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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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archist 1883-86. He published "Paroles d'un
Revolte," (1885,) " In Russian and French Prisons,"
(1887, ) "A la recherche du pain," (1892,) "The
State, its Part in History," (1898,) with many ency-
clopedic and other articles.

Krosick, von, fon kRo'zik, (BERNHARD FRIEDRICH,)
BARON, a German savant, born in 1656, erected a private
observatory at Berlin. Died in 1714.

Kroyer or Kroeyer, kRo'yer, (HENDRIK NICOLAUS,)

He



a Danish naturalist, born at Copenhagen in 1799.
was sent on a mission to South America in 1840.



against the English at Bloomplaats. He was sub-
commandant of the army in 1856, commandant in
1 86 1, and showed such ability and courage in the
war against England in 1881 that he was made head
of the provisional government. He was elected
president of the republic in 1883, and successively in
1888, 1893, and 1898, and in 1899 declared war
against Great Britain, becoming the leading spirit in
the subsequent ably managed war. After the conquest
of the Transvaal he went to Europe.

Kriiger, (THEODOR,) a learned German writer, born
at Stettin in 1694 ; died in 1751.

Kriiger, (THEODOR,) a German engraver, born about
1575 ; died at Rome in 1650.

Kruilof. See KRYLOF.

Krummaoher, kRoom'maK'er. (FRIEDRICH ADOLF,)
a distinguished German theologian and writer, born at
Tecklenburg, in Westphalia, in 1768. He was succes-
sively professor of theology at Duisbure, councillor of

" L -T. His
ty both



the consistory, and court preacher at Bernburg.
" Parables" (in verse) (1805) enjoy great popularity
in Germany and in other countries. Among his other



He I works are "Die Kinderwelt," consisting of religious

wks'onna7uraTnistory7" The; poems for children, " Sufferings, Death, and Resurrec-
Fishes of Denmark," (2 vols., 1838-43.) Died in 1870. ' tion of our Lord Jesus Christ," (1817.) "Cornelius the

Kriidener or Kruedener, (JULIANA,) a Russian \ Centurion," (1829,) and "The Life of Saint John,
mystic or enthusiast, born at Riga in 1766, was the (1833.) He was attached to evangelical religion as
daughter of Baron Vietinghof, and was married at the i distinguished from rationalism. Died in 1845.
age of fourteen to Baron Krudener, from whom she was i See MdLLER, " F. A. Krummacher und seine Freunde," i volt.,
divorced in a few years. She was intimate with Madame l 49

de Stael. Having lived for a time in fashionable dissipa- Krummacher, (FRIEDRICH WILHELM,) an eminent
tion, she adopted the views of the Pietists about 1806, pulpit orator and writer, son of the preceding, was born
and gave herself up entirely to preaching the gospel and i about 1796. He was for a time pastor in Wupperthale,
prophesying. After travelling in Germany, where she where he was a zealous advocate of the older Lutheran-
formed an acquaintance with Stilling, she visited Paris, ism, and gave great offence by his denunciation of the
but, owing to the disturbances caused by her meetings, rationalists. As preacher of a reformed community,
was obliged to leave the city, and soon after her arrivaj ! he went to New York in 1843. After a few years he
in Germany she was ordered by the government to return returned to Germany, and settled at Berlin in 1847.
to Russia. She died in 1824. She was the author of a Among his principal works we may name "The Church's
romance entitled "Valeria," (1803.) She is said to have | Voice of Instruction," "Elijah the Tishbite," and "Sab-
had much influence over Alexander, Czar of Russia, who bath Bells," (1851.) Died in December, 1868.
heard her preach in Paris in 1815, and who submitted to Krummacher, (GOTTFRIED DANIEL,) an uncle of
her revision his plan of the Holy Alliance. In the latter j the preceding, was born at Tecklenburg in 1774. He

e as *; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K., guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; *h as in this. (J^^See Explanations, p. 23.)



KRUMPHOLZ



1460



KUGLER



became in 1816 reformed preacher at Elberfeld, where
he was one of the principal leaders of the Pietists.
Among his works are a series of sermons, entitled "The
Wanderings of the Israelites through the Wilderness to
Canaan," (1850,) and " Daily Manna," which have been
translated into English. Died in 1837.

See FRJEDRICH W. KRUMMACHER, "G. D. Krummacher's Le-
ben," 1838.

