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Kossuth was elected president of a committee of de-
fence. After the second insurrection at Vienna, October,
1848, the Hungarian army advanced to the assistance

of the Liberals of that capital, but was repulsed at
Schwechat The Austrian general Windischgratz then
invaded Hungary, took Pesth, and committed great atro-
cities. A war of extermination fallowed, and the Austrians
were defeated in several battles. In April, 1849, the
Hungarians renounced allegiance to the house of Haps-
burg, and chose Kossuth governor or dictator. But the
intervention of Russia rendered the heroic efforts and
sacrifices of the Hungarians unavailing. The victories
gained by Dembinski, Klapka, and Bern served merely
to prolong the national agony. Kossuth, after a dis-
agreement with Gorgey, whom he accused of treachery,
resigned his office on the I ith of August, 1849, and went
into exile. He retired to Turkey, and was imprisoned
at Kutaieh. Through the intervention of England and
the United States, ne was released in August, 1851,
visiting those countries in that year and being received
with enthusiastic popular demonstrations. He made
several admirable speeches in the English language, of
which he had acquired a wonderful mastery. He re-
sided for several years in England, and later in Turin,
Italy, where he died, March 20, 1894.

See P. C. HBADLKY, " Life of L. Kossuth," 1851 ; HORN, " Louis
Kossuth," 1851; "Kossuth, von einem Ungam," Leipsic, 1854;
"Kossuth in England und seine Reden," etc., 1851 ; KLAPKA, "Me-
moiren," 1850; L. Kossuth, Dictator von Ungarn," Mannheim,
1849 : " Hungary and its Revolutions, with a Memoir ot L. Kossuth."

Kosta-Ibn-Looka, (or -Ldka,) kos'ta ib'n loo'ki,
written also Costha-Ben-Louka, an excellent Arabian
scholar and translator, born at Balbec, flourished from
about 870 to 900 A.D. He translated several Greek works
into Arabic, and wiote original treatises on philosophy,
logic, medicine, etc.

Koster. See COSTER.

Kos'ter or Cos'ter, (LAURENS JANSZOON,) a Dutch
printer, born at Haarlem about 1370, is supposed by
some writers to have invented the art of printing. Ac-
cording to one tradition, he kept his art a secret, but it
was stolen by one of his workmen, named John Fust
Died about 1440.

See A. F. DIDOT, "Essai sur la Typographic;" AUGUSTS BE-
NARD, "Histoire de 1'Origine de I'lmpnmerie."

Kostliii or Koestlin, kost-leen', (CHRISTIAN REIN-
HOLD,) a German jurist and novelist, born at Tubingen
in 1813 ; died in 1856.

Kbstlin, kost'leen, (JULIUS,) an able German theo-
logian, born at Stuttgart, May 17, 1826. He studied at
Tubingen and Berlin, and became professor of theology
at Gbttingen in 1855,31 Breslau in 1865, and at Halle in
1870. He has published "The Church of Scotland,"
(1852,) "Luther's Doctrine of the Church," (1853,)
"Faith," (1859,) "Luther's Theology," (1863,) and a
valuable "Life of Luther," (1875,) which he afterwards
abridged for popular use, (1883.)

Kostrof, Kostrov, or Koatrow, kos'tRof, (RMIL
IVANOVITCH,) a Russian poet, born in the province of
Viatka ; died in 1796.

Kothouz. See KOOTOOZ.

Kotouz or Kotflz. See KooTOOZ.

Kotter or Cotter, kot'ter, (CHRISTOPH,) a German
enthusiast, born in Silesia in 1 585. He obtained notoriety
by visions and predictions. Died in 1647.
'Kotzebue, von, fon kot'seh-boo, (AUGUST FRIED-
RICH FERDINAND,) a prolific and popular German
dramatist, born at Weimar in 1761. He went to Saint
Petersburg in 1781, and was appointed president of the
government of Esthonia. He produced in 1789 "The
Indians in England," and " The Stranger," which were
very successful. About 1800 he settled in Berlin. He
wrote abusive articles against Goethe and other great
German authors, who had refused to admit him into
their literary circle at Weimar. Between 1802 and 1806
he made journeys in different countries of Europe, and
published " Souvenirs of Paris in 1804," (2 vols., 1805.)
After the battle of Jena (1806) he took refuge in Russia,
and edited two journals, called "The Bee," (1808-10,)
and " The Cricket," (1811-12,) in which he wrote against
Napoleon. In 1817 he was sent to Germany by the
Russian government to watch and report the state and
tendency of public opinion. He expressed such hostility
and contempt for liberal principles and institutions that
he rendered himself odious to many Germans, especially

