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tiful soul, with inimitable vividness and truth." Again,
he says, " Hoffmann's innermost being was music ; and

i, e 1, 6, u, y, long: a, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, q, obicure; fir, fill, fit; mSt; not; good; m5on;




the prayer of Saint Anthony is never wanting to his Hof'land, (BARBARA,) a popular English writer, born
hellish caricatures, nor the Christmas bell to the witches' at Sheffield in 1770, was the daughter of Robert Wreaks,
sabbath." Among his principal works are "Phantasie- She became the wife of Thomas Hofland, the painter, in
stiicke in Callot's Manier," (4 vols., 1814,) and "Sera- 1808. She wrote numerous novels and moral tales, which
pions Briider," (4 vols., 1819-21.) His various other had a wide circulation. The " Son of a Genius
tales, etc. would fill several volumes. I ('813) is probably her most successful work. Died

Hoffmann, (FRANZ,) a German theistic philosopher, i in 1844.

born at Aschaffenburg, January 19, 1804. In 1835 he Hofland, (THOMAS CHRISTOPHER,) an eminent Eng-
was made professor of philosophy at Wurzburg, where lish landscape-painter, born at Worksop, in Nottingham-
he died, October 22, 1882. He was a follower of Baader, i shire, in 1777. He married Mrs. Hoole, who, under the
whose works he edited. Besides works on logic, etc., name of Hofland, became well known as a novelist, and
Hoffmann published eight volumes of philosophical resided mostly in or near London. His subjects were
writings. ! chosen from the river and lake scenery of the British

Hoffmann, [Lat HOFFMAN'NUS,] (FRIEDRICH,) an Islands. He published a richly illustrated volume called
illustrious German physician, was born at Halle in 1660. "The British Angler's Manual," (1839.) Died in 1843.
He studied at Jena, and, after travelling in England and Hofler, hof'ler, (KARL ADOLPH KONSTANTIN,) a
Holland, settled as a physician at Halberstadt in 1688. German historian, born at Memmmgen, in Bavaria,
On the establishment of the university at Halle he was March 26, 1811. He was educated at Munich and Got-
appointed in 1693 its first professor of medicine by tingen, and in Italy. He was (1838-47) a professor of

the Elector Frederick III. of Brandenburg. On the
invitation of Frederick I. of Prussia, he removed in
1708 to Berlin, where he was made royal physician, but
still retained his professorship. He returned in 1712
to Halle, where he died in 1742. Hoffmann rendered
most important services to practical medicine by his ex-
periments with various remedies : his " Elixirium Vis-
cerale" and " Liquor Anodynus Mineralis," commonly
called " Hoffmann's Anodyne," are still popular, and he
was one of the first to bring mineral waters into more
general use. He wrote, in Latin and German, numerous
medical works, among which is " Medicina Rationaiis
systematica," (9 vols., 1718-40.) His complete works
were published in 6 vols. quarto, (1740.)

See SCHULZE, "Vita F. HoffmannL" prefixed to his Works, 1730;
BALDINGER. "Programmade F. Hoffmann! et H. Boerl^
in Medicinam practicam," 1772; LOVKN, " Dissertatio
manno ejusque Medicina Rational! systematical' 1846.

Hoffmann, (HEINRICH,) a German humourist,
bom at Frankfort in 1809. He became a medical
specialist, and while treating children drew comical
pictures to amuse them. These, with humourous

havii Mentis
de F. Hoff-

history in Munich, and after 1851 at Prague. Among
his works are " The German Popes," (1839,) " Collection
of Materials for Prankish History," (1849-52,) " Frank
ish Studies," (1852-53,) "Text-Book of Universal His-
tory," (1850-56,) etc.

Hofmann, hof man, (AUGUST WILHELM,) a German
chemist, born at Giessen, April 8, 1818. He held pro-
fessorships in London, 1845-63, and in the University of
Bonn, 1863-65, and went to Berlin University as pro-
fessor in 1865. Hofmann's is one of the great names
in the history of organic chemistry. He wrote many im-
portant scientific papers. He published "Einleitung in
die moderne Chemie," (1865,) etc. Died May 5, 1892.

Hofmann, (ERNST,) a Russian mineralogist, of Ger-
man descent, born at Overlack, in Livonia, January 20,
1801. He was educated at Dorpat and Heidelberg, and
held professorships in the universities of Kiev and Saint
Petersburg. Died at Dorpat, June 5, 1871. His writings
illustrate Russian geography, geology, and minerals.

