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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Neckar, in 1733 ! d ' ed in '806.

Koltzof or Kolzov, kolt'spf, ( ALEXEI VASILIE-
VTTCH,) a Russian poet, born in the government of
Voronezh in 1809. His "Russian Songs and Ballads"
are ranked among the best productions of the kind in
the language. Died in 1842.



Komnenos. See COMNENUS.

Konarski, ko-naR'skee, (STANISLAS JEROME,) a
Polish poet and /#ro/<r, born at Konary, near Cracow,
in 1700. He founded a college of Piarists at Warsaw.
He published numerous works which contributed to
reform the national literature. Died in 1773.

See KHAJEWSKI, " filoge historique de Konarski," Warsaw, 77*3

Konewka, ko-nSw'ka, (PAUL,) a Potsh artist, born
about 1840, was noted for his skilful silhouette illustra-
tions. Died at Berlin in 1871.

Kong-Fou-Tse. See CONFUCIUS.

Kong-Fu-Tse. See CONFUCIUS.

Konig or Koenig, ko'nic, (CHRISTIAN GOTTLIEB,) a
German poet, born at Altorf in 1711 ; died in 1782.

Konig or Koenig, ko'nic, (EMANUEL,) a Swiss natu-
ralist and medical writer, born at Bale in 1658. Among
his works is "Regnum Vegetabile," (1680.) Died in
73i-

Konig or Koenig, (FRIEDRICH,) the inventor of the
steam-press, was born at Eisleben, in Germany, in 1775.
About 1807 he visited London, where he was aided in
carrying out his plans by Bensley, Taylor, and Woodfall.
In 1811 a sheet of the " Annual Register" was printed,
being the first that was done by a printing-machine by
which the paper was applied to the type by a revolving
cylinder. In November, 1814, a number of the "Times"
was printed by a steam press on the principle of Konig's
invention : it is said to have been the first newspaper
ever printed by steam-power. After his return to Ger-
many, Konig, in conjunction with his friend Bauer, es-
tablished at Oberzell, near Wurzburg, a manufactory
for the construction of printing-machines, four hundred
of which had in 1853 been sent forth from it After the
death of Konig, in 1833, the business was carried on by
Bauer.

See " Nouvelle Biographic G^ndrale."

Konig or Koenig, (GEORG MATTHIAS,) a German
writer and scholar, bora at Altdorf, in Franconia, in 1616,
was appointed in 1667 professor of poetry in his native
city. Among his works are a " Latin-and-German Lexi-
con," (1668,) and a Biographical Dictionary of Authors,
(" Bibliotheca Vetus et Nova," 1678.) Died in 1699.

See BAYLE, "Historical and Critical Dictionary;" NICERON,
"Me"moires."

Konig or Koenig, (HEINRICH JOSEPH,) a German
novelist, born at Fulda in 1790. Among his best works
are "The Waldenses," (1836,) "William Shakspeare,"
(1839,) and "The Clubbists of Mentz," ("Die Clubisten
von Mainz," 1847 :) the last named, a historical romance,
is especially admired. He was secretary of finance at
Hanau from 1819 to 1835. Died in 1869.

See N. GRBTCH, " H. Konig and seine Liigen ; Seitenstiick zu
Nic. Gretsch und die Russische Literatur in Deutschland," 1840.

Konig or Koenig, (JOHANN GERARD,) a botanist, and
pupil of Linnaeus, born in Livonia in 1728. He visited
Iceland and the East Indies, and wrote several treatises
on botany, which he left in manuscript Died at Tran-
quebar in 1785.

Konig or Koenig, (SAMUEL,) an eminent mathema-
tician, son of Samuel Heinrich, noticed below, was born
at Budingen in 1712. He was professor of mathematics
at Franeker, and professor of philosophy and law at the
Hague. Died in 1757.

Konig or Koenig, (SAMUEL HEINRICH,) a Swiss
Orientalist and theologian, born about 1670 at Berne,
where he became professor of mathematics and Oriental
languages in 1731. Died in 1750.

