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died at Rouen in 1674.

able French naval officer, born in 1744. He sailed as
second in command of La Perouse's exploring expe-
dition. He was killed by the savages on one of the
Navigator Islands in 1787.

Langles, liN-'gUss', ( Louis MATHIEU,) a French Ori-
entalist, born near Saint-Didier in 1763. He gave special
attention to Arabic and Persian, became a member of
the Academy of Inscriptions, professor of Persian in
Paris, and keeper of the Oriental manuscripts of the
National Library, (1795.) Among his numerous works
are a French version of the " Political and Military
Institutes of Tamerlane," translations from the Eng-
lish of several books of travels in the East, a Mantchoo
Dictionary, and "Ancient and Modern Monuments o'
Hindostan," (2 vols., 1812-21, unfinished.) Died in 1824.

See ABEL R^MUSAT, " Nouveaul Melanges Asiatiques;" I. P.
<\ RBMUSAT, Notice sur la Vie et les Ouvrages de L. M. Langles,
1825; " Nouvelle Bioeraphie Ge'ne'ralc."

i, e, i, 5, u, y, long , i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, fat; mSt; not; good; moon




Langlet. See LENGLET.

Lang'ley, (JOHN NEWPORT,) a British physiolo-
gist, born at Newbury in 1852. He was elected a
Fellow of Trinity College in 1877 and of the Royal
Society in 1883. He wrote many papers on the changes
of the glands during secretion, the action of poisons,
and the central nervous system.

Lang'ley, (SAMUEL P.,) Ph.D., LL.D., an American
astronomer, born at Koxbury, (lioston,) Massachusetts,
August 22, 1834. lie received his professional training
at the Harvard College Observatory, and in 1867 be-
came director of the observatory at Alleghany, Pennsyl-
vania. Since 1870 he has devoted a large share of at-
tention to solar physics, and in iSSo invented the bo-
lometer, an instrument for measuring minute quantities
of radiant energy. In 1881 he organized an expedition
to Ml. Whitney, California, for the more accurate deter-
mination of the Solar Constant, lie lias published many
astronomical papers, and, for his researches and discov-
eries, has been awarded the Draper medal, and also both
the Kumford medals, one from the Royal Society of
London, and the oilier from the American Academy of
Arts and Sciences. In 1887 he was elected Secretary of
the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, and sub-
sequently experimented largely on the subject of me-
chanical flight. Hepublished "The New Astronomy,"
" Researches on Solar Heat," etc.

Langley, (WALTER,) an English painter, born at
Birmingham in 1852. He was educated at the National
School, Birmingham, and received gold medals for
paintings exhibited at Paris and Chicago.

Langlois, (JEAN CHARLES,) a French painter of bat-
tles and panoramas, born in Calvados in 1789. Among
his works are panoramas of the " Battle of Moskwa"
and the "Burning of Moscow." Died in 1870.

Langlois, (SIMON ALEXANDRE,) a French Orientalist,
born in 1788. He was elected a member of the Acad-
emy of Inscriptions in 1835. Among his works is " Rig
Veda, ou Livre des Hymnes," translated from the San-
scrit, (4 vols., 1849-52.) Died in 1854.

Langrish, lang'grish, (BROWNE,) an English physi-
cian, born about 1700, wrote several works on medicine.
Died in 1759.

Langsdorff, ISngs'doRf, (GEOKG HEINRICH,) BARON,
a German naturalist and physician, born in Suabia in
1774, accompanied Krusenstern's expedition to the
North, (1803,) and afterwards visited Brazil. He pub-
lished a Treatise on "Plants collected during the Rus-
sian Voyage around the World," (1810,) and other works.
Died in 1852.

Lang'toft, (PETER,) an English chronicler, who lived
about 1300, was a canon-regular of the order of Saint
Austin at Bridlington. He compiled a "Chronicle of
England," (in French verse,) which extends to the year
1307. He is supposed to have died in the reign of Ed-
ward II.

