See NAGLHR, "Allgemeines KUnstler-Letilcon."

Klein, kiln, (JULIUS LEOPOLD,) a Jewish dramatist,
born at Miscolcz, Hungary, in 1804. He studied medi-
cine, but finally settled at Berlin as a literary man. He
produced many tragedies and comedies, but is chiefly
memorable for his "History of the Drama," (12 vols.,
1865-76,) which was never finished. Died in 1876.

Kleinarts. See CLNARD.

Kleinau, kll'now, (JoHANN,) Baron von Janowltz,
an Austrian general, born in Bohemia about 1760. He
commanded a corps at Wagram, and rendered important
ervices at Leipsic, 1813. Died in 1819.



Kleinert, klin'SM, (Huoo WILHELM PAUL,) a Ger-
man theologian, born at Bielguth, in Silesia, Septembei
25, 1837. In 1868 he was called to a professorship in
the University of Berlin. His commentaries (chiefly
in Lange's " Bibelwerk") and critical studies are well
known.

Kleist, von, fon kllst, (EwALD CHRISTIAN,) a popu-
lar German poet, was born near Koslin, in Pomerania,
in 1715. He studied at Konigsberg, and afterward*
entered the Danish army. In 1740 he left Copenhagen,
and received a commission in the service of Frederick
the Great. He greatly distinguished himself at the battle
of Kunnersdorf in 1759, where he was mortally wounded.
His most celebrated work is a poem entitled " Spring,"
("Der Friihling," 1749.) Besides this, he wrote several
hymns and idyls, a series of essays, and a treatise on
military tactics.

See LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe :" F. NICOLAI,
" Ehrengedachtniss E. C. von Kleist's," 1759; GERVINUS, "Ge-
schichte der Deutschen Dichtung," 1853.

Kleist, von, (HEINRICH,) a German poet and novel-
ist, born at Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1776. He fought
in the Prussian army against France. In 1808 he was
associated with Adam Muller in the publication of the
"Phoebus." A victim of hypochondria, he committed
suicide in 1811. Gervinus places him above all the dra-
matic poets of his time. His works include dramas, lyric
poems, novels, and tales, among which are the tragedies
entitled "The Prince of Homburg" and "The Battle of
Hermann," (1809,) and "Michael Kohlhaas," a tale.

See BiiLow, " Heinrich von Kleist's Leben und Briefe," 1848;
GERVINUS, " Geschichte der Deutschen Dichtung," 4th edition, 1853 ;
" Foreign Quarterly Review" for June, i3z8 ; " British Quarterly
Review y ' for October. 1860.

Kleist von Nollendorf, klist fon nol'Ien-doRf
(EMIL FRIEDRICH,) COUNT, a Prussian commander,
born at Berlin in 1762. He served with distinction in
the Russian campaign of 1812, and at the battle of Baut-
zen, after which, as Prussian plenipotentiary, he concluded
the truce. After the battle of Dresden and the retreat
of the allies, he gained a signal victory over Vandamme
at Nollendorf, (August, 1813.) He was created a field-
marshal in 1821, having previously received the order of
the Black Eagle and been made commander-general of
Saxony. Died in 1823.

Kleisthenes. See CLISTHENES.

Kleitarchos. See CLITARCHUS.

Kleitomachos. See CLITOMACHUS.

Kleitos. See CLITUS.

Klemm, klSm, (FRIEDRICH GUSTAV,) a German la-
tfrateur, born at Chemnitz in 1802. He published a
"History of Bavaria," (3 vols., 1828,) a "Manual of
German Archaeology," (1835,) a "General History of
Human Civilization," (10 vols., 1843-50,) and other
works. Died at Dresden, August 26, 1867.

Klengel, klSng'el, JOHANN CHRISTIAN,) a German
painter and engraver, born near Dresden in 1751.
Among his best pictures are an "Italian Landscape at
Twilight," and "The Wheat Harvest." Died in 1824.

Klenze, klSnt'seh, (CLEMENS AUGUST KARL,) a Ger-
nan jurist, a brother of the following, was born near
Hildesheim in 1795. He wrote a "Manual of Common
Penal Law," (1833,) and other works. Died in 1838.