Konig or Koninck, (SOLOMON.) See CONINCK.

Konigshoven or Koenigshoven, kS'nips-ho'ven,
also known as JAMES TWINGER, an ecclesiastic, born at
Strasburg in 1346. He wrote, in Latin and German,
" Chronicles of Strasburg." Died in 1420.

See OBERLIN, " De Jacobo Twingero," etc, 1789.

Konigsmarck or Koenigsmarck, von, fon ko'-
nics-maRk', written also KSnigsmark, [LaL KONIGS-
MAR'KIUS,] (JOHANN CHRISTOPH,) COUNT, a celebrated
jeneral, born in Germany in 1600, entered the service
of Gustavus Adolphus in 1630. After the death of the
King of Sweden, he defeated the Austrians in the battle
of Wolfenbiittel. He also invaded Bohemia, and captured
Prague, in 1648. He was afterwards appointed Governor



9asj; gfiard; g as/; G, H, ^guttural; n,nasal; R. trilled: s as z; thasinMu. (J^=See Explanations, p. 23.1



KONIGSMARCK



1454



KOPPEN



tf the duchies of Bremen and Verden. Queen Christina
created him count and field-marshal. Died in 1663.
See " Eterna Gloria J. C. Konigsmarkii," Holm, 1664.

Konigsmarck, Koenigsmarck, or Konigsmark,
von, (MARIA AURORA,) COUNTESS, a granddaughter of
the preceding, celebrated for her beauty and accomplish-
ments, was born in Bremen about 1670. She was the
mistress of Frederick Augustus, Elector of Saxony and
King of Poland, by whom she had a son, Maurice Count
de Saxe, afterwards famous as a French general. In
1702 she was sent by the Elector to treat with Charles
XII. That monarch refused to see her; "but she
returned," says Voltaire, " with the satisfaction of be-
lieving that she was the only person feared by the King of
Sweden." The Countess of Konigsmarck spoke several
languages with great fluency and correctness. She com-
posed a poem on Charles XII., written in the purest
French. Died in 1728.

See CRAMER, 4I Denkwiirdigkeiten der M. A- Konigsmark," 2
vols., 1836; CORVIN-WIERSBITZKY, "Maria Aurora Grafin von
Konigsmark," 1841 ; " Foreign Quarterly Review" for April, 1837.

Konigsmarck, von, (OTTO WILHF.LM,) COUNT, son
of Johann Christoph, noticed above, was born in West-
phalia in 1639. He subsequently served with great dis-
tinction in the French army under Turenne and with
the Swedish army in Germany. In 1686 he was created
generalissimo of the Venetian republic, for which he
gained several victories over the Turks. Died in 1688.

Konigsmark or Koenigamaik. ko'nios-maRk', (Fi-
LIP CHRISTOFER,) COUNT, a Swedish officer, born about
1640, was a favourite lover of Sophia Dorothea, the wife
of George, Elector of Hanover. This prince, it is said,
caused him to be assassinated in 1694.

See SAINT SIMON, " NUmoires ;" BLAZS DK BURY, " Episode de
I'Histoire du Hanovre."

Koiiigsmarkius. See KONIGSMARCK.

Koninck. See CONINCK.

Koning, ko'ning, (CORNELIS,) a Dutch engraver, born
at Haarlem about 1524, engraved portraits of celebrated
men, including Luther and Calvin.

Koning, (JACOB,) a Dutch painter of landscapes and
history, born at Amsterdam about 1645. He went to
Copenhagen, and worked for the King of Denmark.

Koning, de, (DAVID.) See CONINCK.

Koning or Koninck, de, deh ko'ning, (PHILIPP,)
an able Dutch painter, born at Amsterdam in 1619, was
a pupil of Rembrandt He was a good colorist, and
excelled in landscapes and portraits. Died in 1689.

Kouon. See CONON.

Konrad. See CONRAD.

