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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Rissertatio de C. Lxlio Sapiente," 1831.

Laemlein. See LAMLEIN.

Laennec, 15'neV, (GuiLLAUME FRANCOIS,) a French
physician, born at Quimper in 1748, was the uncle of
the following. He became physician-in-ordinary to the
king in 1779. Died in 1822.

Iiaennec, <REN THEODORE HYACINTHS,) an eminent
French physician, born at Quimper in February, 1781,
went to Paris in 1800 to pursue his studies. He gave
special attention to anatomy, in which he made several
discoveries. He had already acquired a reputation by his
practice and writings, when he invented the stethoscope
in 1815, and opened a new era in medicine by his impor-
tant discovery of auscultation. Having been chosen chief
physician of the H&pital Necker in 1816, he studied the
diseases of the thorax with great diligence, sagacity, and
success. His " Treatise on Mediate Auscultation," etc.
("Traite' de 1'Auscultation mediate et des Maladies des
Poumons et du Cceur," 2 vols., 1819) produced a great
sensation, and may be regarded as the most important
contribution to medical science made in the present cen-
tury. He was appointed professor of medicine in the
College of France in 1822, and obtained the chair of
clinic medicine in 1822 or 1823. He died of consump-
tion in 1826.

See PAEISBT, "E*loge de Laennec," 1840: A. L. J. BAVLK, " No-
ace historique sur R. T. H- Laennec," 1836; "Nouvelle Biographic

Laensbergh, llns'bSRH or lans'b?Rg, ( MATHIEU,)
a Fleming, who lived about 1630, was the author of a
famous almanac, first published about 1635. An almanac
bearing his name continues to be published at Liege.

La Enzina or Enema. See ENZINA.

Laer or Laar, van, vin liR, (PIETER,) a celebrated
Dutch painter, born at Haarlem in 1613. He studied
and worked sixteen years in Rome, where he was inti-
mate with N. Poussin and Claude Lorrain and received
the surname of BAMBOCCIO. In 1639 he returned to
Holland and settled in Haarlem. His favourite subjects
were hunting-scenes, rural sports, fairs, fisheries, and
rustic festivals, which he treated with great vivacity. He
excelled in design, colour, and aerial effects. His etch-
ings of his own designs are also much admired. Died
in 1673.

Laerte. See LAERTES.

La-er'te, [Gr. \aepnif; Fr. LAERTE, li'iRt',] King
of Ithaca, and father of Ulysses, is said to have been
one of the Argonauts. He resigned the crown to his
son just named.


Laet, van, vSn lit, (JAN,) a Flemish geographer, born
at Antwerp, was well versed in languages and history.
He published valuable descriptive works on Spain, Italy,
Persia, etc. His "Description of the West Indies" (1640)
is highly commended. Died about 1650.

See NICHAON, " Me'moires."

Laevinus, le-vl'nus, (MARCUS VALERIUS,) a Roman
general, who, having obtained the office of prsetor in 214
B.C., fought with success against Philip, King of Mace-
don, at Oricum. He became consul in 210 B.C., and
obtained by lot the command of Italy, which was then
invaded by Hannibal ; but he exchanged this province
with Marcellus for Sicily. He quickly expelled the Car-
ihaginians from this island. Died in 200 B.C.

See Liw, " History of Rome ;" PotvBlus, " History."

Laavinus, (PuBLius VALERIUS,) a Roman general,
who was consul in 280 B.C. He obtained the chief com-
mand in the war against Pyrrhus and the Tarentines.
His army was defeated by Pyrrhus in a great battle on
the Siris, near Heraclea, in 280 B.C.

Laevinus, li-vee'nus, ( TORRENTIUS, ) called also
Vander Beken, vin der ba'ken, a Flemish prelate,
born at Ghent about 1525, was distinguished as a Latin
poet He founded a college of Jesuits at Louvain, and
became Bishop of Mechlin. Died in 1595.

Laevius, lee've-us, a Latin poet, of whom little is
known. He lived in the first century before Christ, and
wrote " Erotopsegnia."

Lafabrique, ls'fS / bRek',(NicoLA6,) a Flemish painter,
born at Namur ; died at Liege in 1736.