i. e, T, o, u, y, long : i,e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, u, J, short; a, e. i, 9, obscun; far, fill, fat; ir?t; not; good; moon;




the students. He was assassinated at Mannheim in 1819
by Karl Ludwig Sand, who was actuated by a fanatical
zeal against one whom he considered a traitor to liberty.
Among his dramas are "The Two Klingsbergs," a
comedy, (1807,) and " Pizarro," (" Die Spanier in Peru.")
His works, which were very numerous, were formerly
more popular than they are at the present time. Kot-
zebue possessed a ready invention and a great facility in
composition ; but his productions are deficient in depth
and power.

Kotzebue, von, (Oiro,) a son of the preceding, born
at Reval, in Russia, in 1787. After having made the
voyage around the world with Krusenstern, he set sail
again in 1815, accompanied by Chamisso, Eschscholtz,
and others. He discovered several islands in the South
Sea, and the sound southeast of Behring's Strait called
by his name. He published, after his return, a "Voyage
of Discovery in the South Sea and to Behring's Strait,
to find a Northeast Passage," (1821.) Having sailed
for the third time in 1823, he made other discoveries,
which are described in his " New Voyage around the
World in 1823-26," (1830.) He died at Reval in 1846.

Kotzeluch, kot'seh-ldoK', (LEOPOLD,) a Bohemian
composer and musician, bom at Welwarn in 1753. He
succeeded Mozart as composer to the court at Vienna,
(1792.) He composed operas, symphonies, and sonatas,
which were once very popular. Died in 1814.

Kouang. See KOOANG.

Koublai Khan. See KOOBLAI KHAN.

Kouck, kowk, (PiETER,) a Dutch painter, born in
1500 or 1501, worked at Antwerp. He was patronized
by Charles V. Died in 1550.

Kouli Khan. See NADIR SHAH.

Koulneff. See KOOI.NEP.

Koumas, koo'mas, (CONSTANTINE MICHAEL,) a
modern Greek scholar and author, was born at Larissa
about 1775. He published a "Greek Lexicon," (1826,)
"Elements of Philosophy," (4 vols.,) and other scientific
works. Died at Trieste in 1836.

Koung-Fou-Tseu. See CONFUCIUS.

Komakin. See KOORAKIN.

Kourma or Kourmavatara. See KURMA.

Koutouz. See KOOTOOZ.

Koutouzof or Koutousof. See KOOTOOZOF.

Kov-a-lef'sky, (ALEXANDER,) an eminent Rus-
sian embryologist, bcrn November 7, (O.S.,) 1840.
He became a professor at St. Petersburg and a high
authority on the anatomy and development of the as-
cidians, tunicata, worms, brachiopods, and the related
forms of animal life, making a number of valuable

Kovalefsky, (SoxiA or SOPHIE,) born in 1850,
daughter of a Russian artillery officer, married in
1868 "\Yoldemar, brother of Alexander Kovalefsky.
She gained an European fame as a mathematician,
became professor of mathematics at Stockholm in
1884, and wrote a series of brilliant novels, of which
" Vera Barantzova" was translated into English in
1895. Died in 189:.

Kozlofski, koz-lof*skee, or Koslovski.kos-lov'skee,
(MiCHAiL IVANOVITCH,) a Russian sculptor, became
professor in the Academy of Arts at Saint Petersburg.
Among his master-pieces are the statue of Suwarow at
Saint Petersburg, and the statue of Catherine II. as
Minerva. Died in 1803.

Kozlov. See KOSLOF.

Kozmlan, koz'me-an, ? (GAETAN or C AJETAN,) a Polish
poet, born in Lublin in 1771. He wrote odes which were
highly esteemed, " The Georgics of Poland," and an
epic poem entitled " Stephen Czarniecki." Died in 1856.

Krafft, kRaft, (ADAM,) a German sculptor, born at
Nuremberg about 1429. Among his master-pieces are
the tabernacle in the church of Saint Lawrence at Nu-
remberg, the celebrated Ciborium in the minster at Ulm,
and a number of beautiful bas-reliefs. Died in 1507.

Krafft, (JOSEPH,) a portrait-painter, born at Hanau in
1787, was a brother of Peter, noticed below. He worked
in Vienna. Died in 1828.