Konstantjjn or Konstantyn. See CONSTANTIN*
THE GREAT.

Kontski, kont'skee, (MARTIN,) a Polish general, born
in 1635, served with distinction under John Sobieski. He
directed the artillery in the great battle against the Turks
at Vienna in 1683. Died in 1710.

Konz, (KARL PHILIPP.) See CONZ.

Kooang or Kouang, koo-ang', (almost kwang,) a
Chinese statesman and celebrated historian, born in the
province of Shen-see or Chen-si about 1018 A.D. He
wrote an important work on the history of China. Died
in 1086.

See MAII.LA, " Histoire ge'ne'rale de la Chine."

Kooblai (Koublai or Kublai) Khan, koo'bll' Kin,
(Shee-Tsoo or Chi-Tsou, shee-tsoo,) the founder of
the Mongol dynasty of China, was a grandson of Jengi-
Khan. He began to reign over the north part of China
about 1260, soon after which date he conquered the
southern provinces and became master of a vast empire
extending from the Polar Sea to the Straits of Malacca,
a;id including Thibet, Tartary, Siam, etc. He is said to
have been an able ruler. In his reign Marco Polo visited
China. Died in 1294.

Koogen, van der, vln der kS'gen, (LEONARD,) a
Flemish painter, born at Haarlem in 1610, was also an
etcher. Died in 1681.

Koolee Khan. See NADIR SHAH.

Koolnef, Koulneff, or Kulnew, kool-nef, (YAKOF,)
a Russian general, born in 1763. He was killed at the
battle of the Drissa, in July, 1812.

Koorakin or Kourakiii, koo'rl-keen' or koo'rl-kin',
(ALEXANDER BoRlsoviTCH,) PRINCE, a Russian diplo-



matist, born in 1752, was a favourite courtier of Paul I.
He was ambassador at Paris from 1808 to 1812. Eied
in 1818.

Koorakin or Kourakin, ( BORIS IVANOVITCH, )
PRINCE, a Russian diplomatist, born in 1677, was a
brother-in-law of Peter I. He was sent to Rome on a
political mission by that emperor. Died in 1727.

Koornhert See CORNHERT.

Kooten, van, vtn k5'ten, (THEODORUS,) a Latin poet,
born in Holland in 1749; died in 1814.

Kootooz or Kfitfiz, (Kothouz,) kdo-tooz' or koo'-
tooz',* written also Kotouz, (Mahmood Seif-ed-
Deen Malek Modhaffer, maH'mood' sif ed-deen' mo'-
dhaPfer,) became Sultan of Egypt in 1 259 bv usurpation.
He defeated the Tartars in Syria. He was assassinated
by Bibars in 1260.

Kootoozof, Koutouzof, Koutousof, or Kutu-
sow, koo-too'zof, (MICHAEL LAURIONOVITCH GOLENI-
TCHEF,) a celebrated Russian commander, born in 1745,
served against the Poles and the Turks, and rose to be
lieutenant-general in 1789. In 1793 he was ambassador
to Constantinople, and on the accession of the emperor
Paul was charged with a mission to Berlin. After the
assassination of that sovereign he was appointed gov-
ernor-general of Saint Petersburg, and in 1805 was
created commander-in-chief of the first corps of the
Russian army against the French. He gained a victory
over Marshal Mortier at Durrenstein, and soon after
commanded the allied army under the emperor Alex-
ander at Austerlitz, (1805.) In 1812, at the age of sixty-
seven, he succeeded Barclay de Tolly as commander-
in-chief of the Russian array, a few days before the
battle of Borodino. For his victories over Ney and
Davoust the emperor bestowed upon him the surname
of Smolenskoi. He died in 1813, at Buntzlau, where a
monument was erected to him.

See S6GUR. " Hisloire de Napole'on et de la grande Annie ;"
MIKHAILOVSKY-DANILKVSKY, "Vie du Feld-Mare"chal KoutouzofiV
translated from the Russian by FIZBLIKR, 1850; " Nouvelle Biogra-
phic Ge'ne'rale."