Krumpholz, krSomp'holts, (JOHANN BAPTIST,) a
harpist and musical composer, born about 1 745, at ZIonitz,
near Prague, his father being a band-master in a French
regiment. He committed suicide in 1790. His brother,
WENZEL KRUMPHOLZ, born in 1750, was an eminent
violinist. Died May 2, 1817.

Kriinitz or Kruenltz, kRii'nits, ( JOHANN GEORG,) a
German physician and scholar, born at Berlin in 1728, is
principally known as the publisher of the " Economico-
technological Encyclopaedia," seventy-three volumes of
which had appeared at the time of his death, in 1796.
The work was afterwards continued and largdy ex-
tended by the brothers Flbrke and others.

Krupp, krdop, (ALFRED,) a German manufacturer,
born at Essen, April 26, 1812. He inherited from his
father the celebrated cast-steel works of his native town,
and extended them very greatly. The steel cannon of
the establishment are especially celebrated ; but the
works turn out all kinds of steel goods, and are upon
the largest scale ever known. Died July 14, 1887.

Kruse, kRoo'zeh, (FRIEDRICH KARL HERMANN,) a
German historian, born at Oldenburg in 1790. In 1825
he published his principal work, entitled " Hellas," and
in 1828 was appointed professor of universal and Russian
history at the University of Dorpat. He also wrote a
valuable " Chronicle of the Northmen." Died in 1866.

Kruse, (KARSTEN or CHRISTIAN,) a learned German
writer, the father of the preceding, was born in Olden-
burg in 1753. He published " Atlas and Tables for the
Survey of the History of all European Countries," (1804.)
Died in 1827.

Kruse, kRoo'zeh, (LAURIDS or LAURENT,) a Danish
litterateur, born at Copenhagen in 1778. Among his nu-
merous works are comedies, novels, etc. He translated
into Danish and German some works of Ingemann, and
others. Died in Paris in 1839.

See his Memoirs of his Life, " Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben,"
vols., 1829.

Kruseman, kRoo'zeh-man', (CORNELIS,) a Dutch
historical painter of great merit, born at Amsterdam in
1797. Among his master-pieces are " A Burial-Scene,"
" The Preaching of John the Baptist," and " Belisarius."
Died in 1857.

Kruseman, (JAN ADAM,) a painter of portraits and
sacred history, a brother of the preceding, was born at
Haarlem in 1804. Died in 1862.

Krusemark, kRoo'zeh-maRk',(FRiEDRiCH WII.HELM
LUDWIG,) a Prussian commander and diplomatist, served
gainst the French in the campaigns from 1806 to 1813,
and rose to the rank of lieutenant-general. He was
employed successively on important missions to Saint
Petersburg, Paris, and Vienna. Died in 1822.

Krusenstern, kRoo'zen-steRn', (ADAM JOHN,) a cele-
brated Russian navigator and traveller, born in Esthonia
in 1770. In 1803 he sailed from Cronstadt, and during
an absence of three years discovered the Orloff Islands,
and obtained much information respecting countries pre-
viously little known. He brought out in 1810 his " Voy-
age around the World from 1803 to 1806," (3 vols.,
with an atlas and 104 plates,) which was translated into
the principal European languages. He also published
"Contributions to the Hydrography of the Greater
Oceans," " Atlas of the Pacific Ocean," and other similar
works. Krusenstern was the first Russian navigator who
sailed around the world. Died in 1846.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale ;" " Monthly Review" for
June and July, 1814.

Krylof, kRe-lof, or Kruilof, almost kRwe-lof, (IVAN
ANDREIEVITCH,) written also Krylow, Kriloff, and
Krilov, a celebrated Russian fabulist, born at Moscow
in 1768. At an early age he became familiar with the
French language, and read with avidity the works of
Moliere, Racine, and Boileau. His first compositions



were dramas, which were not favourably received. He
was successively editor of "The Spirit Post," "The
Spectator," and the "Petersburg Mercury," and in 1801
was appointed secretary to Prince Gallitsin. In 1808 he
published a collection of fables, which met with great
favour. He was elected to the Petersburg Academy in
1811, and subsequently received a large pension from
the emperor Alexander, who also loaded him with hon-
orary distinctions. His "Fables," which vie with those
of La Fontaine in na'ivttl and humour, are the delight
of all ages and classes in Russia, and many sentences
in them have become proverbs. They have been trans-
lated into German, French, and Italian ; but no version,
it is thought, does justice to the original. Krylof was
intimate with Pooshkin, (Pushkin,) Karamzin, and other
eminent writers. Died in 1844.