Lang'ton, (STEPHEN,) an English cardinal, Arch-
bishop of Canterbury. In 1206 he went to Rome, and
was made a cardinal. The election of Archbishop of
Canterbury being contested in 1207, Innocent III. com-
pelled the monks to choose Langton, whom King John
refused to recognize until the pope, by laying his king-
dom under an interdict, reduced him to subniiss.->n in
1213. He co-operated with the insurgent barons in
asserting the national liberties against King John in
1215, and was suspended by the pope for refusing to

C'llish the sentence of excommunication against the
ons. Died in 1228.

SeeW. F. HOOK, "Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury,"
vol. ii. chap. xii.

Languet, loN'g.V, (HUBERT,) a French Protestant
and political writer, born in Burgundy in 1518, was a
friend of Sir Philip Sidney. lie entered the service of
Augustus, Elector of Saxony, in 1568, and was the envoy
of that prince to Paris at the time of the Massacre of
Saint Bartholomew, from which he escaped. He was
afterwards employed as negotiator by William, Prince
of Orange. In 1579 he published, under the name of
Junius Brutus, a famous work, entitled " Vindiciae contra

as k; 9 as j; g hard; g as/,- G, H, K, guttural; H, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.

Tyrannos," a bold assertion of the right of resistance
to tyrants. Died in 1581.

Langtiet de Gergj 18N'gV deh zheR'zhe', (JEAN
BAPTISTS [OSEPH,) a French uhilanthropist and bene-
factor, was born at Dijon in 1675. He became vicar of
Saint-Sulpice, Paris, and built the magnificent church
of S.imt-Sulpice, finished in 1745. He also founded in
Paris an institution in which poor women and girls were
supported and educated. It is said that he several times
refused a bishopric. Died in 1750.

Languet de Gergy, (JEAN JOSEPH,) a French theo-
logian, born at Dijon in 1677, was a brother of the pre-
ceding. He was a zealous adversary of the Jansenists,
and gained distinction by his polemical writings. He
became a member of the French Academy in 1721, and
Archbishop of Sens in 1730. He published Catechisms,
and other religious books. Died in 1753.

Lanier or Laniere, li-ne-aiR', (NiccoL6,) an Italian
painterand musician, was born in 1568. He lived in Eng-
land in the reign of Charles I., who patronized him and
employed him to purchase pictures. I le was more eminent
as a musician than as a painter, and became the king's
chapel-master in 1626. Lanier was also a dealer ':n
pictures, and purchased several at the sale and dispersion
of the collection of Charles I. Died about 1660.

Lanier, lan'i-er, (SIDNEY,) an American poet, born at
Macon, Georgia, February 3, 1842. He graduated with
honours at Oglethorpe College in 1860, served in the Con-
federate army, 1861-65, and was five months a prisoner
of war. After the war he became a lawyer, and partner
with his father at Macon. His earliest work was "Tiger-
Lilies," a novel, (1867.) "Florida" (1875) was small
descriptive work in prose. His "Poems," (1876,) and
especially his Centennial Ode, made him well known
everywhere. He also prepared "The Boy's Froissart,"
(1879,) "The Boy's King Arthur," (1880,) "The Science
of English Verse," (1880,) and "The Boy's Mabino-
gion,"(iS8i.) His "The English Novel and its Develop-
nent," (1883,) and "Complete Poems," (1884,) were post-
lumously published. He lectured at Johns Hopkins
University and other schools on literary topics. Lanier's
poetical gifts were rich and abundant. He died of con-
umption, at Lynn, North Carolina, September 8, 1881.
Laul-gan, (GEORGE THOMAS,) an American writer,
)orn at Saint Charles, Canada, December id, 1845. He
>ecame a journalist of the United States, and contributed
largely to periodical literature on political, literary, and
social subjects. His principal books are " Canadian
Ballads," (1864.) "Fables out of the World," (1877,) a
comic "Life of Andrew Jackson," etc. Died in ISS6.

Lanl-gan, (JoHN,) an Irish writer and Roman Cath-
olic priest, born at Cashel in 1758. Among his works is
an "Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," (4" vols., 1822.)
Died in 1828.