Kopernicus. See COPERNICUS.

Kopernik. See COPERNICUS.

Kopievitch, ko-pe-a'vitch, written also Kopieu-
vicz, (ELIAS,) a Russian philologist, who was sent by
Peter the Great to Holland in order to complete his
studies. Among his works are a Latin Grammar for Rus-
sian schools, and a Slavonic-and-German Dictionary.
Died in 1701.

Kopiach, ko'pish, (AUGUST,) a German poet and
artist, born at Breslau in 1799 ; died in 1853.

Kopitar, ko'pe-taR', (BARTHOLOMAUS,) a philologist,
born in Carniola in 1780, was appointed first keeper of
the Imperial Library at Vienna, (1843.) He published
in 1808 a " Grammar of the Slavonian Language in Car-
niola, Carinthia, and Styria." Died in 1844.

Kopp, kop, (JoHANN ADAM,) a German publicist,
born at Offenbach in 1698. He wrote, besides other
works, a " History of the Law which now prevails in
Germany," (" Historia Juris quo hodie in Germania
utimur, 1741.) Died in 1748.

Kopp, kop, (JOSEPH EUTYCH,) a Swiss historian, born
at Munster, in Lucerne, in 1793. Among his works is a
" History of the Swiss Leagues," ( Biinde,) (4 vols., 1845-
57.) Kopp discredits the popular tradition of William
Tell. Died October 25, 1866.

Kopp, (ULRICH FRIEDRICH,) a German antiquary,
born at Cassel in 1762, became director of the court
archives in 1802. His " Palaeographia critica" (1817) is
much esteemed. Died in 1834.

Koppe, kop'peh, (JOHANN BENJAMIN,) a German
theologian, born at Dantzic in 1750. He published
several exegetical works, and left unfinished an edition
of the New Testament in Greek, (3 vols.) Died in 1791.

See HOPPBNSTEDT, " Ueber den verstorbenen J. B. Koppe,"
1791.

Koppen or Koeppen, kb'p'pen, (ADOLPHUS Louis,)
a Danish scholar and writer, born at Copenhagen iu
1804. In 1834 he visited Greece, where he was appointed
professor of history, archaeology, and modern languages

There is some discrepancy in the mode of writing this name.
Abulpharagius more frequently gives both syllables long. See
Pocock's edition, Oxford, 1663.



a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, o, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y\ short; a, e, i, Q, obscure; far, fill, lit; m?t; not; good; moon;



KOPPEN



1455



KOSCIUSKO



at the military college in JEgina. He removed in 1846 to
America, where he became in 1854 professor of history
aesthetics, and modern languages in Franklin and Mar
shall College, Pennsylvania. He published " The Work
in the Middle Ages," (1854,) etc. Died April 14, 1873.
Koppeii or Koeppen, kop'pen, (CARL FRIEDRICH,;
a German writer, born about 1800, became assistant pro-
fessor in one of the principal gymnasiums of Berlin. He
published in 18483 treatise "On the Divine Right of
Kings," ("De Jure Divino,") which was condemned by
the government and forbidden to be reprinted. His
work entitled " The Religion of Booddha and its Origin'
(" Die Religion des Buddha und ihre Entstehung," 1857^
is regarded as one of the best treatises on that subject.
He also published "The Lamaic System of Religion,'
etc., (" Lamaische Hierarchic," 1859.)

Kbppen or Koeppen, kop'pen, (FRIEDRICH,) a Ger
man writer on philosophy, born at Lubeck in 1775. He
Decame pastor of a church at Bremen in 1804, and pro-
fessor of philosophy at Erlangen in 1827. Among his
works is "The Philosophy of Christianism," (2 vols.,
1813-15.) Died in 1858.

Koppenor Koeppen, (JOHANN HEINRICH JUSTUS,
a German philologist, born at Hanover in 1755. He
published a Greek Anthology, (3 vols., 1787,) "Com-
mentary on Homer's Iliad," (5 vols., 1787-92,) and other
works. Died in 1791.