Hofmann, von, fon hof man, (JOHANN CHRISTIAN
KONRAD,) a German theologian, founder of the so-called

, ' Erlangen school" of Lutheran theology, was born at

letter-press, were published in 1845 under the title I Nuremberg, December 21, 1810, and was professor of

"Struwwelpeter," the book being widely translated, theology at Rostock and Erlangen. Died December 20,

and running through more than one hundred and 1877.
forty editions. Died in 1894. Hofmannswaldau, von, fon hofmans-wil'dSw,

Hoffmann, (JOHANN GOTTFRIED,) a German writer sometimes written Hofmandswaldau, ( CHRISTIAN

on political economy, born at Breslau in 1765. He be- HOFMANN,) a German poet, born at Breslau in 1618.

came councillor of state in Berlin in 1808, and attended He published in 1673 a collection of poems, entitled

the Congress of Vienna in 1814. Among his works is "Sinnreiche Heldenbriefe." Died in 1679.
"The Science of Money," ("Die Lehre vom Gelde," See GBRVINUS, " Geschichte der Deutschen Nationalliteratur."
1838.) Died in 1847. Hofrneister, hofmls-ter, (WILHELM,) an eminent

Hoffmann, (JOHANN JAKOB,) a Swiss scholar, born German botanist, born at Leipsic, May 18, 1824. He

at Bale in 1635, obtained in 1667 the chair of Greek in held professorships at Heidelberg and Tubingen. Died

his native city. His principal work is a "Universal January 12, 1877.

' il," etc., (in Hofs

Lexicon, Historical, Geographical, Political,'
Latin, 1667.) Died in 1706.

Hofstede de Groot, hof'sta-deh deh gRot, (Prrrus,)
a Dutch (Frisian) theologian, born at Leer, October 8,

Hoffmann, (JOHANN JOSEPH,) a German scholar, !go2. In 1829 he became a professor of theology at
born at Wurzburg, February 16, 1805. He studied in Groningen. He was the recognized head of the "Gro-
the university of his native town, and affer 1830 devoted , ningen theology," and his party took the name of " Evan-
himself to the study of Japanese, Chinese, and Malay. ] gelicals," in opposition to the "Moderns," (the so-called
He became professor of Japanese at Leyden. Died ; Leyden school,) as well as to the strict "Orthodox" party.
January 23, 1878. His chief work is a great " Japanese ; He published " Theologia Naturalis," " Institutiones His-
Dictionary," which he left incomplete. toriae Ecclesiae," etc. His principal work is " Opvoeding

Hoffmann, (MORITZ,) a German physician and bota- j der Menschheid," (the " Education of Mankind," 1847.)
nist, bom at Fiirstenwalde in 1622, became professor of H o'gan, ( JAMES FRANCIS,) an Australian author,
surgery at Altdorf, and published several medical and
botanical works. Died in 1698.

Hoffmann, hof man, (TYCHO,) a Danish writer, was
keeper of the seals of Denmark. He wrote " Historical
Portraits of Eminent Danes." Died in 1754.

Hoffmannaegg, von, fon hof'man-seg', ( JOHANN London, ^" The Lost Explorer, (1890,) anc
CENTURIUS,) COUNT, a German botanist, born at Dres- Convict King."

den in 1766. Having explored the botanical riches of Ho'gan, (JOHN,) an Irish sculptor, born at Tallow,
Portugal for several years, he returned to Germany in Waterford county, in 1800. He studied m Rome, 1823
1804, and published with M. Link his magnificent " Por- -29, and settled in Dublin. Among his chief works is
tuguese Flora," (in French, 22 parts, 1809-33.) Died in I "The Drunken Faun," for which he received a medal
-g 4 o at the Exposition of Paris in 1851. Died about 1858.

Honmannua. See HOFFMANN. Ho'gan, (JOHN JOSEPH,) D.D., a bishop, born a

Hoffmeiater, hof mis-ter, (FRANZ ANTON,) a German Cahirguillamore, county of Limerick, Ireland, May 10,
musician and composer, born at Roihenburg in 1754. 1829. He was educated in the Roman Catholic msti-
Died at Vienn, February 10, 1812. I tutions of Saint Louis, Missouri, was ordained a pnest

was born in Ireland in 1854, and was taken to Aus-
tralia in infancy. He became a journalist, and in
1887 went to London, where he published " The Irish
in Australia." Later works we're " The Australian in

as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as mt/us.