Krafft, (PETER,) a German painter, and professor at

the Academy of Vienna, born at Hanau in 1780. Among
his works we may name " Rudolph of Habiburg" and
" Belisarius." Died in 1856.

Kraft See CRATO.

Kraft, kRaft, (ANTON,) a Bohemian violoncellist and
composer, born December 30, 1752, at Rokitzan, near
Pilsen. Died August 28, 1820. His son, NIKOLAUS,
born December 14, 1778, was also famous as a composer
and performer on the violoncello. Died May 18, 1853.

Kraft, kRaft, or Krafft, (GEORG WOLFGANG,) a Gei-
man natural philosopher, born in Wiirtemberg in 1701,
was professor of physics at Tubingen, and wrote several
works on geometry and physics. Died in 1754.

Kraft von Toggenburg, kRaft fon tog'gen-bdoRG', a
German minnesinger. Died in 1259.

Kraitsir, kRit'sir, (CHARLES,) a Hungarian physician
and scholar, born in 1804. He emigrated to America
in 1833, and became in 1842 professor of modern lan-
guages and history in the University of Virginia. He
published " Glossology," and several other works. Died
in Westchester county, New York, in 1860.

Kramer. See CRAMER.

Kramp, kRON, (CHRETIEN,) a French mathematician
and medical writer, born at Strasburg ; died about 1828.

Kranach. See CRANACH.

Krantor. See GRANTOR.

Krantz or Crantz, kRants, (ALBERT,) a German his-
torian and diplomatist, born at Hamburg about 1450,
was employed on several important embassies to Eng
land and France. Among his principal works, which
are written in Latin, are " Chronicles of the Kingdoms
of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway," and "Ecclesiastical
History of Saxony." Died in 1517.

See WILKENS, "Leben Albertii Crantzii," 1722; BAVLH, "His-
torical and Critical Dictionary ;" NICRON, " Mimoires ;" MdLLSl.
"Cimbria Literata."

Kranz, (DAVID.) See CRANZ.

Krasheninnikof or Krascheiiinmkov, kRish-en-
nin'ne-kof, (STEPHEN PETROVITCH,) a Russian natural-
ist, born at Moscow in 1713. He travelled in Siberia
and Kamtschatka, and wrote a "Description of Kamt
schatka," (2 vols., 1755.) Died in 1755.

See GRBTCH, " Kssai sur 1'Histoire de la LitteVature Russe."

Kraaicki, kRa-set'skee, (IGNATIUS,) an eminent Polish
poet and litterateur, born at Dubiecko in 1734. Having
taken orders as a priest, he rose to be Bishop of Erme-
land in 1767, and in 1795 Archbishop of Gnesen. His
wit and conversational powers made him a favourite
with Frederick the Great of Prussia, who once said to
him, " I hope, my lord bishop, you will take me into
Paradise with you under your mantle." " No, sire," he
replied, (alluding to the loss of some revenues:) "your
majesty has made it so short that I cannot conceal any-
thing contraband under it." Among his principal works
we may name the mock-heroic poem entitled "The
Mousiad," ("Myszeis,") founded on the tradition of King
Popiel being devoured by rats and mice, " War of the
Monks," (" Monachomachia,") and a number of fables
and satires of great merit. His novel of" Pan Podstoli"
is also highly esteemed. Died in 1801.

See S. K. POTOCKI, " Essai sur la Vie, etc. de Krasicki," 1808;
" Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale;" DMOCHOWSKI, " Eloge de Kra-
sicki," tSot.

Krasinaki, kRa-sin'skee, (VALERIAN,) COUNT, a dis-
tinguished Polish writer and scholar, born in White
Russia about 1780. After the suppression of the Polish
revolution of 1830 he repaired to England, where he
published, among other works, a " History of the Re-
formation in Poland," (2 vols., 1840,) " Panslavism and
Germanism," (1848,) and " Religious History of the Sla-
vonic Nations," (1851.) Died in Edinburgh in 1855.

Krasinski, (ZYGMUNT NAPOLEON,) a Polish counl
and poet, born at Paris, February 19, 1812. He was an
ardent patriot and anti-Russian. He published several
poetical works, of which the " Undivine Comedy"
(" Nieboska Komedya," 1837-48) is the most celebrated.
Lord Lytton's poem of " Orval" is adapted from this
work. " Iridion" is also a celebrated fiction by Kra-
sinski. His writings are well known in their English
translation by Martha Walker Cook. Died at Paris,
February 24, 1859.

e as k; 5 as s; | hard; g asy; G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.