Kbppen, kop'pen, (PETER,) a Russian writer, born at
Kharkov in 1793, published several works on the antiqui-
ties and statistics of Russia, and a valuable " Ethnograph-
ical Chart of European Russia," (1851.) Died in 1864.
Koprili, kb'pre-lee, written also Coprogli and Kiu
perli, (MEHEMET,) an eminent Turkish commander,
born at Kopri, in Asia Minor, in 1585, rose from the
station of a cook to be grand vizier at Constantinople in
1656. He took Tenedos and Lemnos from the Vene-
tians, and obtained other advantages over the enemies
of the Sultan. As a ruler he showed great energy and
prudence, and effected important reformations in the
condition of the country. Died in 1661.

Koprili, (MUSTAFA,) surnamed THE VIRTUOUS, son
of the preceding, was appointed grand vizier by Solyman
III. in 1689. Died in 1691.

Koprili-Fazil-Ahmed, (or -Achmed,) ko'pre-lee
fi'zil an'med, a brother of the preceding, born in 1626,
succeeded Mehemet Koprili as grand vizier. He gained
several important victories over the Hungarians and the
Poles, and took the island of Candia. Died in 1676.
See VON HAMMER. "Geschichte des Osmanischen Reichs."
Kops, kops, (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a Belgian landscape-
painter, born about 1800.
Koray. See CORAY.

Kordes, koR'des. (BERNHARD,) a German writer,
born at Lubeck in 1762. He lived at Kiel. Died in 1823.
Koren, (MosES OF.) See MOSES CHORENENSIS.
Korenatz. See MOSES CHORENENSIS.
Korf, koRf, (ANDREI,) BARON, a Russian publicist
and senator, born near Mittau in 1715 ; died in 1823.

Korf, (NICHOLAS,) BARON, a Russian minister of state
under Peter III., was born in 1710; died in 1766.
Korinna. See CORINNA.
Koruelisz. See CORNEI.ISZ.

Korner or Koerner, kbR'ner, (CHRISTIAN GOTT-
FRIED,) born at Leipsic in 1756, was the father of Theo-
dor Korner, and an intimate friend of Schiller. He was
also a correspondent of Goethe. It was in his beautiful
vineyard near Dresden that Schiller wrote " Don Car-
los." Died in 1831.

Kbrner or Koerner, (KARL THEODOR,) one of the
most celebrated German poets, was born in Dresden in
1791. He studied at Leipsic and Berlin, and displayed
at an early age a rare poetical genius. Among his first
productions were the popular comedies of "The Green
Domino," (1812,) and "The Watchman," (1812.) He
was one of the first to enlist in the war against Napoleon ;
and, inspired with patriotic enthusiasm and a keen sense
of his country's wrongs, he produced some of the most
spirited and beautiful martial lyrics in the German lan-
guage. These were published under the title of "The
Lyre and the Sword," (1814.) Kbrner was also the
author of two popular tragedies, " Rosamunda," (1812,)



and "Zriny," (1813.) He fell in battle near Rosenberg,
in 1813, at the age of twenty-two.

See F. W. LEHMANN, " Lebensbeschreibung K. T. Koerner'a,"
1815; H. A. ERHARD, "T. Koerner's Leben,"etc, 1821 ; H. BLAZE,
" Ecrivains et Poetes de 1'AllemaRne," 1851 : " Nouvelle Biographic
GeWrale :" LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe ;" " Black-
wood's Magazine" for October, 1820, and February, 1821.

Kornmann, koRn'mJn, (HEINRICH,) a German writer
and lawyer, born in Wurtemberg ; died about 1620.

Kbrbsi. See CSOMA.

Kbrbsi, kb'Rb-shee, (JoszEF,) a Hungarian statistician,
born at Pesth, April 20, 1844. He has published many
volumes regarding Hungarian populations, finances,
trade, prices, railways, etc.

