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astronomer. Having been sent by his parents to Paris
to study law, he attended the lectures of Messier and
Lemonnier on astronomy and mathematics, and became
the favourite pupil of both professors. The Academy
having resolved to send an astronomer to Berlin to
make observations and to second La Caille, who was
stationed at the Cape of Good Hope, Lalande was
selected in 1751, through the influence of Lemonnier.
Returning in 1752, his labours were approved, and he
was chosen a member of the Academy of Sciences in
his twentieth year. He next ascertained the diameter
of the moon, and began to work on the theory of the
planets, which became one of the most constant occu-
pations of his life. He assisted Clairaut in computing
the effect of planetary perturbations on the return of
Halley's comet about 1759.

He was chosen in 1760 editor of the "Connaissances
ties Temps," in the plan of which he introduced impor
tant improvements, and succeeded Delisle as professor
of astronomy in the College of France in 1762. For
forty-six years he discharged the functions of this place
with great zeal and eclat. In 1764 he published his great
"Treatise on Astronomy," ("Traite d'Astronomie,") in
which the theory and practical part of the science are
extensively treated. He produced in 1772 a "Memoir
on the Transit of Venus of 1769," and a year later a
speculation on the possibility of a collision of comets
with the earth, which caused a panic among the un-
learned, although he had arrived at the conclusion that
such a collision was very improbable. He wrote many
articles for the " Encyclopedie Methodique" and the
"Journal des Savants," and published "The History,
Theory, and Practice of Navigation," ("Abrege de Na-
vigation,'' etc., 1793.) Among his other works are
"Astronomical Bibliography," (1803,) " Histoire celeste
Frai^aise," (iSoi,) containing the observations of many
French astronomers, and "Memoirs on the Parallax of
the Moon." He died in 1807. "Though in many re-
spects only an astronomer of the second order," says
Delambre, " he was the foremost of all as a professor,
and did more than any other to promote the study of
the science." His temper was irritable, but candid and
benevolent.

See DELAMBRE, " filoge de Lalande;" "Nouvelle Biograthie
Generate. "



Lalande, de, (MICHEL JEAN JEROME
an astronomer, a nephew of the preceding, was born in
Normandy in 1766. Under the direction of his uncle he
made observations in Paris, and ascertained the theory
of the orbit of Mars. He became a member of the In-
stitute and of the Bureau of Longitudes. Died in 1839

Lalande, de, (MICHEL RICHARD,) a French com
poser, born in Paris in 1657, became superintendent of
music of Louis XIV. about 1683. He composed many
motets. " I le was," says Denne-Baron, " the most skilful
French composer of religious music of his time." Died
in 1726.

See "Nouvelle Biographie Ge'ne'rale."

La Landelle or LalandeUe, de, deh li loN'dfir,
(GUILLAUME JOSEPH GABRIEL,) a French novelist, born
at Montpellier in 1812, wrote "The Naval Crown," (9
vols., 1848,) and other maritime novels. Died in 1886.

Lalaune, la'lSn', (JEAN BAFHSTE,) a French didactic
poet, born at Dax in 1772.

Lalanue, (LfioN Louis CHRETIEN,) a French civil
engineer, born in Paris in 1811 ; died March 12, 1892.

Lalanne, (MARIE LUDOVIC CHRETIEN,) a French



writer, brother of the preceding, born in Paris in 1815 ;
wrote " Turkishes litteraires." Died in 1898.

Lallemand, ISl'mON', (CHARLES FRANC.OIS AN-
TOINE,) BARON, a French general, called LALLEMAND
A INK, was born at Metz in 1774. He served in Spain,
where he obtained the rank of general of brigade, (iSlI.)
During the Hundred Days he joined Bonuparte, and
commanded a division at Waterloo. As a fugitive, he
sought refuge in the United States, and attempted to
found a colony in Texas about 1818, but failed. In 1830
he returned to France, was restored to the rank of gene-
ral, and entered the Chamber of Peers. Died in 1839.
See " Nouvelle Biographie Ge'ne'rale."