Explanations, p. 23.)




in 1852, became Bishop of Saint Joseph in 1868, and
Bishop of Kansas City in 1880.

Ho'garth, (DAVID GEORGE,) an English archae-

ologist, born in Lincolnshire in 1862. After 1887 he
was engaged in active explorations in Asia Minor,
Cyprus, and Egypt, and was correspondent for the
" Times" during the Turko-Greek war of 1897. He
published various antiquarian works.

Ho'garth, (GEORGE,) a Scottish writer on music, born
in 1783, was the father-in-law of Charles Dickens, the
novelist. He published " Musical History, Biography,
and Criticism," (2 vols., 1836,) which is highly com- Dunse m
mended, and "Memoirs of the Musical Drama," (2 vols.,
1838.) He became musical and dramatic critic for the
London "Daily News" in 1846. Died in 1870.

Hogarth, (WILLIAM,) a celebrated satirical painter,

ing Tales," (1820,) "The Three Perils of Man," etc.,
and contributed to " Blackwood's Magazine." In 1820
he married Margaret Phillips, and resided afterwards

on a farm at Altrive. Hogg is one of the principal
actors and interlocutors in Christopher North's famous
" Noctes Ainbrosianae." Died in 1835.

of Hogg's Worl

" Life of James Hogg," pr<

siana;," New York, 1855.

Hogg, (ROBERT,) LL.D., a Scottish botanist, born at
1818. His works include " Hand-Book of
Hardy Annuals," "Manual of Fruits," "British Pomol-
ogy," "Gardener's Manual," etc. Died March 14, 1897.

Hohenlohe, ho'en-lo'eh, a celebrated family of Ger-
man princes. The Protestant line includes the houses

born in London in 1697, was apprenticed to a silversmith, { , Hohenlohe-Langenburg, Hohenlohe-Oehnngen, and
whom he left in 1718. He then earned a subsistence I Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen. The Catholic line includes the
for some time by engraving, and studied drawing in the ! houses of Hohenlohe-Bartenstem-Bartenstein, Hohen-

academy of Sir James Thornhill, whose daughter he I uhe-Bartenstem-Jagstberg, and

married in 1730. He acquired skill in portraits, but 1 bure-SdiillingMuriL

soon exchanged that branch of art for one more suited Woh P nloho.Tnlfi n = n h~',

to his original genius, the dramatic or satirical species,
in which he is unrivalled. In 1733 he published a
series of engravings called the " Harlot's Progress,"
which had a large sale, and was followed by the " Rake's
Progress," " Marriage a la Mode," " Industry and Idle-
ness," " Beer Lane," and " The Enraged Musician." His
pictures abound in comic humour, and display great skill
in caricature, as well as great originality and fertility of
invention. His works have also the merit of conveying
useful lessons of morality. In 1753 he published his
"Analysis of Beauty," in which he maintains that a

_______ _______ ^^... * .,^-

of war uiideVk'ing Louis


Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, ho'en-lo'eh ing'el-fing'en,

(FRIEDRICH LUDWIG,) PRINCE, a Prussian general, born
in 1746. He distinguished himself in the campaigns of
i 792 and 1 793, and obtained command of an army in 1 795.
He commanded the Prussian forces which were defeated
by Napoleon at Jena on the I4th of October, 1806. On
the i6th the king gave him command of all the troops
that had escaped from Jena and Auerstadt. He was
compelled to abandon Berlin to the enemy, and soon after
was taken prisoner, with about 15,000 men, at Prentzlow.
He retired to private life, and died in 1817 or 1818.