See PLBTNEP, "Life of KrilonV' prefixed to his Works; "Revue
des Deui Mondes" for September i, 1852; ALFRHD BOUGSAULT,
" Kryloff^ ou le La Fontaine Russe, sa Vie et ses Fables," Paris,
1852 ; " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale ;" also an article on the Rus-
sian Fabulists, in " Fraser's Magazine" for February, 1839,

Kryns or Krijns.kRlns, (EVERARD,) a Dutch painter
of history and portraits, lived at the Hague about 1600.

Kshat'rf-ya, [modern Hindoo pron. kshut'ri-ya,]
written also Kshetriya and Kshattriya, the name of
the second or military caste among the Hindoos. It
originally included all princes and professional warriors.
But at the present time there are many exceptions to
this general rule : many of the Brahmans nowadays are
professional soldiers. (See BRAHMANISM.)

Kublai Khan. See KOOBLAI KHAN.

Kiichenmeister, ku'Ken-mis-ter, (GoTTLOB FRIED-
RICH HEINRICH,) a German physician and naturalist, born
at Buchheim, January 22, 1821. He studied at Leipsic
and Prague. His writings are mostly on the entozoa and
other parasites, and he has also written on contagion, on
water-cure, on cremation, etc. His principal work is
"On the Cestoid Worms," (1853.)

Kiicken or Kuecken, kuk'ken, (FRIEDRICH WIL-
HELM,) a popular German composer, born at Bleckede in
1810. His songs and ballads are great favourites both
in Germany and England. In 1851 he was appointed
court chapel-master at Stuttgart. He produced two
successful operas. Died April 6, 1882.

Kuecken. See KttCKEN.

Kuegelgen. See KUGELOEN.

Kuehn. See KttHN.

Kuehne. See KOHNE.

Kuehnoel. See KttHNOL.

Kuenen, kii'nen, (ABRAHAM,) D.D., LL.D., a Dutch
Orientalist, of German descent, was born at Haarlem,
September 16, 1828. He studied theology at Leyden
from 1846 to 1851, and became extraordinary professor
of theology there in 1852, and in 1855 full professor.
Among his writings are a Latin translation of Abu
Said's Arabic version from the Samaritan Pentateuch,
(1851-54,) a " Historico-Critical Investigation into the
Origin of the Old Testament Books," (1861-65,) "The
Religion of Israel," (1874-75,) " Prophets and Prophecy
in Israel," (1877,) "National Religions and Universal
Religions," (1882,) etc. He was the most prominent fig-
ure in the "Leyden school" of theology, and was distin-
guished for his "advanced" views regarding the textual
criticism of the Scriptures. Died in 1891.

KueseL See KUSEL.

Kuester. See KOsTER.

Kiigelgen or Kuegelgen, kii'gel-gen, (KARL and
GF.KHAKD,) German painters, born at Bacharach, on
the Rhine, in 1772, were twin brothers, and pursued
their studies together at Rome. In 1799 they visited
Saint Petersburg, where they married two sisters of
high rank. Karl remained in Saint Petersburg, where
he was patronized by the emperor Alexander, while Ger-
hard returned to Dresden. He perished by the hand of
a robber near that city in 1820. His works are chiefly
portraits and historical pictures. Among Karl's pro-
ductions are a series of Crimean and Finnish landscapes,
executed by order of the emperor. In 1 823 he published
"A Painter's Journey in the Crimea." Died in 1832.

Kugler, kooo'ler, (FRANZ THEODOR,) an eminent
German critic and writer on art, born at Stettin in 1808,
became in 1833 professor of the history of art in the



a, e, i, 6, ii, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 6, u, J, short; a, e, \,f),obscitrc; far, fill, lit; met; not; yooil; moon



KUH



1461



KURMA



Academy at Berlin. About 1835 he visited Italy and
in 1837 brought out his " Hand-Book of the History
of Painting from Constantine the Great to the Present
Time," which was followed by his equally valuable
"Manual of the History of Art," (1841,) and other simi-
lar works. Died in Berlin in 1858.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Kuh, koo, (EPHRAIM MOSES,) a German poet, of
Jewish parentage, born at Breslau in 1731, wrote songs
odes, fables, and epigrams. He was a friend of Lessing
and Mendelssohn. Died in 1790.