Klenze, von, fon klSnt'seh, (LEO,) an eminent Ger-
man architect, born at Hildesheim in 1784. He studied
at Brunswick and at Berlin, and afterwards in France,
England, and Italy. In 1813 he went to Munich, where
he was patronized by the crown-prince Ludwig, and two
years later was appointed court architect to the King of
Bavaria. In 1833 he was ennobled. Among the most
Important of his designs are the Glyptothek, a building
to receive statuary and gems, completed in 1830 ; the
Odeon and the Pinakothek (picture-gallery) at Munich,
completed in 1837 ; and the Walhalla, or hall of heroes,
a magnificent marble edifice near Ratisbon, finished in
1839. This building, the exterior of which resembles the
Parthenon, is one of the most remarkable monuments
erected in modern times. Klenze, in his designs for
buildings, displays an uncommon knowledge of the
various styles of architecture; though he regards the
Grecian models as superior to all others. He alsc
erected at Saint Petersburg, under the auspices of the



eas*; <;zss: ghard; gas/; G, H, V., guttural; ^,nasal;f.,tri!led; sasz; thasinMw. (Ji^ = See Explanations, p. 23.1



KLEOBULOS



1446



KLOPSTOCK



emperor Nicholas, the Imperial Palace (completed in
1851) and the Imperial Museum. Klenze published,
among other works, an " Essay on the Restoration of
the Tuscan Temples," " The Walhalla in its Artistic and
Technical Relations," and several collections of Grecian
designs. He was likewise skilled in painting, and pro-
duced several landscapes and architectural pieces. Died
m 1864.

See R. WIBGMANN, "Ritter L. von Klenze und unsere Kunst,"
1839: NAGLER, " Allgemeines Kiinstler-Lexikon ;" " Nouvelle Bio-
graphie Ge'ne'rale;" FORTOUL, "De 1'Art en Allemagne," tome L

Kleobulos. See CLEOBULUS.

Kleombrotoa. See CLEOMBROTUS.

Kleomedes. See CLEOMEDES.

Kleomenes. See CLEOMENES.

Kleon. See CLEON.

Kleopatra. See CLEOPATRA.

Kleophon. See CLEOPHON.

Kleostratus. See CLEOSTRATUS.

Klerck, kleRk, (HENDRIK,) an artist and poet, born
in Brussels about 1570. Among his paintings are "The
Resurrection of Jesus Christ," and "The Martyrdom of
Saint Andrew."

Kletten, klet'ten, (GEORG ERNST,) a German medical
writer, born near Wiirzburg in 1759; died in 1827.

Klettenberg, klet'ten-blRc', (SUSANNE CATHERINE,)
born at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1723, was an intimate
friend of Goethe's mother, and has been celebrated by
the poet in his " Wilhelm Meister," under the name of
"the Beautiful Soul." She wrote a number of religious
essays and hymns. Died in 1774.

Kleuker, kloi'ker, (JOHANN FRIEDRICH,) a German
scholar, born at Osterode in 1749. He became in 1798
professor of theology at Kiel, where he died in 1827.
He translated the " Zend Avesta" of Zoroaster from the
Persian, (1776,) and wrote a treatise "On the Religious
System of the Brahmins," (1797.)

See RATJBN, " J. F. Kleuker und Briefe seiner Freunde," etc.,
1841.

Klicpera, klits'peh-ra, (VACLAW KLIMENT,) a Bohe-
mian dramatist, born at Chlumec in 1792; died in 1859.

Kliiigemann, kling'e-man, (CARL,) a German littl-
rattu*-, born at Limmer, Hanover, in 1798. He wrote the
words for many of Mendelssohn's songs and other com-
positions. Died September 25, 1862.

Klimrath, klaN'rit', (HENRI,) a French jurist, born
at Strasbourg in 1807 ; died in 1837.

Klingemann, kling'eh-man', (KNST AUGUST FRIED-
RICH,) a German dramatic poet, and director of the court
theatre at Brunswick, where he was born in 1 777. Among
his best works are "Luther," "Henry the Lion," and
"German Fidelity," ("Deutsche Treue.") Died in 1831.

See "Foreign Quarterly Review*' for November, 1827.

Klingenstierna, kling'en-sheR'na, (SAMUEL,) an
eminent Swedish philosopher and mathematician, born
near Linkoping about 1690, was educated at Upsal.
Having visited Germany, he became the friend and dis-
ciple of the celebrated Wolf. Upon his return to Swe-
den, in 1730, he was appointed professor of mathematics,
and was subsequently chosen tutor to the crown-prince,
(Gustavus III.) He performed the duties of this office
with great ability, receiving as a reward the order of the
Polar Star and the title of councillor of state. He was
a Fellow of the Royal Societies of London and of Upsal.
Klingenstierna wrote a work on refracting telescopes,
which obtained the prize offered by the Academy of
Sciences of Saint Petersburg, a treatise on the height of
the atmosphere, (1732,) and various other productions.
Died at Stockholm in 1785.