(J^=See Explanations, p.




Kraszewski, kRj-sh8v'skec, (JOSEPH IGNATIUS,) a
Polish novelist and miscellaneous writer, born at War-
saw in 1812. ITis works, which are very numerous, con-
sist of novels, poems, travels, and historical treatises.
His romances are very popular in Poland, and have in a
great measure superseded the French novels. Among
the best are "The Magic-Lantern," (1843,) "Ulana,"
(1843,) and "Sviat i Poeta." His epic poem " Ana-
fielas," and a " History of Wilna," are also ranked among
his best productions. Died March 20, 1887.

Krateros. See CRATERUS.

Krates. See CRATES.

Kratinos. See CRATINUS.

Kratippos. See CRATIPPUS,

Kratzenstein, kRat'sfn-stin', (CHRISTIAN GOTT-
LIEB,) a German natural philosopher, mechanical inventor,
and writer, born at Wernigerode in 1723, became pro-
*essor of physics at Copenhagen in 1754. Died in 1795.

Kraua, kRowss, (CHRISTIAN JAKOB,) a learned Ger-
man writer, professor of philosophy, etc. at Konigsberg,
was born at Osterode in 1753. He published a treatise
on " Political Economy," and other works. Died in 1807.

Kraua, (FRANZ,) a German historical painter, born in
Snabia about 1704; died about 1750.

Kraus or Krauss, krowss, (JoHANN BAPTIST,) a
German prelate and historical writer, born at Ratisbon
in 1700. He was prince-abbot of the monastery of Saint
Emmeran. Died in 1762.

Kraus, ( JOHANN ULRICH,) a German engraver, born
at Augsburg about 1645 ; died in 1719.


Krause, kRow'zeh, (GEORG FRIEDRICH,) a German
economist and writer on the science of forests, born at
Prenzlow in 1768; died in 1836.

Krause, (GEORG MELCHIOR,) a German painter and
engraver, born at Frankfort in 1737 ; died in 1806.

Krause, (JoHANN CHRISTOPH,) a German historian,
born at Artern in 1749. Among his works is a " His-
tory of Europe," (5 vols., 1789-98.) Died in 1799.

Krause, ( JOHANN GOTTLIEB,) a German bibliographer,
born in Silesia in 1684, published, besides other works,
"UmstandlicheBucher-Historie,"(3vols., 1716.) He was
professor of eloquence at Wittenberg. Died in 1736.

See KIRCHHAIKR, " Programma ad Exequias J. G. Krausii," 1736.

philosopher and masonic writer, born at Eisenberg in
1781. He devoted several works to the display of the
merits of freemasonry, of which he was a zealous advo-
cate. Among his other works is "Urbild der Mensch-
heit," ("The Type of Humanity," 1811.) Died in 1832.

See LINDHUANN, "Darstellung dea Lebens und der Wissen-
chaftslehre Krauses," 1839.

Krause, (WiLHELM,) a German landscape and marine
painter, born at Dessau in 1803. He has produced some
excellent pictures of Norwegian scenery.

Kraut, kRowt, (WILHELM THEODOR,) professor of
law at Gbttingen, was born at Liineburg in 1800. He
wrote a number of legal works. Died Jan. I, 1873.

Krauth. krawth, (CHARLES PORTERPIBLD,) D.D., a
Lutheran divine and accomplished scholar, the son of
Dr. Charles Philip Krauth, (late president of Pennsyl-
vania College at Gettysburg,) was born at Martinsburg,
Virginia, March 17, 1823. He graduated at Pennsyl-
vania College in 1839. Ordained in 1842, he became
pastor of a church in Baltimore, and was subsequently
settled at Winchester, Virginia, and Pittsburg, Pennsyl-
vania. In 1859 he was called to the pastoral charge of
Saint Mark's Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, where he
remained four years. In 1861 he became editor of "The
Lutheran and Missionary," issued in Philadelphia, and
in 1864 professor of theology, church history, etc. in the
Lutheran Seminary of that city. In 1868 he was elected
to the chair of moral and intellectual philosophy in the
University of Pennsylvania, and in 1873 became vice-
provost of the same institution. He published a trans-
lation of TholuckV. "Commentary on Saint John," (1859,)
"The Conservative Reformation and its Theology,"
(1871,) an edition of Berkeley's "Principles of Human
Knowledge," (1873,) al) d an edition of Fleming's "Vo-
cabulary of Philosophy," to which he added a valuable
Index, etc., (1877.) He died January 2, 1883.