Holu-iilohe-SchUlingafurst, von, fon ho'en-lo'eh-
shil'lings-furst', (CHLpDwiG KARL VICTOR,) PRINCE, a

He early
Himself a
was the
In'^sii'he'b'ecame leader of ' he liberals in every anti-clerical movement in

general of division and aide-de-camp to Napoleon whom Bavarla - Though he had always been a zealous anti-

he followed in the Russian campaign. After the battle Prusslan . he was accused during the Austro-Prussian

of Waterloo he went to Brazil, where he died in 1830 war ' favourln g Bismarck's designs, and subsequently

Hogendorp, van, (GijSBERTKAREL,) COUNT, a Dutch alded m establishing the new empire. In 1874 he was

statesman, brother of the preceding, born at Rotterdam sent as Gerrnan ambassador to Paris, and in 1885 he

in 1762. He united with several others to form a pro- was a PP int ed governor of Alsace-Lorraine. In 1894

visional government in 1813, and was president of the I 16 liecame chancellor of the German empire, succeed-

commission which framed a new constitution. He was '"8 '" tnat office Count de Caprivi, who was the succes-

minister of foreign affairs, aftd vice-president of the sor " f Prince Bismarck. He resigned in 1900.

council, until he resigned in 1816. He wrote "Consider- Hohenlohe-SchillingBfurst, von (GusTAV

ations on the Political Economy of the Low Countries,'
(10 vols., 1818-23.) Died in 1834.

ADOLF,) PRINCE, a German cardinal, a brother of the
preceding, born at Rottenburg, February 26, 1823. He

Hogg, (jABEZ,)an English surgeon and author, i studied law and divinity at Erfurt, Bonn Breslau, Munich,

was born at Chatham in 1817. He practised as an an ^ Rome ' *** ortia 't d a P rl . est b ? J lu f IX " ln ' 8 49-
__h,h i , i ar| d was made secret chamberlain and almoner to the

f Ud J f : pope, and Bishop of Edessa. In ,866 he was made a

Jtography, and issued a series of illustrated school- ^ r H di ' nal iest , ^ d in , 879 a card i n al-bishop and arch-
books, some of which were highly successful. His i jes , of H Santa Maria Maggiore, holding the see of Al-
work on the microscope (1854) reached its fifteenth ano . In , 8 g 4 he resjgr f e e d his bishopric and retired
edition in 1898, and Is the accepted text-book on this temporarily to Germany. Died in Rome, Oct. 30, 1896.
e published various medical works on Hohenlohe- Waldenburg-SchillingBfurst, ho'-
ophthalmological subjects, and numerous other scien- en-lo'eh wil'den-booRG' shil'lings-fuRst', (ALEXANDER
tific works. LEOPOLD FRANZ EMMERICH,) PRINCE OF, a Hungarian

H6gg,(J AMES,)" the Ettrick Shepherd," born in Ettrick prelate, born at Kupferzelle in 1794. Died in 1849.
Forest, in Scotland, in 1772, was the son of a shepherd, Hohenstaufen, ho'^n-stow'fen, [from hack, "high,"
and followed his father's employment until he was thirty and Staufen, "hill" or "eminence,"] in the singular,
years of age. In 1803 a collection of his poems was pub- Hohenstaufe, ho'en-stow'feh, a celebrated family of
lished, under the title of "The Mountain Bard," the German princes, who reigned from 1138 to 1254. The
proceeds of which (about 300) enabled him to take a first of the line, FRIEDRICH VON BUREN, received the
farm. He failed, however, in this enterprise. After many name on account of having removed his dwelling from
struggles with adversity, he went to Edinburgh, to try i a valley auf 'den Staufen, ("up the hill" or "mountain.")

LI,, f .1 L' _1 ^ _O TT 1 J J JL J

his fortune in authorship, about 1810. Having issued a
literary periodical called " The Spy," without success, he
was encouraged by his friends to devote himself to poetry,
and in 1813 gave to the public the "Queen's Wake,"
which procured him a high reputation as a poet. It is
generally considered as his best work. His success stimu-
lated him to the rapid production of many other poems,
among which are "The Pilgrims of the Sun," (1815,)
"Poetic Mirror," "Sacred Melodies," and "The Border
Garland," (1819.) He wrote, in prose, "The Brownie
of Bodsbeck, and other Tales," (1818,) "Winter Even-

His son, FRIEDRICH VON STAUFEN, was rewarded by
the emperor Henry IV. for his eminent services by the
duchy of Suabia and the hand of his daughter Agnes.
Henry also made him Regent of Germany while he fought
against the pope in Italy. Friedrich died in 1 105, leaving
two sons, Friedrich and Conrad, the latter of whom was
crowned King of Germany, with the title of CONRAD
III. His nephew, FRIEDRICH BARBAROSSA, the most
celebrated of the line, was chosen emperor in 1 152. (Set
FREDERICK I. of Germany, and KYFFHAUSER.) The
Hohenstaufen line ended with CONRADIN in 1268.