Kuhl, kobl, (HEINRICH,) a German naturalist, born
at Hanau in 1797; died at Java in 1821.

i See ?' Y, AI * SwINDK R=N, "Bijdragen tot eene Schets van het
Leven, het Karakter, etc van H. Kuhl," 1822.

Kuhlau, koo'16w, (FRIEDRICH DANIEL,) a German
musician and composer, born in Hanover in 1786 or
1787. He composed operas which were popular, and
music for the flute. Died in 1832.

Kuhlmaun, kuTmoN',(CHARLES FREDERIC,) a French
chemist, born at Cplmar in 1803. Died in 1881.

Kuhlmaun, kool'man, (QuiRiNUS,) a German vision-
ary, born at Breslau in 1651. He led a wandering life,
and published several extravagant writings. He was
burned at Moscow in 1689.

See G. WKRNSDORP, " De Fanaticis Silesiorum et speciatim de
Q. Kuhlmanno," 1698.

Kuhmstedt, kiim'stet, (FRIEDRICH,) a German mu-
sician and composer, born at Oldisleben, Saxe- Weimar,
December 20, 1809. He wrote operas, symphonies, and
oratorios ; but his fame rests on his treatises on the organ.

Kuhn, koon, (ADALBERT,) a celebrated German phi-
lologist and mythologist, born at Konigsberg, in Bran-
denburg, November 19, 1812, was a pupil of Bockh,
Bopp, and Lachmann, and in 1856 was appointed a pro-
fessor in the Cologne gymnasium. Among his works
are " On the Primitive History of the Indo-Germanic
Peoples," (1856,) "Myths, Customs, and Legends of
Westphalia," (1859,) etc. Comparative mythology was
his specialty._ Died in 1881.

Kuhn, koon, or Kuhnius, koo'ne-us, (JOACHIM,) a
German philologist, born at Greifswalde in 1647. He
was professor of Greek at Strasburg in 1676. Among his
works is " Quasstiones Philosophies ex Sacris Veteris
et Novi Testamenti Scriptoribus," (1698.) Died in 1697.

Kuhn or Cuehn, kiin, (KARL GOTTLOB,) a German



physician, born near Merseburg in 1754, published a
complete edition of the " Extant Works of the Greek
Physicians," ("Opera Medicorum Graecorum quae super-
sunt,") in the original, with a Latin translation, 20 vols.,
(1821.) Died in 1840.

Kuhnau, koo'now, (JOHANN,) a German musician,
composer, and litterateur, born at Geysing, in Bohemia,
in 1667. His compositions for the clavier were es-
pecially famous. He was the inventor of the sonata as
a piece in several movements not dance-tunes, and four-
teen examples of this form of music are still extant
among his productions. His satirical poems were ad-
mired in their day. He died in Leipsic, (whither he had
removed in 1682,) June 25, 1722.

Kiihne or Kuehne, kii'neh, (GUSTAV,) a German
litterateur, born at Magdeburg in 18126, published " Clois-
ter Novels," (" Klosternovellen,") etc. Died in 1888.

Kiihner, kii'ner, (RAFAEL,) a German philologist,
born at Gotha in 1802, published a "Complete Gram-
mar of the Greek Language," (1834,) and "Elementary
Grammar of the Greek Language." Died in 1878.

Kuhnius. See KUHN.

Kiihnol or Kuehnoel, kii'nol, (CHRISTIAN GOTT-
LIEB,) a German biblical critic, born at Leipsic in 1768.
He became professor of theology at Giessen about 1809,
nd published "Commentaries on the New Testament,"
(4 vols., 1807-18.) Died in 1841.

Kuick. See KUYK.

Kuli Khan. See NADIR SHAH.

Kullack or Kullak, kool'lak, (THEODOR,) a Ger-
man composer, born in Posen in 1818. He received the
title of pianist to the King of Prussia. Died in 1882.

Kulm, koolm, (JOHANN ADAM,) a German anatomist
nd physiologist, born at Breslau in 1689; died in 1745.

Kulmann, kool'man, (ELISABETH,) a Russian poetess,
of German extraction, born at Saint Petersburg in 1808.



She spoke many languages, and composed lyric poems,
published in three volumes in 1833. Died in 1825.

Kummer, koom'mer, (FRIEDRICH AUGUST ) a Ger-
man violoncellist and composer, born at Meinineen
August 5, 1797 ; died May 22, 1879.

Kummer, kdom'mer, (GEORG ADOLF,) a German
naturalist, born at Ortrand in 1786 ; died near Kakonda.
Africa, in 1817.