Kray, von, fon kRi' or Krajof, von, fon kRi'oi,
(PAUL,) BARON, an Austrian general, born at Kesmark,
in Hungary, in 1735. He fought against the French in
the Low Countries and on the Rhine in 1793-95, an< ^
became a field-marshal-lieutenant in 1796. In 1799
he obtained the chief command of the army, defeated
Scherer twice in Italy, and took Mantua. Having
failed in a campaign against Moreau in Germany in 1800,
he was removed from the command. Died in 1804.

See ALISON, "History of Europe."

Krayenhofi; kRi'en-hof, written also Kraljenhott,
(CoRNKLls ROELF,) a Dutch general, born at Nymwegen
in 1758, became minister of war under Louis Bonaparte.
He published several excellent charts. Died about 1840.

Krayer. See CRAYER.

Krebs, kRjps, (JOHANN AUGUST,) a learned German
writer, born at Heinaugen in 1681 ; died in 1713.

Krehl, kRal, (AUGUST LUDWIG,) a German Protestant
theologian, born at Eisleben in 1784, became professor
of theology at Leipsic in 1834. Died in 1855.

Kreil, kRil, (KARL,) an able astronomer, born at Ried.
in the Tyrol, in 1798, became director of the Observatory
of Prague in 1845. He published a treatise " On the
Nature and Motion of Comets," (1843.) Died in 1862.

Kreitmayer or Kreytmayr, kRit'mlR, written also
Kreittmayr, (ALOYS WIGULAUS,) a German statesman
and jurist, born at Munich in 1705. Among his works
we may name "Code of Bavarian Judicial Law," (1751,)
and "Bavarian Civil Code." Died in 1790.

Kiemer, kRa'mer, (CHRISTOPH JAKOB,) a German
historian, born at Worms in 1722. He wrote several
works on German history. Died in 1777.

Krenier, kRa'mer, (PETER,) an eminent Belgian
painter of history and genre, born at Antwerp in 1801.
Among his works are " Marius at Carthage," and " David
Teniers Designing after Nature."

Krestow'sky, (M.,) a Russian novelist, born at
Kief in 1820. He served in the Russian army, and
wrote numerous novels. Among the best of these, as
translated into French, are " Le Sphinx," " En
Voyage," " Uncle Bujanoff," and " Le Diablotin."

Kretschmann, kRjtsh'mln, (KARL FRIEDRICH,) a
German poet, born at Zittau in 1738, published "Songs
of the Bard Ringulph," and other works. Died in 1809.

Kreutzer, kRoit'ser, (KONRADIN,) a German com-
poser of operas and songs, born in the duchy of Baden
in 1782 ; died in 1849.

Kreutzer, kRUt'saiR', (RUDOLF,) a celebrated com-
poser and musician, of German extraction, born at Ver-
sailles in 1766, became violinist at the imperial chapel,
and a member of the Conservatory in Paris. Among
his best works are the operas of " Lodoiska" and " Pau'
and Virginia." Died in 1831.

See Fins, " Biographic Universelle dea Musiciens."

Kreysig, kRl'zic, (FRIEDRICH LUDWIG,) a medical
writer, born near Leipsic in 1770, studied medicine at
Pavfa under Spallanzani. In 1803 he was appointed
physician to the Elector Frederick Augustus, afterwards
Kingj of Saxony. He became in 1815 professor of thera-
peutics and pathology at Dresden. Died in 1839.

Kreysig, (GEORO CHRISTOPH,) a German historian,
born near Annaberg in 1697. He wrote on the history
of Saxony. Died in 1758.

Kreytmayr. See KREITMAYER.

Krlchna. See KRISHNA.

Kriloff or Krilov. See KRYLOF.

Krishna, Crishna, Krichna, or Krlschna, kR?sh'-
na, [a Sanscrit word, signifying "dark blue :" see below,]
in the Hindoo mythology, the eighth avatar of Vishnu,
usually regarded as the most glorious of all the manifesta-
tions of that deity. It is said by the votaries nf Krishna
that in the other avatars Vishnu manifested only a
portion of his godhead, but that in this instance he ap-
peared in all the fulness of his power and glory. He
was born in the kingdom of Mathura ; his mortal parents
were Vasudfva and Devaki. It had been predicted that
the son of Devaki should deprive Kansa, the tyrannica'.
king of that country, of his life and crown. Kansa there-
fore sought by force and stratagem to destroy the young
child ; but the parents, assisted and guided by power

i. e, I, 5, u, yjong; A, e, o, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, ^, short; a, e, i, 0, obscure; fir, fill, fit; mZtj n8t; good; moon;




divine, succeeded in baffling all his efforts. It is related | part of her life she abounded in works of charity

that, when Krishna was only seven years old, Indra, ] towards the poor.