See MARTIN STROEMER, " Aminnelse-Tal ofver S. Klingen-
tierna," 1785; ADELUNG and JOCHHR, "Allgemeines Gelehrten-
Lexikon. "

Klinger, kling'er, (FRIEDRICH MAXIMILIAN,) a Ger-
man litterateur, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main in Febru-
ary, 1753. Having visited Russia in 1780, he became
reader to the grand duke Paul, whom he accompanied
on his travels. In 1811 he was created lieutenant-general.
He published poems, dramas, and romances. Died at
Saint Petersburg in 1831. His drama entitled "Storm and
Stress, or Impulse," ("Sturm und Drang," 1775,) had a
great success, and gave a name to a period of German
literature, (" Die Sturm-und-Drang Periode,") which,



says Gervinus, "was an epoch of the revolt of nature
against civilization, of simplicity against conventionality,
of youth against age, of the heart against reason," etc.

See GERVINUS, "Geschichte der Deutschcn Dichtung;" "Nou-
velle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Klingsor von TJngerland, kling'soR fon oong'er-
llnt', a German minnesinger and astrologer of the thir-
teenth century, supposed by some writers to have been
the author of the famous "Nibelui'gen-Lied," while
others regard him as a fabulous personage.

Klingstadt, Klingstaedt, or KUngstet, kling'stet,
(CLAUDIUS GUSTAV,) a miniature-painter in the suite
of the regent Duke of Orleans, born at Riga in 1657 ;
died at Paris in 1734.

Klio. See CLIO.

Klocker, klok'ker, or Kloker. klo'ker, (DAVID,) a
portrait and historical painter, born at Hamburg in 1629.
In early life he went as secretary of legation to Sweden,
where he was appointed to give lessons in drawing to
Queen Christina. He was afterwards liberally patron-
ized by Charles X. Died at Stockholm in 1698.

See ERSCH und GRUBER, "Allgemeine Encyklopaedte."

Kloosterman. See CLOSTERMAN, QOHANN.)

Klopp, (ONNO,) a German historian, born at Leer
October 9, 1822. He studied at Bonn, Berlin, and Got
tingen, and became an archivist attached to the court
of the King of Hanover. He afterwards went to Austria.
He wrote a "History of East Friesland," (1854-81,)
"Frederick II. of Prussia," (1860,) "The Fall of the
House of Stuart," (1875-76, in 4 vols.,) etc.

Klopatock, klop'stok, (FRIEDRICH GOTTLIEB,) i
celebrated German poet, born at Quedlinburg, July 2,
1724. He early cherished the ambition of writing an epic
poem. About 1746 he went to Jena to study theology,
ind in 1747 removed to Leipsic. He produced in
1748 the first three cantos of his "Messiah," which
had immense success and opened a new era in German
poetry. In 1749 he was employed as tutor in a family
at Langensalza. He removed in 1751 to Copenhagen,
at the invitation of the king, Frederick V., whc j;ave
him a pension of four hundred thalers that he might
have leisure to complete his great poem. In 1754 he
married Margaret (Meta) Moller, an accomplished and
literary woman, whom he has commemorated in odes
and elegies under the name of "Cidli." He remained
twenty years at Copenhagen, where he was patronized
by Count Bernstorff and Count Moltke. In 1755 he pub-
lished five more cantos of the "Messiah." He cherished
the idea that he had a great poetical mission. " This
idea of an epic priesthood," says Taillandier, " gradually
became a reality. He transferred to his poem the events
of his life ; he regulated his life by the inspirations of
his poem." " By his character and conduct," says Goethe
in his Autobiography, "Klopstock had succeeded in
creating attention and respect for himself and other men
of talent. ... At this time Klopstock came forward
and offered his 'Learned Republic' for subscriptions.
Although the later cantos of the ' Messiah' could not
have the effect of the earlier, partly on account of their
contents, partly on account of their mode of treating the
subject, which came pure and innocent into a pure and
innocent time, the esteem for the poet remained un-
changed." The same writer remarks, " On the whole,
one might have taken him for a diplomatist. He carried
himself with the self-conscious dignity of a person who
has a great moral mission to fulfil."

In 1758 he was greatly afflicted by the death of his
wife. He settled at Hamburg in 1771, and published
in 1773 the last cantos of his "Messiah." The general
sentiment of his contemporaries in relation to this poem
is thus expressed by Madame de Stael, in her " Tableau
de 1'Allemagne :" " When the reader commences this
poem, he receives an impression like that of a person
entering a grand cathedral filled with the music of an
Drgan. " His admirers compared him to Homer and
Milton; but more sober critics censure his sentimen-
:ality, monotony, and lack of action. Although his
"Messiah" is seldom read at the present time, all the
German schools unite in the expression of honour and
rratitude to the author for the impulse which he gave
to the national literature. The finest qualities of his



a. e, I, o, u, y, long; i. e. 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short: a, e, i, Q, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; nit; g,obd; moon.