Kummer, (KARL WILHELM,) a German geographer,
born about 1780, was a brother of the preceding. He
produced globes and maps en relief. Died about 1840

Kun, van der, (PETER.) See CUN^EUS.

Kunckel, koonk'kel, (JOHANN,) a German chemist,
Dora at Rendsburg in 1630. He is said to have dis-
covered phosphorus. Died at Stockholm in 1702.

Kundmann, kSont'man, (JOHANN CHRISTIAN,) a
German numismatist and naturalist, born at Breslau in
1684 ; died in 1751.

Kung koong, or Kung-Chien-Wang, a Chinese
prince, brother of the emperor Hien-Fung, (died in
1861, and uncle of the emperor Tung-Che, (died in
1875.) Kung was born in 1835. On the accession of
Tung-Che (1861) Prince Kung was made one of the
three regents, and became the real head of the govern-
ment. He retained much power under the emperor
Kwang-beu, under whom he was founder and head of
the foreign office, and principal secretary of state. In
1884 he retired from office, in which he had long
been leader of the Chinese progressive party. He
was recalled from privacy in 1894, during the war
with Japan, but age and sickness checked his ac-
tivity. Died in 1898. (The word kung is properly a
title belonging to princes of the blood of the fifth to
the eighth rank, and has been translated " duke.")
Kunigunde, the German of CUNEGONDE, which sec.
Kunrath, koWrlt, (HEINRICH,) a German chemist
and alchemist, born at Leipsic about 1560; died in 1605.
Kunst, kSonst, (CoRNELis,) a Dutch painter, born at
Leyden in 1493 ; died in 1544.

Kunth, von, fon koont, (KARL SIGISMUND,) an emi-
nent German botanist, born at Leipsic in June, 1788. He
was patronized by Alexander von Humboldt, who fur-
nished him with the means to study in the University of
Berlin, and took him to Paris in 1813. He became pro-
fessor of botany at Berlin in 1819. He published, besides
other works, " Nova Genera et Species Plantarum quas
collegerunt Bonpland et Humboldt," which treats of the
plants collected in America by Bonpland and Humboldt,
(7 vols., 1815-25,) "The Grasses of South America," (a
vols., 1825-33,) and an "Enumeration of all the Plant!
hitherto known," (5 vols., 1833-50.) Died in 1850.

Kuntz, k6"6nts, (KARL,) a skilful German painter of
animals and landscapes, born at Mannheim in 1770, was
also an engraver. He worked mostly at Carlsruhe, where
he was court painter. He engraved Claude Lorrain's
picture of "Abraham Sending away Hagar." Died in
1830.

Kuntz, (RUDOLF,) a German lithographer and painter
of horses, son of the preceding, was born in 1708 ; died
at Carlsruhe, May 8, 1848.

Kunzen, koont'sen, (FRIEDRICH LUDWIG EMU,) a
musical composer, born at Lubeck in 1761, produced a
number of successful operas. Died in 1817.

Kupetzky or Kupetzki, koo-pets'kee, (JOHANN,) an
eminent German portrait-painter, born at Pesing, on the
borders of Hungary, in 1667. After a residence of many
years in Italy, where he was patronized by John Sobieski,
he returned to Vienna. He was treated with great dis-
tinction by the emperors Joseph I. and Charles VI.,
whose portraits he painted, as well as those of the prin-
cipal nobles of the court. He painted in the style of
Rembrandt, and ranks among the best artists of tho
time in his department. Died in 1740.

See J. C. FUESSLI, " Leben G. P. Rugendas und J. Kupetzki, "1758.
KOrma, kooR'ma, called also Kurmavatara, kflor-
ml'va-ta'ra, (i.e. the "avatar of the tortoise,") the second
of the avatars of Vishnu, on which occasion he took the
form of a tortoise that he might furnish a support to
Mount Mandara while the gods and Asurs churned
the ocean. The mountain being the churn-stick, thf



eas k; c as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in Ms. (JEf=See Explanations, p. 23.)