jealous of the popularity of the child-god, attempted to Kruenitz. See KRUNITZ.

destroy the worshippers of the latter by a fearful storm Krug, kRooc, (JOHANN PHILIPP,) a German historian

of lightning, rain, and hail. But Krishna raised above an d numismatist, born at Halle in 1764, wrote on Rus-

them on the tip of his little finger Mount Goverdhen,
the Hindoo Parnassus, thus affording complete shelter
to his trembling followers.

One of Krishna's earliest exploits was the destruction ol
the great serpent Kaliya, (or Kalinaga,) which poisoned
the waters of the river Jumna. Not long afterwards
he slew his malignant enemy Kansa, having first para-
lyzed him with fear. A remarkable resemblance between
Krishna and the Grecian Apollo has been pointed out
by Sir William Jones and other writers. Krishna was
pre-eminently a pastoral god, and his followers were
principally milkmaids and herdsmen. Apollo was
regarded as the protector of flocks and herds, (his
name of Nomios theos (ro^uos flebs) is derived from
nome,(voni?,) a " meadow" or " pasture; ") and, when
compelled to pass some time on earth, he employed
himself in tending the flocks of Admetus, King of

Kritias. See CRITIAS.

Kritolaos. See CKITOLAUS.

Kriton or Krito. See CRITO.

Kroeyer. See KRSYER.

Kiolm, kRon, (HERMANN GEORG,) a German jurist,
born in 1705 ; died in 1756.

Kromayer, kRo'miR, (HIERUNYMUS,) a German
Protestant theologian, born at Zeitz in 1610, wrote " His-
toria Ecclesiastica," and other works. Died in 1670.

See G. LEHMANN, " Leichpredigt auf H. Kromayer," 1670.

Kromayer, (JOHANN,) a German theologian, born

sian history and coins. Died in Saint Petersburg in 1844.

Krug, (WILHELM TRAUGOTT,) a German philoso-
phical writer, born near Grafenhaynchen, in Prussian
Saxony, in 1770. Having studied at Gbttingen and Wit-
tenberg, he became professor of philosophy at Leipsic
in 1809. He was chosen in 1833 a deputy to the first
constitutional Diet, where he was a warm advocate
of liberalism. Among his principal writings are his
" Fundamental Philosophy," (1803,) and " History of the
Philosophy of the Ancients, especially of the Greeks
and Romans," (1815.) He professed a system called
"transcendental synthetism," which was very popular
in Germany. Died in 1842.

Kriiger or Krueger, kRiic'er, (EPHRAIM GOTTLIEB,)
a German engraver, born at Dresden in 1756. Among
his master-pieces is "Ariadne at Naxos." Died in 1834.

Kriiger or Krueger, (FRANZ,) a skilful German
painter, born at Anhalt-Dessau in 1796. He worked
in Berlin, where he painted good portraits and became
court painter. His favourite subjects were hunting-
scenes and landscapes with animals. Died in 1857.

See NAGLBR, " Allgemeines Kiinsller-Lexikon."

Kriiger, (JOHANN GOTTLOB,) a German naturalist,
born at Halle in 1715, published, besides other works,
a "Treatise on Physics," ("Naturlehre," 3 vols., 1740-
49.) Died in 1759.

Transvaal statesman, was born at Colesburg, Cape
Colony, October 10, 1825. After the Boer migration

Misnia in 1576, was an uncle of the preceding. He : northward he became famous as a hunter and lion-
became superintendent (Protestant bishop) at Weimar, : kiii er> took part in the Zulu wars, and in 1848 fought

and published several works. Died in 1643.

Kropot'kine, (PETER,) PRINCE, a Russian geog-
rapher and anarchist, was born at Moscow, Decem-
ber 9, 1842. He was educated at St. Petersburg,
explored Eastern Siberia and Manchuria and the
glacial deposits of Finland and Sweden, and acted as
secretary to the Geographical Society. In 1872 he
joined the International Society in Belgium, and was
arrested and imprisoned in St. Petersburg in 1874,
but escaped in 1876. He founded the anarchist
newspaper " Le Revolte," was expelled from Switzer-
land in 1881, and imprisoned in France as an an-

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 61 of 425)