Laiiino, la-nee'no, or Lanini, la-nee'nee, (BERNAR-
DINO,) an eminent Italian painter, born at Vercelli, was
a pupil of Gaudenzio Ferrari, whom he imitated. He
worked at Milan and Novara. His design and composi-
tion are admired. Among his master-pieces are " Scenes
in the Life of the Virgin," "The Sibyls," (at Novara,)
and " The Martyrdom of Saint Catherine," (in fresco,) at
Milan. Died about 1570.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters ;" LANZI, " Storia pittorica."
Lanjuinais, loN'zhu-e'ni', (JEAN DENIS,) CouNiva
French lawyer and liberal legislator, born at Rennes'in
1753. He was deputed to the States-General in 1789,
and to the Convention in 1792. In the latter body he
boldly defended the king during his trial, and resisted
the terrorists with great energy. His defence of the
Girondists in May, 1793, is praised by Lamartine. He
was proscribed with the Girondists, but escaped, and
kept himself concealed during the reign of terror. Hs
was chosen a senator in 1800, and a member of the
Academy of Inscriptions in 1808. Hepublished many
political, religious, and historical treatises. Died January
13, 1827.

Lanjuinais, (JOSEPH,) a French writer, uncle of the
preceding, was born in Bretagne. Having removed tc
Moudon, in Switzerland, he turned Protestant, and became
a school-teacher. He published, besides other works,

Explanations, p. 23. )




" The Accomplished Monarch ; or, Prodigies of Goodness
and Wisdom which make the Eulogy of the Emperor
Joseph II.," (3 vols., 1774.) Died in 1808.

Lank'es-ter, (Enwix,) F.R.S., an English naturalis
and popular lecturer, born at Melton, in Suffolk, in 1814
graduated as M D. at Heidelberg in 1839. He was choser
a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1845, and professor of
natural history at New College, London, in 1850. He
lecluied on natural history at the Royal Institution anc
other places, and contributed scientific papers to various
periodicals. He became joint editor of the "Quarterly
Journal of Microscopical Science" in 1853. Among his
works are an article on sanitary science in the " Ency
clopsedia Britannica," and " Half-Hours with the Micro
scope," (1859.) Died October 30, 1874.

Lankester, (EDWIN RAY,) an English biologist, a
son of the foregoing, was born in London, May 15,
1847. He was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, and
in 1874 was appointed professor of zoology and compara-
tive anatomy in University College, London. He has
published several books, and many scientific papers,
mostly on palaeontology and comparative anatomy.
Lankrink. See LANCRINCK.
Lan'raan. (CHARLES,) an American artist and author,
a son of Judge Lanman, of Connecticut, was born al
Frenchtown, Michigan, June 14, 1819. He became a
journalist, and for many years held positions in the civil
service at Washington, D.C. He was one of the secre-
taries of the Japanese legation at Washington, 1871-82.
Among his numerous works are " Life on the Lakes,"
(1836,) "Summer in the Wilderness," (1847,) "Essays
for Summer Hours," (1853,) "Dictionary of Congress,"
(1858,) "The Japanese in America," (1872,) "Recollec-
tions of Curious Characters and Pleasant Places," (1881,)
and " Leading Men of Japan," (1883.) He was asuccess-
ful landscape-painter, and was an associate of the Nation-
al Academy of Design, New York. Died March 4, 1895.
Lannes, Itn, (JEAN,) Duke of Montebello, one of the
most celebrated marshals of the French empire, was
born of humble parentage at Lectoure (Gers) in 1769.
He entered the army as a volunteer in 1792, and was
rapidly promoted until the coup cTltat of the gth Thermi-
dor, 1794, when he was forced to retire from the army.
As chef-de-bataillon, he served under Bonaparte in Italy
in 1796, and was made a colonel for his conduct at Mon-
tenotte. In 1798 he followed Bonaparte to Egypt, where
he became a general of division and rendered important
service at Aboukir. His courage and capacity were very
conspicuous at the battles of Montebello and Marengo,
in 1800. He was sent on a diplomatic mission to Por-
tugal in 1801, and on his return, in 1804, was created a
marshal of the empire and Duke of Montebello.