La Fage, ii fizh, (RAIMOND,) a French designer and
engraver, born at Lisle (Albigeois) about 1650, studied
and worked at Rome and at Paris. He was renowned
for boldness of touch and facility of execution. The
pen was his favourite instrument in design. He left
many etchings. His habits were very intemperat*
Died abo"' 1600.

a, e, I, 5, u, y, long; 4, e, t>, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, J, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; mft; not; good; mo5n




La Fage, de, deh 15 fizh, (JusrE ADRIEN LENOIR,) a
French musician, composer, and writer on music, born
at Paris in 1801. In 1828 he produced a comic opera,
"I Creditor), " which was moderately successful. But
he is best known for his works on music, "The Complete
Manual of Music," (1836-38,) and "General History of
Music." Died March 8, 1862.

La Faille, de, deh IS ft! or ft'ye, ( CLEMENT, ) a
French naturalist, born at La Rochelle in 1718; died in

Lafaist See LAFAYE.

La Fare, de, deh It fiR, (CHARLES AUGUSTS,) MAR-
QUIS, a French litterateur, born at Valgorge in 1644. He
served several campaigns in the army, (1667-74,) and
became a friend of Turenne. Besides some trifling
poetical pieces, he wrote " Memoirs and Reflections on
the Principal Events of the Reign of Louis XIV.,"
(1715,) which is commended. Died in 1712.

La Farge, IS fSkzh, (JOACHIM,) a French financier,
bom in Paris about 1750, originated a system of tontine
which is called by his name. Died about 1825.

Lafarge, la-farj', (JOHN,) an American artist, born in
New York city about 1840. He is one of the best land-
scape-painters in the United States, and is noted for his
flower-pieces and water-colour pictures. His strongest
quality is exhibited in the masterly and expressive use of
colour. Among his noted works are " Paradise at New-
port," " Christ and Nicodemus," a cartoon sketch, and
the frescos of Trinity Church, Boston. He devoted
himself to mural painting, and afterwards for many
years to the making of stained-glass windows, inventing
new methods and producing radical changes in the art.

La Farge, (MARIE CAPPELLK,) a Frenchwoman,
notorious for her crimes, was born in Picardy in 1816.
She was the daughter of a colonel of artillery, and was
married in 1838 to M. La Farge, who died soon after, it
was supposed, from the effects of poison administered
oy his wife. About the same time she was accused of
having stolen from one of her friends some diamonds of
great value. The trial which followed was of the most
exciting kind, several eminent chemists having declared,
after an examination of the remains, that there were no
marks of poison, while M. Orfila asserted that arsenic
was present Madame La Farge was condemned to
imprisonment for life, but after twelve years she was
released, on account of ill health, and died in 1852.

See "Mimoires de Marie Cappelle Veuve La Farge," by herself
4 vols., 1840; " Edinburgh Review" for July, 1842.

La Farina, li fa-Ree'na, (GIUSEPPE,) an Italian lawyer
and historical writer, born at Messina in 1815. He
founded several liberal journals, which were successively
suppressed by the government He afterwards settled
at Florence, where he found more liberty, and published
a democratic anti-papal journal, " L'Alba." He took a
prominent part in the unsuccessful revolution in Sicily
in 1848, after which he again became an exile. Among
his works are a "History of Italy from 1815 to 1850,"
(6 vols.,) and a "History of the Revolution of Sicily in
1848-49," (2 vols.) Died in 1863.

Lafaye, IS'iJ', (ANTOINE,) a French Protestant min-
ister, born at Chateaudun, became professor of theology
at Geneva in 1584. He wrote several theological works,
and a "Life of Beza," (1606.) Died in 1615.

Lafaye or Lafaist, li'fj', (PIERRE BENJAMIN,) a
French philologist, born in the department of Yonne in
1808. His chief works are " French Synonymes," (1841,)
crowned by the Institute, and a "Dictionary of the
Synonymes of the French Language." Died in 1867.

Lafaye, de, deh IS'fJ', JEAN ELIE,) an able French
engineer, born at Vienne in 1671. He served in the
army many years as engineer, and made discoveries in
the science of war. Died in 1718.