KURMA VA TAR A



1462



KYRLE



great serpent Sesha was made use of for the string.*
The churning of the ocean is one of the most famous
and popular fables related in the mythology of the Hin-
doos. It resulted in the production of the fourteen gems,
as they are called, namely, I. Chandra, (the moon ;) 2.
Lakshmi, the incomparable consort of Vishnu ; 3. Sura-
devi, or the goddess of wine ; 4. Oochisrava, a won-
derful eight-headed horse ; 5. Kustubha, a jewel of ines-
timable value ; 6. Parijata, a tree that yielded whatever
one might desire ; 7. Surabhi or Kamadhenu, a cow
similarly bountiful; 8. Dhanwantara, a wondrous phy-
sician ; 9. Iravata or Iravat, the elephant of Indra ; 10.
Shank, a shell which conferred victory on whoever
sounded it ; n. Danusha, an unerring bow ; 12. Vish.t a
remarkable drug or poison ; 13. Rembha, (or Rambha,)
an Apsara possessed of surpassing charms ; 14. Amrita.
or Amrit, the beverage of immortality.

See MOOR, " Hindu Pantheon."

Karmavatara. See KORMA.

Kurreem TChan See KEREEM KHAN.

Kurrer, koor'rer, (JAKOB WILHELM HEINRICH,) born
in Wurtemberg in 1781, wrote "On the Art of Dyeing
nd Printing Cloth," (3 vols., 1848-50.) Died in 1862.

Kurschner, (CONRAD.) See PELLICAN.

Kurtz, kooRts, (JoHANN HEINRICH,) a Prussian theo-
logian, born at Montjoie in 1809, became in 1850 pro-
fessor of ecclesiastical history at Dorpat He wrote a
treatise on " The Unity of the Book of Genesis," and
other religious works. Died in 1890.

Kurz, k6"oRts, (HEINRICH,) a littfrateur and Oriental
cholar, of German extraction, born in Paris in 1805.
He wrote chiefly in German. Died February 24, 1873.

Kiisel or Kuesel, ku'sSl, (MATTHIAS, ) a German
engraver, born at Augsburg in 1621 ; died in 1682.

Kiisel or Kueaef (MELCHIOR,) a skilful engraver,
brother of the preceding, was born at Augsburg in 1622.
He engraved (with the burin) and etched portraits, sacred
history, and landscapes. He resided mostly at Augsburg.
Died in 1683.

Kiister or Kuester, kus'ter, (GEORG GOTTFRIED,) a
German historian, born at Halle in 1695. He wrote,
besides other works, " Ancient and Modern Berlin," (3
vols., 1752-59.) Died in 1776.

Kiister, (LuooLPH,) an eminent German scholar,
born at Blomberg, in Westphalia, in 1670. He published
" Historia Critica Homeri," (1696,) and was a contributor
to the "Thesaurus Antiquitatum Romanorum" of Grz-
vius. He also published editions of Suidas (3 vols., 1705)
and Aristophanes, (1710.) He was a member of the
Academy of Inscriptions in Paris. Died in 1716.

Kiittner, kSt'ner, (KARL GOTTLOB,) a German trav-
eller, born near Delitzsch in 1755. He published severa,
books of travel and descriptive works on England
France, and other countries of Europe. Died in 1805.

Kutuzof or Kutusow. See KOOTOOZOF.

Kuv&ra or Cuvfira, koo-va'ra, [a Sanscrit word sig-
nifying "deformed," "lazy," "slow, {] the name of the
Hindoo Plutus or god of riches, said to be a half-brother
of the famous giant Ravana. He is said to reside in the
splendid city of Alaka, and is sometimes borne through
the air in a gorgeous car called Push'paka. His consort
(Sakti) is called Kauveri, (kow-va'ree.)

See MOOR, " Hindu Pantheon."

Kuyk, koik, or Kuick van Wouterszoon, (vin



It may be proper to observe that in India churning is usually
performed by causing a body, termed the churn-stick, to revolve
rapidly in the cream or milk, by means of a string, in the same man-
ner as a drill is made to revolve. In some of the Hindoo pictures of
the churning of the ocean, the gods are represented as standing on one
ide of Mount Mandara, and the Asurs on the other, both grasping
in their hands the serpent Sesha, which is wound round the mountain.
This rests upon the back of the tortoise, (Vishnu.) At the same
time, the preserving deity, in consequence of his ubiquitous character,
is seen standing among the gods and grasping Sesha, and also as
dancing on the top of Mandara. (See Plate 49 in Moor's " Hindu
Pantheon.")

t Called Bikh in some of the modem Hindoo dialects.

J The signification of the name of Kuvra has doubtless allusion to
the fact that, to those engaged in the pursuit of wealth, it usually
eems to come with a very slow and hobbling pace. In like manner
the Plutus of the Greeks was represented as not only blind, (because
he bestowed bis favours with so little discernment,) but lame, because


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 62 of 425)