Lallemand, (CLAUDE FRANC.OIS,) an eminent French
medical writer, born at Metz in 1790. He was professor
of clinical surgery at Montpellier from 181910 1823, and
again from 1826 to 1845. In tne latter year he was
elected a member of the Academy of Sciences, and
settled in Paris. He wrote, besides other medical treat-
ises, an important work entitled "Anatomico-Pathologic
Researches on the Brain," (5 vols., 1820-36,) which was
translated into many languages. He was once called to
Egypt to attend Ibraheem Pasha. Died in 1854.
See QURARD, "La France Liue>aire."
Lallemand, (HENRI DOMINIQUE,) born in 1777, was
a brother of Charles Fran9ois Antoine, noticed above,
and a brave partisan of Napoleon, who made him general
of division in the Hundred Days. He fought at Water-
loo, (1815.) after which he went as an exile to the United
States. Died at Bordentown in 1823.

Lallemand, (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a French painter of
landscapes and sea-views, born at Dijon in 1710, worked
some years in Rome, and painted several pieces for the
Vatican. Died in 1802.

JL, 1 Aliernand, 131'm6N', (SlEGMUND,) an eminent Aus-
trian painter of battle-pieces, born at Vienna, March 8,
1840. He was a soldier, and afterwards he devoted
himself with great success to his specialty.

Lallemandet, lil'mft.N'dJ', QEAN,) a theologian, born
at Besanon in 1595, wrote "Philosophical Decisions,"
(" Decisiones Philosophies," 1644,) and other works.
Died in 1647.

Lallemant. See LALAMANT.

Lallemant, laTmftN', (JACQUES PHILIPPE,) a French
Jesuit, born near Abbeville about 1660. He published
a remarkable work, entitled "The True Spirit of the
New Disciples of Saint Augustine," (4 vols., 1706 et
tty.,) and " Moral Reflections, with Notes, on the New
Testament," (n vols., 1714.) Died in 1748.

Lallemant, (PIERRE,) a mystical French writer, born
at Rheims in 1622, published " The Spiritual Testament,"
11672.) and other works. Died in 1673.

Lalli, lal'lee, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) an Italian poet
and diplomatist, born at Norcia, in Umbria, in 1572,
was employed in several negotiations by the courts of
Rome and of Parma. He acquired a high reputation
by his epic poem "Titus Vespasian, or the Destruction
of Jerusalem," (" II Tito Vespasiano, overo La Geru-
salcmme Desolata," 1629.) He also produced some
popular burlesque poems, among which is "The /Eneid
Travestied," (1633.) Died in 1637.

Lallu Lai, lul'loo 111, (called also SRI LALLU LAl and
LALLU LAL KAVI,) a Brahman prose author of the present
century. He was educated at Fort William College,
Calcutta. His writings are in the llindee dialects, and
are of high importance. They include " Prem Sagar,"
(1804-10,) a history of Krishna, and " Rajuiti," (1809,)
the latter a translation of the " Hitopadesa" and of a
part of the " Panchatantra" into the old or poetic Hindee.
His works are extremely popular in Northern India.

Lally, de, deh 14'le', (THOMAS ARTHUR,) COUNT,
Baron of Tollendal, in Ireland, a French general, of
Irish descent, born in Dauphine about 1700. For his
conduct at Fontenoy, in 1745, he was made brigadier-
general. He fought for the Pretender in Scotland in
the same year. In 1756, while France was at war with
lingland, he was appointed commandant-general of the
French possessions in India, commissary of the king,
and syndic of the French East India Company. He
took Fort Saint David in I7$S, and attacked Madras



asi,- 9asj; g/iard; g asy'; G, H, K. guttural; n,nasal; s, trilled; sasz; thasin/^w. (J^=See Explanations, p. 33.)



LALL Y TOLLENDAL



1476



LAMARTINE



without success. His plans were thwarted by the cor-
rupt agents of the company. In 1761 he surrendered
Pondicherry to Sir E. Coote, and was taken as prisoner
to England. After having been imprisoned for four years
in the Bastille, he was executed for treason in 1766. In
1778 the royal council annulled his sentence, the injustice
of which was generally recognized.
See VOLTAIRE, "Sitcle de Louis XV."