Lafaye, de, (JEAN FRANCOIS,) a French diplomatist,
distinguished for his wit and accomplishments, brother
of the preceding, was born at Vienne in 1674. He was
a member of the French Academy. Died in 1731.

La Fayette or Lafayette, de, deh li'ft'et', (GEORGE |
WASHINGTON,) the only son of General La Fayette, was
born in 1779. He entered the army young, and served
in Italy about 1796. As aide-de-camp of General Grou-
chy, he made the campaigns of Austria, Prussia, and

Poland, (1805-07.) He was elected to the Chamber of
Deputies in 1822, and again in 1827, by the voters of
Seine-et-Marne, whom he continued to represent until
1848. In politics he was an advanced liberal. Died in 1849.

La Fayette, de, (GILBERT,) a French general, born
about 1380. He fought for the dauphin Charles against
the English, and became a marshal of France in 1420.
He was afterwards one of the chief counsellors of
Charles VII., and contributed to the victory of Joan
of Arc at Orleans in 1429. He aided in expelling the
English from Normandy in 1449. Died in 1462.

See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

La Fayette, de, (LOUISE,) a French lady, born in
1616, was a daughter of Count Jean de la Fayette.
She gained the affection of Louis XIII. about 1634, and
encouraged him to become more independent of Riche-
lieu. She entered a convent about 1636. Died in 1665.

La Fayette or Lafayette, de, (MARIE JEAN PAUL
Roch Yves Gilbert Motier rosh ev zhel'baiR' mo'-
te-i',) MARQUIS, an illustrious French statesman and
patriot, was born at Chavagnac, September 6, 1757. . His
father, who was a marquis and marechal-de-camp, was
killed at the battle of Minden in 1757. After leaving
the College Du Plessis, in Paris, he married in 1774
Mdlle. d'Ayen, a daughter of the Duke of Ayen. He
was the heir of an immense fortune, and had brilliant
prospects at court, when, with generous enthusiasm for
liberty, he offered his services to the new-born republic
of America. Silas Deane, commissioner of the United
States in Paris, accepted his offer, and promised him
the grade of major-general, which was confirmed by the
American Congress. In the spring of 1777 he arrived
in the United States, and in the same year took part in
the battle of the Brandywine, where he was wounded.
He gained the favour and confidence of Washington,
and received the thanks of Congress for his conduct at
Monmouth in 1778. The French court having recog-
nized the independence of the United States, La Fayette
recrossed the ocean in 1779 and returned with material
aid to the scene of war. He commanded the advanced
guard of Washington in 1780, and contributed to the
decisive victory of Yorktown, (1781,) where the war was
virtually ended.

On his return to France, with a prestige magnified
by distance, he was received with unbounded applause,
which reanimated or confirmed his devotion to the cause
of liberty. In 1787 he advocated the rights of the French
Protestants and various reforms in the government His
principal parliamentary act in the States-General of 1789
was his Declaration of the Rights of Man, which was
adopted by that body. In that year he was chosen by ac-
clamation commandant of the Parisian militia, to which
he gave the name of the National Guard. At this period
he was the popular favourite of the nation. " The federa-
tion of 1790," says Lamartine, "was the apogee of La
Fayette. He overshadowed on that day both the king
and the Assembly." (" History of the Girondists.")
Aiming to reconcile his loyalty to the king with his duty
to the cause of freedom, he acted with the Feuillants,
the friends of constitutional monarchy. In the main-
tenance of order he often risked his life, and he enforced
martial law against the insurgents in the Champ-de-Mars
in July, 1791, soon after the arrest of the king at Va-
rennes. Before the end of that year he resigned his com-
mand, and was a candidate for the mayoralty of Paris ; but
the intrigues of the queen and court, who hated or feared
him, decided the election in favour of Pethion, who was
a radical revolutionist. The large majority of Pe'thion
showed that the star of La Fayette was declining. In the
winter of 1791-92 he was chosen commander of one of
the three armies, and, war having been declared against
Austria in April, he directed some small operations on
the frontier of Flanders, at the same time striving, with-
out success, to defeat the Jacobins at Paris. Indignant
at the attack on the Tuileries, (June 20, 1 792,) La Fayette
went, with a single officer, to Paris, and, in a short
harangue before the bar of the Assembly, demanded the
punishment of the offenders. " In this attempt to act as
dictator," says Lamartine, "the motive was generous,
the peril great, but the means null." Returning to the
army, he devised a plan to save the king by transferring

as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/,- G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; as z; th as in this. ' B5T"See Explanations, p. 23.)




him from the capital to his camp ; but the court rejected
the offer.