, e, i, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, \, o, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; not; good; moon;




Hohenzollern, ho'en-tsorie'Rn, the name of an an-
cient princely German family, from which the imperial
house of Germany and the reigning families of Roumania
and Bulgaria are descended. The name is derived from
the castle of Zollern, in Suabia, which is said to have
been built by Tassillon, or Thasilio, about 8<x/ A.D.

Hoijer, ho'e-yer, (BENJAMIN CARL HENRIK,) an emi-
nent Swedish philosopher, born in Dalecarlia in 1767.
His promotion was hindered by the liberal political
principles of his youth. He produced a treatise "On
the Progress of Critical Philosophy," an " Outline of
the History of the Fine Arts," and other works. In 1808
he became professor of philosophy at Upsal, where he
gained a high reputation as a lecturer. Died in 1812.

Ho'kan-aon, (OLOF,) a Swedish orator, originally a
peasant, born in the province of Bleking in 1695, was
elected in 1726 to the Diet, in which he acquired great
influence by his prudence and eloquence. Died in 1769.

Holanda, de, da o-Un'da, (FRANCISCO,) a Portuguese
'ainter, born in 1518, studied in Rome, and appears to
,ave returned to Portugal. He painted portraits for
Charles V. of Germany, and was skilful in miniature.
Under the patronage of John III. he painted oil pictures
for the palaces and churches of Lisbon. Died in 1584.

Holbach, d', dol'baK or dol'bfk', (PAUL THIERRY or
PAUL FRIEDRICH,) BARON, a skeptical philosopher,
born at Heidelsheim (Palatinate) in 1723. He inherited
a fortune, and passed all his life, except childhood, in
Paris, where he was the patron and associate of the
Encyclopaedists. Diderot, Helvetius, Grimm, Rousseau,
and other authors often met at his table. He translated
from the German several works on chemistry and mine-
ralogy. His atheistic opinions were developed in his
" System of Nature," (" Le Systeme de la Nature," 1 770,)
under the pseudonym of MIRABAUD, the morality of
which book Voltaire stigmatized as execrable. It was
also refuted by Frederick the Great. Holbach was the
reputed author of other works, among which were " The
Social System," (1773,) and "La Morale universelle,"
(1776.) Died in 1789.

See DIDEROT, " MemoireV'/ojriixr; ROUSSEAU, " Confessions;"
DAMIRON, " NUmoire sur Thierry d'Holbach," 1851.

Holbein VON HOLBEINSBERG, hol'bin fon hol'binz-
b?RG', (FRANZ,) a popular German dramatist and actor,
born near Vienna in 1779; died in 1855.

Holbein, (HANS,) THE ELDER, a German painter of
Augsburg, born about 1450. Among his master-pieces
are the scenes from the life of Saint Paul in the church of
Saint Paul at Augsburg. He died in 1526, leaving three
sons, AMBROSE, BRUNO, and HANS, who were artists ;
the last-named rose to great eminence.

Holbein, (HANS,) THE YOUNGER, one of the most
celebrated German painters, born at Griinstadt in 1497.
At an early age he removed to BSle, where, after prac-
tising his art for a time, he was recommended by Erasmus
to the English chancellor, Sir Thomas More. After
residing in his family about three years, Holbein was
introduced to King Henry VIII., who gave him abundant
employment and bestowed upon him a large pension.
He devoted himself, while in England, chiefly to portrait-
painting; and his numerous productions in this depart-
ment are esteemed master-pieces. His drawings, upwards
of eighty in number, representing the principal person-
ages of Henry's court, are characterized by Walpole as
" exceedingly fine, and possessing a strength and vivacity
equal to the most perfect portraits." Holbein died in
London, of the plague, in 1554, or, according to R. N.
Wornum and others, in 1543. Among his greatest his-
torical pictures are the celebrated " Dance of Death,"
the "Adoration of the Shepherds and Kings," and a
" Last Supper." His portraits of Sir Thomas More and
of Erasmus also deserve especial mention. " His works,"
observes Cunningham, " have sometimes an air of stiff-
ness, but they have always the look of truth and life.
He painted with g-reat rapidity and ease, wrought with
his left hand, and dashed off a portrait at a few sittings."
Holbein was also a skilful architect and wood-engraver.