Lannes commanded the left wing of the grand army
in the campaign of 1805, and added to his already
brilliant reputation at Austerlitz and Jena, (1806.) His
military skill was exerted with success at the memorable
siege of Saragossa, where he commanded in chief, in
1809. In the second war against Austria he contributed
to the victory at Eckmiihl, (1809,) and directed the suc-
cessful attack on Ratisbon, where, when his men faltered,
he seized a scaling-ladder and ran forward through "the
imminent deadly breach." He was mortally wounded at
the battle of Aspern and Essling, in May, 1809. In the
midst of the conflict, Napoleon paused lo address the
dying general, who said, "Adieu, Sire! Live for the
world ; but bestow a few thoughts on one of your best
friends, who in a few hours will be no more." The em-
peror is said to have been more deeply affected by this
scene than he ever was before. " Lannes was at once," '
said Napoleon, " the Roland of the army and a giant in '
capacity. He had been in fifty-four pitched battles. He
was cool in the midst of fire, and possessed a clear,
penetrating eye. Violent and hasty in his temper, some- !
times even in my presence, he was yet ardently attached
to me. As a general, he was greatly superior to Moreau
3r Soult. I found him a mere swordsman ; I raised him
to the nighest point of art." He left a son, NapoKon
Auguste, Duke of Montebello.

See RKNi PERIN. " Vie militairede J. I.annes," 1810 : CHAlWAU-
BUP, "Vie du Marshal Lannes," 1813 : THIHRS, " History of UM
French Revolution ;" " Nouvelle Biographic GeWrale."

Lannes, (NAPOLEON AUGUSTE,) Duke of Montebeli-,
a son of the preceding, was born in 1802. He was ser.t
as ambassador to Naples in 1838, and became ministei
of the marine in 1847. In 1849 he was elected to the
Legislative Assembly, in which he voted with the ma-
jority. He was appointed ambassador to Russia in 1858,
and commander-in-chief of the French army at Rome
about June, 1862. Died July 19, 1874.

LaiinoL See LANNOY.

an eminent Dutch poetess, born at Breda in 1738. Her
poetical talents were displayed in satires, odes, and epis-
tles, which are admired for elegance and spirit-stirring
power. She produced three successful tragedies, " Leo
the Great," (1767,) " The Siege of Haarlem," (1770,) and
"Cleopatra," (1776.) Died in 1782.

Lannoy or Lannoi, de, deh li'nwi', (CHARLES,) a
famous general of the Spanish armies, was born in Flan-
ders about 1470. Having served with distinction in
various campaigns, he received the badge of the Golden
Fleece in 1516, and was appointed Viceroy of Naples by
Charles V. in 1521. After the death of Prosper Colonna,
he commanded the imperial armies, and in 1525 gained
the decisive victory of Pavia, where he exchanged swords
with Francis I. Diedini527. (See AVALOS, FERDIKA.NDO

His son FERDINAND, Duke of Boyennes, born in Italy
about 1510, was versed in mathematics, and was reputed
the inventor of the demi-cannon. He attained the rank
of general of artillery in the Spanish army, and was after-
wards Governor of Holland and of Gray. Died in 1579.

La None. See NOUE, LA.

Lanoue, li'noo', (FELIX HIPPOLYTE,) a French land-
scape-painter, born at Versailles in 1812. He gained the
irst prize for landscapes in 1841. Died Jan. 22, 1872.

Lansberg, ]lns'b?RG', or Lanspefg, lans'peRG',
JOHANN,) an ascetic German writer and monk, born at
Landsberg, in Bavaria. Died in 1539. Among his chief
works is a " Manual of the Christian Warfare," (" En-
chiridion Militias Christianae," 1546,) which he wrote in
opposition to the " Miles Christianus" of Erasmus.

Lansberg, lans'beRg or lins'beRH, written also Lans-
aerghe, (PHILIPPUS.) a Dutch astronomer and geometer,
>orn in Zealand in 1561. He was for many years pastor
of the Protestant church at Ter-Goes. He published,
sesides other works on mathematics, a " Treatise on the
3iurnal and Annual Motion of the Earth," (1630,) in
which he advocates the Copernican system, and "Geom-
etry of Triangles," (1631.) Died in 1632.

See BAVLK, " Historical and Critical Dictionary ;" FOP^KNS,
Biblio-.heca Belglca."