Lally-ToUendal, de, deh li'le' to'loN'dil', (Tuo-
PHIME GERARD,) MARQUIS, a French orator and writer,
a son of the preceding, was born in Paris in 1751. He
devoted many years to the successful vindication of his
father's memory. In 1789 he was deputed by the no-
blesse to the States-General, and was one of the minority
of his order who united with the Tiers-Etat and favoured
reform. He emigrated to England in 1792, and returned
to France in 1800. In 1815 he entered the Chamber of
Peers, where he showed himself a moderate royalist He
was admitted into the French Academy in 1816. He died
in 1830, leaving many political treatises.

See QU^RARD, "La France LitteVaire ;" " Nouvelle Biographic
Generale."

La Longe or Lalonge, li lAxzh, (HUBERT or RO-
BERT,) called IL FIAMMINGO, (i.e. "the Fleming,") a
skilful painter, born at Brussels, lived mostly in Italy.
Died in 1709.

La Loubere. See LOUBERE, LA.

La Luzerne. See LUZERNE, LA.

Lama, la'ml, (GIOVANNI BERNARDO,) an Italian
painter of the Neapolitan school, was born about 1510.
He painted religious subjects and portraits with success.
Died about 1580.

Lam'a-ehus, |A<i^a,fof,] an Athenian general, born
about 470 B.C., was the son of Xenophanes, and, accord-
ing to Plutarch, was a man of great courage and honour.
In 415 Nicias, Alcibiades, and Lamachus were chosen
generals of the expedition against Syracuse. The people
having recalled Alcibiades, Nicias had the principal
direction of the enterprise, though Lamachus was the
abler general. He was killed at Syracuse in 444 B.C.

Lamalle. See DUREAU.

Lamanon, de, deh li'mf n6N', (ROBERT DE PAUL,)
CHEVALIER, a French naturalist, born at Salon in 1752.
He lived some years in Paris, wrote memoirs on fossil
bones, etc., and accompanied the expedition of La
Perouse as naturalist in 1785. He was murdered by
some natives of one of the Navigator Islands in 1787.

La-mar', (Lucius QUINTUSCINCINNATUS,) an Amer-
ican 'statesman, was born in Putnam county, Georgia,
September 17, 1825. He graduated at Emory College
in 1845, and in 1847 was admitted to the bar. He was a
member of Congress from Mississippi, 1856-60, served
as Confederate officer and commissioner to Russia during
the war, and in 1866-72 held professorships in the Uni-
versity of Mississippi. He was a member of Congress,
1872-76, and was elected to the United States Senate in
1876 and in 1882. In 1885 he became secretary of the
interior under Cleveland, and in 1888 a justice of the
Supreme Court of the United States. Died Jan. 23, 1893.

La-mar', (MlRABEAU B.,) an American statesman,
norn at Louisville, Georgia, in 1798. He removed in
1835 to Texas, and was elected first Vice-President in
1836, and in 1838 President of the republic. Died at
Richmond, Texas, December 19, 1850.

Lamarche or La Marche, \t mjRsh, (JOSEPH
DROUOT,) a French general, born in Vosges in 1733.
At the death of Dampierre (1793) the chief command
devolved on Lamarche, until he was superseded by
Custine in July, 1793. Died about 1800.

La Marche, (OLIVIER.) See MARCHE, LA.

La Marck, (RoiiEKT.) See MARCK, LA.