The insurrection of August 10 gave the ascendency to
the i epublicans, who deprived La Fayette of his command.
He then fled towards Holland, intending to emigrate to
the United States, but was arrested by the Austrians and
detained in the dungeons of Neiss and Olmiitz, where
he was treated with much rigour. In a treaty with Aus-
tria in 1797, Bonaparte insisted on his liberation, which
was effected in September of that year. Having passed
about two years in Holland, he returned to France in
1800, and, refusing several offers of public employment
under Bonaparte, maintained his political consistency in
retirement at La Grange. Some one having complained
that La Fayette censured the government, the First
Consul replied, " Let him alone : he will not say more
against me than he has expressed openly before me."

In the Chamber of Deputies in 1815, he opposed the
claims of Bonaparte and of the Bourbons, and wished to
rally round the standard of 1789 for "liberty, equality,
and order." After the restoration of the Bourbons he
spoke frequently in the Chamber in opposition to the
ministry. In 1824 he revisited the scene of his youthful
exploits, where he was received with cordial demonstra-
tions of honour and gratitude, and passed about a year
in a triumphalprogress through the twenty-four States of
the Union. The Congress of the United States voted
$200,000 in recompense for his services in the war of
independence. The arbitrary measures of Charles X.
again roused him to political action. He took a promi-
nent part in the revolution of 1830, as the chief of the
popular camp in Paris, and president of the commission
which exercised a sort of dictatorship after the expul-
sion of Charles X. He was also chosen commander
of all the National Guards of France. He acquiesced
in the accession of Louis Philippe, which Lamartine
thinks he might easily have prevented by proclaiming
a republic On this occasion he said to the new king,
" You know that I am a republican, and that I regard
the Constitution of the United States as the most perfect
that ever existed." He died May 20, 1834, leaving one
son and several daughters. Perhaps no man ever lived
through such vicissitudes of fortune, and such severe
trials of his virtue, with a character more free from just
reproach than La Fayette. The high-toned consistency
of his conduct is expressed in the assertion of Madame
de Stael, " that you could certainly predict what he would
do in every contingency."

See SARRANS, " Lafayette et la Revolution de 1830," a vols.,
1834: CLOQUBT, "Souvenirs de la Vie de La Fayette," 1836; " Mi-
moires et Correspondance du Ge'ne'ral Lafayette," (published by
his family,) 6 vols., 1838; J. Q. ADAMS, " Oratiou on the Life and
Character of Lafayette," 1834; WILLIAM CUTTER, " Lifeof General
Lafayette," New York, 1849 L. DB LOMBNIB, " M de Lafayette, par
an Homme de Rien," 1843 : P. C. HBADLBY, " Life of Lafayette,"
Auburn, (851 ; SAINTS- BKUVB, " Critiques et Portraits litte'raires,"
tome v. : ILMILB DE LA BBDOLLIBRB, "Vie politique du Marquis de
Lafayette," 1833 ; BANCROFT, " History of trie United States," vol.
ix. ; "North American Review" for January, 1835, (by GBOKGB
TICKNOR,) and January, i83->, (by EDWARD EVERETT;) "Quarterly
Review" for December, 1832 ; " Foreign Quarterly Review" for Octo-
ber, 1832; " Edinburgh Review" for January, 1833.

La Fayette, de, (MARIE MADELEINE Pioche de la
Vergne pe'osh' deh II v^Rn,) COUNTESS, a popular
French authoress, born in Paris in 1634, was eminently
beautiful. She married the Count de la Fayette in 1655,
and her house became the resort of La Fontaine, La
Rochefoucauld, Manage, and other eminent authors.
She wrote two successful novels, "Zayde," (1670,) and
"The Princess of Cleves," (1678,) which were the first
French works of fiction that truly represented the man-
ners of the higher classes. She left also " Memoirs of
the French Court" for the years 1688 and 1689, (1731,)
and a few other works. Died in 1693.