KLOSE



1447



KNEELAND



genius are displayed in his odes, some of which are con-
sidered as classic models of the noble and the graceful.
He also wrote a number of sacred dramas, among which
is "The Death of Adam." About 1792 he married a
widow named Von Winthem. He died at Hamburg in
March, 1803.

See HEINRICH DURING, " F. G. Klopstock's Biographic," 1853;
CRAMER, " Klopstock er und iiber ihn," 5 vots., 1780-93; Miss
BKNGBR, "Klopstock and his Friends," 1814; H. DORING, "Klop-
stock's Leben," 1825 ; JOHANN G. GRUBER, " Klopstocks Leben,"
1832; BON JOSEPH DACIER, " E"loge de Klopstock," Paris, 1805;
F. L. MOLTKB, " Ara D. M. F. G Klopstock," Altona, 1818: LONG-
FELLOW, "Poets and Poetry of Europe ;" "Foreign Quarterly Re-
view" for January, 1843 ; GEKVINUS, " Geschichte der Deutschen
Dichtung ;" ALEXANDER TOLHAUSBN, "Klopstock, Lessing, and
Wieland: Treatise on German Literature," London, 1848; " Nou-
velle Biographic Gene'rale."

Kloae, klos, (F. J.,) an English musical composer and
kilfal pianist, was born in London ; died in 1830.

Klotz, klots, [Lat. KLOT'ZIUS,] (CHRISTIAN ADOL-
PHUS,) a learned German critic and poet, born at Bischofs-
werda, near Dresden, in 1738. He studied at Leipsic
and Jena, and in 1762 became professor of philosophy
at Gbttingen. He was appointed by the King of Prussia
professor of rhetoric at Halle in 1765, with the title of
aulic councillor. He wrote numerous commentaries and
short treatises, among which are " Ridicula Literaria,"
(1762,) "Acta Literaria," (7 vols., 1764-73,) and "Lec-
tiones Venusinae," (1771.) Died in 1771.

See C. HAUSEN, " Leben und Charakter C. A. Klotzens," 1772 ;
C. G. VON MURR, "Denkmal zur Ehre des Herrn Klotz," 1772;
MANGELSDORF, "Vila et Memoria Klotzii," 1772.

Klotz, (MATTHIAS,) a German painter of portraits
and landscapes, born at Strasburg in 1748 ; died in 1821.
His three sons, CASPAR, SIMON, and JOSEPH, acquired
distinction in the same departments of painting.

Klotz, (REINHOLD,) a German critic and scholar, born
at Stollberg in 1807, succeeded Hermann as professor of
philology at Leipsic in 1849. He published editions of
Terence, of the " Phoenissas" and " Medea" of Euripides,
and other works. Died August 10, 1870.

Klotz, (SiMON,) a German painter of history and
landscapes, born at Mannheim in 1777, was a son of
Matthias, noticed above. Died in 1825.

Klotzius. See KLOTZ, (CHRISTIAN ADOLPHUS.)

Klotziua, klot'se-us, (STEPHEN,) a German theolo-
gian, born at Lippstadt in 1606 ; died in 1668.

Kliiber or Klueber, klii'ber, (JOHANN LuDWio,) a
German jurist and writer of high reputation, was born
near Fulda in 1762. He became professor of law at
Heidelberg in 1807, soon after which date he was coun-
cillor of state at Carlsruhe. In 1817 his friend Prince
Hardenberg procured for him a high office in the min-
istry of foreign affairs at Berlin. He acquired distinc-
tion by a history of the Congress of Vienna, " Acten des
Wiener Congresses in den Jahren 1814 und 1815," (9
vols., 1815-35,) a "d other works. Died in 1837.

See MORSTADT, " Kliibers Leben," prefixed to Ki. USER'S " Of-
fentliches Recht des Deutschen Bundes," 1840; " Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Ge'nerale. "

Klueber. See KLUBER.

KluegeL See KLUGEL.

Klugel, klu'gel, (GEORG SIMON,) a German mathema-
tician, born at Hamburg in 1739. He became in 1766
professor of mathematics at Helmstedt. Among his
principal works is "Elements of Astronomy," (1819.)
Died in 1812.

Kluit, kloit, ( ADRIAAN,) a Dutch historical writer, born
at Dort in 1735. In 1779 he was appointed professor
of the archaeology of Holland and of diplomatic history


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 57 of 425)