Lans'dell, (HENRY,) a British author and trav-
eller, was born at Tenterden, Kent, in 1841. He
studied theology and was ordained in 1867, and trav-
elled widely in behalf of missionary enterprises, visit-
ng every country in Europe and Asia and parts of
Yfrica and America. In 1892 he became chaplain of
Morden College, Blackheath. He published "Through
Siberia," (1882,) " Russian Central Asia," (1885,)
and "Chinese Central Asia," (1893.)

Lansdowne. See GRANVILLE, (GEORGE.)

Lans'downe, (HENRY CHARLES KEITH Fitz-
maurice.) fifth MARQUIS OF, an English peer, born
n 1845, a son f tne ' ourtri marquis, noticed below,
rle was educated at Eton, and at Balliol College,
Oxford, and succeeded to his titles in 1866. He held
>ositions in the treasury, war, and India offices under
Mr. Gladstone, was Governor-General of Canada 1883-
88, and of India 1888-94. He became secretary for
war in 1895.

Lanadowne, lanz'down, (HENRY PETTY Frrz-MAU-
RICE,) third MARQUIS OF, an eminent English statesman,
born in 1780, was the second son of the first Marquis.
(See SHELBURNE.) About 1795 he was placed under
the tuition of Dugald Stewart in Edinburgh, and several
years later he graduated at Cambridge. In 1802 Lord
Henry Petty entered the House of Commons, where he
at length became a successful debater. He was ap-
pointed chancellor of the exchequer when the Whig

, e, i, 6, u, y, long; 4, e. 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; m4t; not; good; moon:




ministry of Grenville and Fox came into power in 1806,
but retired from t'.iat office in March of the ensuing
year. He married a daughter of the Earl of Ilchester
in 1808. At the death of his brother, in 1809, he in-
herited the title of marquis, and passed into the House
of Lords. He cordially supported at different times the
efforts to abolish slavery, spoke ably in favour of Catholic
emancipation, and acted generally with the Whig party.
In 1827 he was secretary for the home department under
Canning for three or four months ; and during the brief
ministry of Lord Goderich, which resigned about the
end of 1828, he was secretary of foreign affairs. On the
formation of a Whig ministry by Lord Grey in 1831, Lord
Lansdowne became president of the Council, which po-
sition he filled with credit until 1841. He was the leader
of the opposition in the House of Lords from 1841 until
1846, when he entered the cabinet of Lord John Russell
as president of the Council. He resigned in 1852. Died
about February I, 1863.

His son, the fourth Marquis of Lansdowne, born in
1816, died in July, 1866.



Lantara, ISN'tS'rt', (SiMON MATHURIN,) an excellent
P'rench landscape-painter, born near Milly in 1729, or, as
some say, in 1745. He worked in Paris, and passed his
life in poverty, caused by his indolent and improvident
habits. His manner reminds one of Claude Lorrain.
He excelled in aerial perspective, and represented in a
marvellous manner the different periods of the day. The
skies of his pictures present a vapory tone and an ex-
quisite lightness of touch. Died in Paris in 1778.

See CHARLES BLANC, " Histoire des Peintres ;" LA CHAVIGNK-
KIE, " Recherches historiques, biographiques et litteraires sur le
Peintre Lantara," 1852; "Nouvelle Biographic Gene'rale."

Lanteri, lan-ta'ree, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian writer,
born at Briga in 1801. Among his works is a " History
of the House of Savoy," (" Storia della Monarchia di
Casa Savoja," 1835.) Died in 1843.

Lanthenas, ISNt'nas', (FRANC.OIS,) a French revolu-
tionist, born in Forez about 1740. He was a member
of the National Convention, and was proscribed with the
Girondists in May, 1793 ; but his name was erased from
the fatal list by Marat with an expression of contempt,
Died in 1799.

Lantier, de, deh l&N'te-V, (ETIENNE FRANCOIS,) a
popular French author, borrTat Marseilles in 1734, was
called " the Anacharsis of the Boudoirs." His comedy
" L'Impatient" was performed with great applause in
1778. He is ranked by some critics among the best
disciples of the school of Voltaire. During the reign
of terror (1793) he was imprisoned at Lyons. He after-
wards produced a fictitious narrative of the " Travels of
Antenor," ("Voyages d'Ante'nor," 1798,) which had a
prodigious success and was translated into nearly all
modern languages. At the age of ninety he composed
a poem, called "Geoffrey Rudel, or the Troubadour."
Died in 1826.