See LEMONTEY, "Notice sur Madame de la Fayette," 1822;
SAINTE-BRUVB, "Portraits de Femmes," 1844: AUGER, "Notice
biographique sur Madame de Lafayette," (prefixed to her Letters,)
1823; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

La Fayette, de, (OSCAR,) a son of George W., noticed
above, was born in Paris in 1816. He served in the
army in Africa, and obtained the rank of captain. In
1846 he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies, and in
1848 to the Constituent Assembly, in which he voted
with the republicans. Died March 26, 1881.

Laferriere or La Ferriere, IffVr^-aiR', (Louis
FIRMIN JULIEN,) a French jurist, and a member of the
Institute, was born at Jonzac in 1798. His principal
work is a " History of the Civil Law of Rome and of
French Law," (6 vols., 1846-53.) Died in 1861.

La Ferriere, de, deh IS fa're-aiR', (Louis MA.RIE,)
COUNT, born at Redon in 1776, became a general of
division. He lost a leg at Craonne in 1814. Napoleon
left him a legacy of 100,000 francs. Died in 1834.

La Ferte-Imbault, de, deh li f?R'ta' aN'bo', (MARII
THKRESE GEOFFRIN,) MARQUISE, a literary French lady,
born in Paris in 1715, was a daughter of the well-known
Madame de Geoffrin. She was trained up in the society
of such men as Fontenelle and Montesquieu, who were
habitues of her mother's salon. Her moral or pious prin-
ciples caused her to close her door against D'Alembert
and the other Encyclopaedists. She was grand mattrcsse
of the order of Lanturelus, designed for literary diver-
sion, and composed several volumes of moral maxims.
Died in 1791.

La Ferte-Senneterre, de, deh 1J feVta' sen'taiR'
(HENRI,) Due, a French marshal, born in 1600, com-
manded a wing at the battle of Rocroy, (1645.) He
became a marshal of France in 1651, after which Tn-
renne and he recovered Bar, Arras, and other town*
which the Prince of Cond had captured. Died in

La Feuillade. See FEUILLADE, DE LA.

Laf fan, (BERTHA JANE,) an English novelist, on
the staff of "All the Year Round" after 1878. She
published numerous novels and one volume of poetry,
"Songs of Jubilee and other Poems," ( 1887.)

Laffitte, li^fet', (JACQUES,) an eminent French finan-
cier and liberal statesman, born at Bayonne in 1767, was
the son of a carpenter. In 1788 he entered as clerk the
banking-house of Perregaux at Paris. He became a part-
ner about 1802, and the head of the firm in 1809. In
tlte latter year he was chosen governor of the Bank of
Prance. The great fortune which he had acquired was
fieely offered for the defence of Paris from the invader*
in 1814, and for the restoration of the public credit in
1815. Napoleon deposited with him 5,000,000 francs
just before his departure to Saint Helena, with the ex-
pression of perfect confidence in his honesty. In 1816
he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies, in which he
acted with the Liberal opposition and spoke with ability
on financial questions. " Placed in the vanguard of the
defenders of the Charter," says M. de Lomenie, "as
popular by his opinions as by his princely munificence,
the opulent banker beheld himself surrounded by all the
notabilities of the press and the tribune." He took an
active part in the dethronement of Charles X. in 1830,
and used his influence in favour of Louis Philippe, to
whom in a critical hour he wrote, " No more hesitation 1
Choose between a crown and a passport." He entered
the first ministry of the new reign as minister without a
portfolio. This ministry having been speedily dissolved,
LafEtte, on the 3d of November, 1830, became prime
minister (prisident Ju comtil) and minister of finance.
Failing to command a majority in the chamber, he re-
signed in March, 1831. The financial crisis which fol-
lowed ruined his fortune, which had been reduced by
large donations to the popular cause in 1830. A national
subscription relieved him from embarrassment about
\f*\\. Died in 1844.