Lamarck or La Marck, de, deh li mSRk, (JEAN
BAPTISTE PIERRE ANTOINE DE MONET,) CHEVALIER, a
celebrated French naturalist, bom in Picardy, August
I, 1744. He was educated for the church at a college of
Amiens, but entered the army in 1761 and fought in one
campaign with distinction. Having been disabled for
action by an accidental injury, he went to Paris, where
he studied medicine, which, however, he did not prac-
tise. He devoted himself to botany, in the classification
of which he made some innovations, and published



in 1778 "Flore Fran9aise," ("French Flora,") which
opened to him the Academy of Sciences. Taking tho
most general conformations a the point of departure,
proceeding by a dichotomic path, and presenting at
each step a choice between two opposite characters it
was found a convenient guide. Having received a com-
mission as botanist to the king, he was employed in
botanical researches in Holland and Germany, from
which he returned in 1782. He extended his reputation
by the article Botany in the " Encyclopedic Me^hodique,"
(about 1783.) In 1788 he became an assistant of the
director of the Jardin du Roi, which was reorganized in
1793, under the name of the "Museum of Natural His-
tory." Lamarck was appointed professor of zoology in
that institution. His sagacious and zealous researches
and writings in the department of invertebrata (which
devolved on him because the other professors deemed
them beneath their notice) constitute his principal title
to celebrity, and raise him to the rank of a legislator in
the animal kingdom. In 1809 he propounded, in his
"Philosophic zoologique," several novel or absurd hy-
potheses on the production of animals, as the theory
of metamorphosis or progressive development, and that
of spontaneous generation. His capital work, entitled
"Natural History of Invertebrate Animals," (" His-
toire naturelle des Animaux sans Vertebres," 7 vols.,
181 5-22,) ranks among the noblest monuments of human
science. He had published an outline of the same in
1801. Died in 1829.

See CUVIKR, " filoge de Lamarck ;" GROFFROV SAINT-HILAIRE,
"Discours prononcti sur la Tombe de Lamarck ;" "Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Generale;" "Monthly Review," vol. Ixv., 1811 et itq.,
(Appendix.)

Lamare-Picquot, li'mjR' pe'ko', (N.,) a French
naturalist, born at Bayeux about 1785, travelled in the
East Indies, from which he brought specimens of zoology
of eight hundred and fifty-five species. Between 1841
and 1848 he explored North America.

La Marmora. See MARMORA, DELLA.

Lamarque. IfmSRk', (FRANC.OIS,) a French regicide,
born in Perigord about 1755, was elected to the Con-
vention in 1792. He was one of the four deputies who
attempted to arrest Dumouriez at the head of his army
: n 1793, and who were by him delivered to the Austrians.
Died in 1839.

Lamarque, (MAXIMILIEN,) an able French general
and orator, born at Saint-Sever (Landes) in 1770. He
served as a general of brigade at Austerlitz in 1805,
obtained command of a division in 1807, and took Capraea
from the English in 1808. At the battle of Wagram, in
1809, his courage was conspicuous. He joined the
standard of Napoleon on his return from Elba, and
commanded with success in several actions against the
Vendeans in 1815. In 1828 he became a liberal member
of the Chamber of Deputies. Died in 1832. A bloody
conflict occurred between the troops and the populace
at his funeral in Paris.

See Louis BLANC, " Histoire de dix Ans:" "Memoires et Sou
venire du General Lamarque," published by his family, 3 vols., 1835-
36; "Nouvelle Biographic Generale."

La Martelliere or Lamartelliere, IS mSR'tJ'le-aiR',
(JEAN HENRI FERDINAND,) a French dramatic author,
born at Ferrette in 1761 ; died in 1830.

LamartLLie, de, deh IfmaVten', (ALPHONSE,) a
French poet, orator, and historian of great celebrity, was
born at Macon, on the Saone, on the 2ist of October,
1790. His father served for a short time in the army
as captain or major, and was imprisoned as a royalist
in the Revolution. His mother's name was Alix des
Roys. The name of De Prat has been erroneously given
to the subject of this article by some biographers. He
was educated at the College of Belley, which he left
about 1809, and afterwards passed some time at home,
where he read and admired Dante, Petrarch, Shakspeare,
Milton, and Ossian. In 1811-12 he visited Rome and
Naples. He entered the life-guards of Louis XVIII. in
1814, and when his company was disbanded on the re-
turn of Bonaparte from Elba, he retired into Switzerland,
where he remained during the Hundred Days. In iS2C
he published a volume of poems entitled " Meditations
poetiques," which excited general admiration, and of
which 45,000 copies were sold in four years. This volume



i, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, J, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, lit; met; n6t; good; moon;