See "Nouvelle Biographic GeneraJe."

Lanuase, It'niiss', (FRANCOIS,) a French general,
born at Habas (Les Landes) in 1772. As general of
brigade he rendered important services at Lodi and
Castiglione, and as general of division followed Bona-
parte to Egypt in 1798. He commanded in the Delta
during the expedition against Syria, and was killed by
the English at the battle of Alexandria, or Aboukir, in
March, 1801.

See ADKIEN PASCAL, " Biographies du Lieut-Ge'niral de Lanusse
t du Lieut.-Gene'ral Baron de Lanusse," 1843.

Lan'yon. (CHARLES,) an English architect and civil
engineer, born in Sussex in 1813. He designed Queen's
College, in Belfast, and other edifices. Died in 1889.

Lanza, lin'za, (GIOVANNI,) an Italian statesman, born
at Vignale, in Piedmont, in 1815. He was a physician
by profession, and between 1855 and 1873 held man y
cabinet positions under Victor Emmanuel, for several
terms acting as premier. He was distinguished for his
attempted, but only in part successful, financial reforms.
Died March 9, 1882.

Lanzani, lln-za'nee, or Lanzano, IJn-zJ'no, (AN-
DREA,) an Italian painter, born at Milan about 1648,

studied under Carlo Maratta. He worked at Milan and
Vienna, where he was employed by the emperor. Among
his works are a Saint Charles Borromeo, and a " Holy
Family." Died at Vienna in 1712.

Lanzano. See LANZANI.

Lanzi, lan'zee, (Luici,) an eminent Italian antiquary
and writer on art, was born near Macerata in 1732. He
became a good classical scholar, and had acquired the
reputation of an able professor and writer, when the
suppression of the order of Jesuits, of which he was a
member, opened to him a new career. He was chosen
sub-director of the Gallery of Florence in 1773. In 1789
he published an " Essay on the Etruscan Language," (3
vols.,) which was highly prized by the learned. His
reputation was increased by his " History of Painting
in Italy from the Renaissance of Art to the End of the
Eighteenth Century," ("Storia pittorica della Italia,"
etc., 1792 ; 3d edition, 6 vols., 1809,) which is character-
ized liy good taste and judicious criticism. It was trans-
lated into English by Thomas Roscoe. Died in 1810.

See ZANNONI, " Elogio storico di L. Lanzi;" MAURO BONL,
" Sagjgio di Studj di L. Lanzi," 1815; A. CAPPI, " Biografia di L.
Lanzi," 1840; "Edinburgh Review" for September, 1828.

Lanzoni, lan-zo'nee, (GIUSEPPE,) an eminent Italian
physician, born at Ferrara in 1663. He obtained in 1684
a professorship of philosophy at Ferrara, which he re-
tained until his death. His works have been collected
under the title "Opera Omnia Medico-Physica et Philo-
sophica," (3 vols., 1738.) Died in 1730.

La-oc'o-on, [Gr. AOOKOUV,] a Trojan hero, and a priest
of Apollo or of Neptune, was variously represented as a
son of Antenor or a son of Priam. He strenuously
opposed the admission of the wooden horse into the city
of Troy, and thrust his spear into that structure. While
he was offering a sacrifice to Neptune with his two sons,
two huge serpents, issuing from the sea, attacked them
and crushed them all to death. His story was a favourite
subject with the ancient poets and artists, and has derived
especial celebrity from a magnificent marble group of
Laocoon and his sons which is preserved in the Vatican
in Rome, and which was described by Pliny as superior
to all other master-pieces of ancient sculptors. This
group was executed by Agesander, his son Athenodorus,
and Polydorus.

See VIRGIL'S "jEneid," book ii. 41-50 and 199-233 ; also, L-
SING'S " Laocoon."

Laodameia. See LAODAMIA.

La-o-da-mi'a or La-o-da-mel'a, [Gr. Aaoda/uta;
Fr. LAODAMIE, 13'o'di'me',] a daughter of Acastus, and
wife of Protesilaus, the first Greek who fell at Troy. To
keep alive the memory of her husband, whom she ten-

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 71 of 425)