Laffon de Ladebat, irf6N' deh irdl'bS", (ANDRE
DANIEL,) a French financier, born at Bordeaux in 1746,
was a merchant in early life. He was a moderate mem-
ber of the Assembly in 1791, and of the Council of Elders
in 1795. The coup cTitat of September 4, 1797, sent him
as an exile to Guiana. After his return to France he
published several treatises on finance, economy, etc. He
was one of the founders of the Protestant Bible Societv
in 1818. Died in 1829.

Lafitau, li'fe'to', (JOSEPH FRANCOIS,) a French Jes-
uit, born at Bordeaux. Having been for many years a
missionary in Canada, he returned to France, and pub-
lished " Manners of the American Savages compared
with the Manners of Primitive Ages," and two other
works. Died in 1740.

i, e, i, 6, u. v long: i,e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, u, y, skort;$, e, i, o, obscure; fir, fill, fat; met; not; good; moon;



Lafitau, (PIERRE FRANCOIS,) a French Driest
rriter, born at Bordeaux in .68<. He wrot P e a



M ^ -


EKt ^r T " T 4 SK s Su.x

rL P , a of T n a,nfa ' Di^dT,^ 1 '^ ^ '^ ^'^ 3

of Veterinary Medicine," (r.)

a FHdrstt:' b^n 6

s " ccessful comedies, amon

Thalia -" (<<

" """ ijtuijit - u uuucr i^orun. and in
. was employed by Louis XIV to adorn the

T " a ?" and the Hotel des Invalides, the frescoed dc

. Abduction of Proserpine." Died in 1716.
bee NouveUe Biographic Gi?n*rale."

Lafosse, de, (JEAN BAPTISTK JOSEPH) a skilful
French engraver, was bom in Paris d ,72, ; died about

tuamis^ m 118 plates, 1554-73.) Died in 1577
LaFuente. See FU!NTE, LA. 577 '

SD^ni.rj,^* 6 -' 1J fW / n/ti ' (ALCANTARA MtGUEL,) .
Malaga in ^^"H^- 1 ^"' bom in the Province o,
hi i !i K 7 '_, Hedled at Havana in i8 s < soon after

, De Immortahtate Animorum," (1621 ) an

of thelo.rn-'^- A ? St tle admitted the immortalit?
01 the soul. Died in 1624.

La Gallissontere. See GALLISSONISRE, DE LA.
li/rr C

with" his "first"i'iterary S^ ^ R MTEl - 3 F I ench chemist and Philanthropist,
r > I born at Rennes m 1675. He founded infant-schools,

-& ,*/; ^**i^iiSSnii=^^iiS^;




and hospitals for the sick and aged. He made some
improvements in vegetable analysis, and published a
treatise on "Hydraulic Chemistry," ("Chimie hydrau-
lique," 1746.) Died in 1755.

See " Les fipoux charitables, ou Vies du Comte et de la Connesse
de La Garaye." Rennes, 1783.


La Gardie. See GARDIE, DE LA.

La Gasca. See GASCA, DE LA.

Lagerbring, 11'ger-bRing, (SvEN or SVEN BRING,)
a Swedish historian, born in 1707, was for many years
professor of history in the University of Lund. He
published a " History of Sweden" down to 1457, (3 vols.,
1709-76,) a work of much research, but defective in
style and method. Died in 1788.

See C WOLLJN, "Parentation ofver S. Lagerbring," 1788.

Lagerlof or Lagerloef, la'ger-lof, (PEHR,) a Swedish
scholar and writer, born in 1648, became professor of
rhetoric at Upsal. He was learned in languages, and
wrote Latin verse with much purity of style. He pub-
lished several antiquarian treatises. Died in 1699.

See JOcHKR, " Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexikon."

Lagerstrom or Lagers troem, von, fon la'ger-stRom',
(MAGNUS,) a Swedish savant, born at Stockholm in 1696,
was a friend of Linnxus. He translated French and
German works into Swedish, and availed himself of his
advantages as director of the East India Company to
collect scientific facts and specimens and to promote

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 65 of 425)