LAMARTTNE



LAMB



contained "The Lake," (" Le Lac,") a beautiful elegy,
(composed in 1817,) in which he expresses the contrast
between the permanence of nature and the instability of
human affairs. Lamartine was appointed in 1820 secre-
tary of legation at Florence, (or, as one writer says, at
Naples,) and married an English heiress named Eliza
Marianna Birch. His " Nouvelles Meditations poetiques"
appeared in 1823. He was charge-d'affaires at Florence
for several years, ending in 1829, and was elected to the
French Academy in 1830. He professed devotion to the
church and the throne in his " Harmonies poetiques et
religieuses," (1830,) which are considered by some critics
as his best productions.

After the Revolution of 1830 he adopted more liberal
political principles, and resolved to make a change in his
pursuits. He offered himself as a candidate for election
to the Chamber of Deputies, but was defeated. In 1832,
accompanied by his wife and daughter Julia, he visited
Palestine, the favourite scene of his youthful reveries and
aspirations, travelling like a prince in a vessel which he
had chartered. His daughter Julia died at Beyroot. He
returned in the autumn of 1833, and published, in prose,
"Souvenirs, Impressions, Pensees et Paysages pendant
un Voyage en Orient," (3 vols., 1835,) the English ver-
sion of which is entitled "A Pilgrimage to the Holy
Land." During his absence he had been elected by the
voters of Bergues to the Chamber of Deputies, in which
he maintained a position independent of party, but spoke
often with success on questions of social and political
philosophy. He displayed a marvellous affluence of
pure sentiments and beautiful images in his poem of

"ocelyn," (1836,) announced or designed as an episode
a great poem on the progressive phases of humanity.
He became the representative of Macon in the Chambei
in 1837, and was classed for some years among the
" progressive conservatives ;" but he censured the im-
mobility of Guizot's policy, and in 1843 became a deter-
mined opponent of the ministry and conservative party.
The public were greatly surprised by the avowal of
democratic principles and sympathies which he made in
his eloquent and brilliant " History of the Girondists,"
(8 vols., 1847,) which had an important political influ-
ence as a cause of the Revolution of 1848. He is cen-
sured for inaccuracy as a historian, and for his imitation
of a habit of many ancient writers who ascribe to historical
persons imaginary speeches. "This work," says the
"Edinburgh Review" for January, 1848, "brings before
us that most stirring and important period with a clear-
ness and vividness that all previous descriptions, except
some of Carlyle's, have failed to realize: it presents us
on the same page with distinct, highly-finished sketches



of i



of the principal actors.



M. de Lamartine seems to



us, on the whole, to have brought to the consideration
of the Revolution a more candid spirit and more whole-
some sympathies than any preceding writer." He kept
himself aloof from the reform banquets of 1847, and took
no part in the first two days of the ensuing revolution.
On the 24th of February he entered the Chamber, and,
rejecting the claims of the falling dynasty, advocated
the formation of a provisional government. As a mem-
ber of the government formed m that momentous crisis,
he assumed the functions of minister of foreign affairs.
He became at once the master-spirit and moderator of
the Revolution, and repressed the spirit of anarchy and
homicide by memorable demonstrations of eloquence,
courage, and magnanimity. His harangue to the se-
ditious and infuriated bands who demanded the red flag
instead of the tricoloured (February 25) was one of the
most remarkable triumphs of eloquence recorded in
history. He addressed a pacific manifesto to Europe,
(March 4,) and was successful in averting a general war.
For some months his popularity was immense among
nearly all classes. In April he was elected by ten de-
partments to the Constituent Assembly which met on
the 5th of May. He was the fourth on the list of the
Executive Commission of Five chosen by the Assembly
on the loth of May. The decline of his popularity
shown by this fact is ascribed to his connection or col-
lusion with Ledru-Rollin, a collusion which he com-
pared to that of the lightning-rod with the pernicious
power which it averts. Lamartine and his colleagues



resigned in consequence of the insurrection of June 22,
which they were unable to suppress.