See HEGNHR, " Leben Hans Holbein's," Berlin, 1827; Das-
CAUPS, " Vies des Peintres Fiamands, Allemands," etc. ; R. N. WOR-
mjM, "Life of Holbein;" NAGLER, "Allgemeines ICiinstler-Lexi-
'.on:" CUNNINGHAM, "Lives of Painters, Sculptors," etc. ; KARL

FRIEDRICH VON RUMOHR, " H. Holbein der Jiingere in seinem Vet-
haltniss zum Deutschen Formschnittwesen," 1830; "Edinburgh
Review" for April, 1867.

Holbein, (SIGISMUND,) a German painter and en-
graver, is supposed to have been an uncle of the pre-
ceding. Died after 1540.

Holberg, von, fon hol'be'RG, (LuDwic,) BARON, an
eminent Danish author and comic poet, born of pool
parents, at Bergen, Norway, in 1684. In youth he was
employed as a private tutor, and learned French, Italian,
and English. He studied philosophy at Oxford, England,
for about two years. Impelled by a love of travelling,
he visited many countries of Europe, and was afterwards
professor of eloquence at Copenhagen. About 1720 he
published his heroic-comic poem " Peder Paars," which
was immensely popular. His celebrity was increased
by numerous comedies which appeared between 1723
and 1746. One of his best comedies is " The Busy Idler ;
or, The Man who never has Time." His fertile mind
enriched nearly every department of literature, and raised
him to affluence. His talent for satire is displayed in
"Niels Klim's Subterranean Journey," in Latin, (1741,)
the plan of which resembles "Gulliver's Travels." He
also wrote a "History of Denmark," (1735,) and a
" Universal History." Frederick V. created him a baron
in 1747. He is the founder of the Danish theatre, and
the first Danish author who excelled in humorous and
satirical composition. Died in 1754.

See his Autobiography, in Latin, 1727-44, (English translation,
London, 1827;) and his Life, in German, by ROBERT PRUTZ, 1857;
K. L. RAHBEK, "Om L. Hoiberg som Lystspildigter," etc, a vols.,
1815-16: P. T. WANDAL, " Levensbeschrijving van L, Holberg,"
1765; WBRLAUFF," HistoriskeAntegnelser til L. HolbergsLystspil,"
1838; HOWITT, "Literature and Romance of Northern Europe,"
chap. xxi. ; "Nouvelle Biographic Gtnrale;" C. L. BRIGHTWKLL,
"Annals of Industry and Genius," London, 1863: "North British
Review" for July, 1869.

Hol'bpurne, (Sir ROBERT,) M.D., an eminent Eng-
lish lawyer, was a member of Charles I.'s privy council
during the civil war. He published several legal treat-
ises. Died in 1647.

Hol'brook, (JOHN EDWARDS,) M.D., a distinguished
American naturalist, born in Beaufort, South Carolina,
in 1795. He graduated at Brown University in 1815;
and, having taken his medical diploma at Philadelphia,
he prosecuted his professional studies for four years in
Europe. He returned to the United States in 1822, and
in 1 824 succeeded to the cljair of anatomy in the Medical
College of South Carolina. In 1842 appeared his "Amer-
ican Herpetology, or a Description of the Reptiles in-
habiting the United States," (5 vols. 410,) which is said
to have laid the foundation of that branch of science in
this country. Died September 8, 1871.

Holcombe, hol'kum, (WILLIAM H.,) an American
homceopathist, born at Lynchburg, Virginia, in 1825. He
became a resident of New Orleans. Besides several
volumes of homoeopathic literature, he published " Our
Children in Heaven," (1868,) " Poems," and other works,
including several brochures setting forth New Church
(Swedenborgian) views. Died November 28, 1893.

Hoi' croft, (THOMAS,) an English dramatist and trans-
lator, born in London in 1744. He was successively a
groom, shoemaker, school-master, and actor. He wrote
numerous dramas and several novels. His comedies
"Duplicity," (1781,) and "The Road to Ruin," (1792,)
were very successful. He made good translations of
numerous French and German works, among which are
Lavater's "Essays on Physiognomy," "The Posthumous
Works of Frederick the Great," (1789,) and "Tales of

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 7 of 425)