Kdrte or Koerte, kbR'teh, (WILHELM,) a German
writer, born at Aschersleben in 1766. He published,
among other works, a "Life of Gleim," (1811,) who was
his great-uncle, and a "Life of Carnot," (1820.) Died
in 1846.

Kortholt, koRt'holt, [Lat. KORTHOL'TUS,] (CHRIS-
TIAN,) a Lutheran theologian and ecclesiastical historian,
born at Burg, in Holstein, in 1633. About 1665 he was
appointed professor of divinity in the University of Kiel.
He published numerous religious treatises, of which we
may name "On the Pagan, Mohammedan, and Jewish
Religions," (1666,) "Of the Three Impostors Herbert,
Hobbes, and Spinosa," (1680,) "On the Origin and Na-
ture of Christianity," and " On the State and Progress
of Schools and Academies, especially in Germany." Died
in 1694.

See LINDEMANN, " Memoria C. Kortholti," 1694.

Kortholt, (CHRISTIAN,) a Danish or German theo-
logian, son of Sebastian, noticed below, was born at
Kiel in 1709. He became professor of divinity at Got-
tingen. He published "The Letters of Leibnitz," (4
vols., 1 734-42,) and wrote, besides other works, (in Latin,)
an "Essay on the Enthusiasm of Mohammed," (1745.)
Died in 1751.

ee AYRBR, " Memoria C. Kortholti," 1751.

Kortholt, (SEBASTIAN,) a son of Christian, noticed
above, (1633-94,) and the father of the preceding, was
born at Kiel about 1670. He was a man of great learn-
ing, and wrote many literary essays. Died about 1740.

Kortholtus. See KORTHOLT.

Kortiim or Kortuem, koR'tum, (JOHANN FRIEDRICH
CHRISTOPH,) a German historian, born in Mecklenburg-
Strelitz in 1788, became professor of history at Heidel-
berg in 1840. He wrote, among other works, a " History
of the Political Constitution of Greece," and a " History
of the Middle Ages," (2 vols., 1837.) Died in 1858.

Kortiim or Kortuem, (KARL ARNOLD,) a German
physician and satiric poet, born at Miilheim-an-der-Ruhr
n 1745, published a mock-heroic poem entitled "The
lobsiad ; or, The Life, Opinions, and Deeds of Jerome
Jobs the Candidate," (1784.) Died in 1824. An English
translation of "The Jobsiad," by Rev. Charles T. Brooks,
was published in Philadelphia in 1863.

Kosciusko, kos-se-iis'ko, [Polish, KOSCIUSZKO, kdsh-
yoo'sko,] (THADDEUS,) an illustrious Polish patriot and
;eneral, of noble family, born in Lithuania, February 12,
1746. Having studied at the military academy of Ver-
sailles, he embarked about 1777 for America, where he
Fought with distinction at New York and Yorktown and
acquired the friendship of Washington. He returned
to Poland in 1786, but, his country being soon after sub-
jected to Russia, he retired to Leipsic. On the break-
ng out of the revolution of 1794, he was appointed
commander of the Polish army, and defeated the Russians
with greatly superior numbers at Raclawice. For two
months he defended Warsaw against the united forces
of Russia and Prussia, but, overpowered at last by fresh
roops advancing under Fersen, suffered a total defeat at
tfaciejowice, where he was wounded and taken prisoner
n October, 1794. After two years' imprisonment, he was
eleased by the emperor Paul, who offered him his sword,
which Kosciusko refused, saying "he had no need of a
sword, since he had no longer a country." When solicited
>y Napoleon to aid him in his ambitious schemes with
egard to Poland, he steadily refused ; and the proclama-
ion to the Poles, which appeared in the "Moniteur"
under his name in 1806, was declared by him a forgery



,- casj.- s,fmrii: pas;: G, \\,v.,jpitttiral; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz: thasinMu.



: Explanations, p. 23.)