On the 6th of October he made a remarkable speech
in the Assembly, in which he advocated the election of
president by the people, and said, "If the republic suc-
ceeds, I have won my game (partie) against destiny. If
it fails, either in anarchy or in a reminiscence of despot-
ism, my name, my responsibility, and my memory will
fall with it." He also expressed his foreboding that the
result of the popular vote would not accord with his own
choice. At the election of president in December, 1848,
he received only about 8000 votes. Alter the cou



of December, 1851, he took no part in political affairs.
He published in 1849 a " History of the Revolution of
1848," (2 vols.,) " Les Confidences, "containing memoirs
of his early life, and " Raphael, Pages de la vingtieme
Annee." Among his later works are a " History of the
Restoration," (7 vols., 1851-52,) " Histoire des Cons-
tituents," (4 vols., 1854,) and a "History of Turkey,"
(8 vols., 1855.) Many of his works have been translated
into nearly all European languages. His neglect of
economy and his expensive habits involved him, many
years ago, in pecuniary embarrassments, which his great
literary industry and success failed to relieve. His friends
in 1858 opened a national subscription in his favour ; but
the results of this appeal to the public gratitude were
not very satisfactory. Died in February, 1869. "There
is in the most imperfect sketches of Lamartine," says an
anonymous French critic, " a grand current of inspira-
tion which imparts to each passion and idea its appro-
priate life and lustre. God and man, society and nature,
religion and politics, all objects of thought and senti-
ment, contribute to this resplendent focus of universal
poetry."

See CHARLKS ROBIN, "Biographic de Lamartine," 1848; CHA
puvs MONTLAVILLH, " Vie de Lamartine;" LOMBNIE, "Galerie de
Contemporains ;" SAINTB-BEUVB, " Portraits contemporains," tome
i. ; LURINE, "Histoire de A. de Lamartine," 1848; LONGFELLOW
"Poets and Poetry of Europe;" E. FRENSDORFP, "Lamartine,"
Berlin, 1848; CORMENIN, "Lamartine et le Gouvemement provi-
soire," 1848 ; A. DE LAMARTINE, "Trois Moisan Pouvoir,"(and Eng-
lish version of the same, entitled "Three Months in Power: a H : - '" - v
and a Vindication ;") " Quarterly Review" for July, 1835, and March,
1852: "Edinburgh Review" for January, 1848, and January, 1850;
" Fraser's Magazine" for November, 1844, and September, 1847 :
" Westminster Review" for January, 1836 ; " Blackwood's Magazine"
for August, 1849.

La Martinifere. See MARTINIERE, DE LA.

Lamb, lam, (Lady CAROLINE,) an English authoress,
daughter of Frederick Ponsonbv, Earl of Besborough, was
born in 1785. She was married in 1805 to William Lamb,
afterwards Lord Melbourne. Her romances, entitled
"Glenarvon," "Graham Hamilton," and "Ada Reis,"
procured her some literary reputation. Her friendship

or love for Lord Byron attracted much attention, and
_ > __ _____ i_i T-\: __ i :.. ,i> .'



gave rise to some scandal. 1
See the "Monthly Review" for



Died in 1828.



. ithly Review" for October, 1822; MADAME Gutc-
' Recollections of Lord Byron," pp. 100-101 et sty.

Lamb, (CHARLES,) a popular English essayist and
humorist, was born in London in February, 1775, and
was educated at Christ's Hospital, where he formed an
intimacy with Coleridge. In 1792 he entered the ser-
vice of the East India Company as clerk in the India
House, London. He began his literary career with a
small volume of poems published in 1798 in connection
with some verses of Coleridge and Lloyd, After the
faithful performance of his irksome duties at the desk
for thirty-three years, he retired in 1825, with a pension
of 441. His reputation is founded chiefly on his prose
works, especially the "Essays of Elia," (1830.) His
exquisite taste and critical sagacity are manifested in
his " Essays on the Tragedies of Shakspeare," and other
works. His character was amiably eccentric, abounding
in whims and quaint humours, and most of his writings
are strongly expressive of his mental individuality. He
remained unmarried, and lived with his sister Mary, who


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 67 of 425)