KOSEGARTEN



1456



KOTZEBUE



He died in 1817, at Soleure, in Switzerland, having
previously written to the emperor Alexander entreat-
ing him to give to Poland a free constitution. He also
abolished serfdom on his Polish domain.



" Kosciuszko, Legenda democratyczna," translated from the French
by GODEBESKI, 1831: "Nouvelle Biographic Generate ;" "Foreign
Quarterly Review" for March, 1835.

Kosegarten, ko'zeh-gaR'ten, (JoHANN GOTTFRIED
LUDWIG,) son of Ludwig Theobul, noticed below, was
born in the island of Riigen in 1792. Having studied
philology in Paris, he became in 1824 professor of Ori-
ental languages at Greifswalde. He translated into
German the Hindoo poem "Nala," (1820,) and made
several versions from the Persian. He also published
editions of the "Moalakat," and other Arabic works.
Died in i8 f 'O.

Kosegarten, (Luowio THEOBUL,) a German divine
and poet, was born at Grevismiihlen, in Mecklenburg
in 1758. He became in 1808 professor of history at
Greifswalde, and subsequently of theology, and rector
of the university. His romance of " Ida von Plessen,"
(1788,) as well as his "Legends" and lyric poems, enjoy
a wide popularity. He also made several translations
from the Danish and English : among the latter is Rich-
ardson's "Clarissa," Died in 1818.

See LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe."

Koslof, kos'lof, or Kozlov, koz'lof, (IVAN IVANO-
VITCH,) a Russian poet, born in 1774, made a number
of excellent translations from the English. His poems,
written after he became blind, are distinguished for their
melody of versification and tender pathos. Among the
most admired of these is "The Monk," ("Tchernets.")
Died in 1838.

See E. MECHERSKI, "Les Poftes Russes."

Koslovski, (M. I.) See KOZLOFSKL

Kos-lov'ski. (Ossip ANTONOVITCH,) a popular Rus-
sian composer, produced, among other works, a ' Re-
quiem" of great beauty, and composed the music lor
Oserot's tragedy of "Fingal." Died in 1831.

Koamaa. See COSMAS.

Kossuth, kosh'oot, (Louis,) an eminent Hungarian
orator and statesman, born of a noble family at Monok,
in the county of Zemplin, in 1802. He studied law at the
Protestant college of Sarospatak, and joined the popular
party in opposing the despotic policy of Austria. Having
offended the government by his writings, he was impris-
oned three years, (1837-40.) The Diet of 1840 refused to
grant supplies during the imprisonment of Kossuth, who
was consequently liberated. In 1841 he married Theresa
Meszlenyi, and began to edit a daily paper at Pesth, called
" Pesti-Hirlap," the tone of which was liberal, but not
radical or democratic. He was elected a member of the
Diet by the national party of Pesth in 1847, ar| d acquired
a high reputation as an orator. In March, 1848, the
Diet adopted a proposition made by Kossuth, the object
of which was the appointment of a responsible Hun-
garian ministry, as a pledge of constitutional reforms.
Kossuth and others were sent as a deputation to Vienna,
and obtained the assent of the emperor, then conscious
of the pressure of a powerful revolutionary movement.
Kossuth induced the Diet to vote the perfect equality of
civil rights and public burdens for all classes, and to
extend the right of suffrage. He became minister of
5nance in the new ministry formed in April, 1848. Al-
though the benefits of these reforms were shared by the
Croatians and Servians, an anti-Magyar party was soon
formed in Croatia by the intrigues of Austrian agents.
The Croatians, directed by Jellachich and secretly aided
by Austria, revolted against Hungary, and began hos-
tilities by the massacre of villagers on the frontier. In
June, 1848, the Austrian court openly sanctioned the
movements of the Croatian insurgents. Kossuth believed
that the time had come to defend by arms the constitu-
tion and the national independence. He called for the
levy of 200,000 men, which was granted by the Diet In
September, 1848, Jellachich was defeated in battle, and


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 60 of 425)