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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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derly loved, she caused a wooden image of him to be
made. Her father, in the hope of dispelling her grief,
ordered it to be burned, when she threw herself into the
flames and perished with it

Laodamie. See LAODAMIA.

La-odl-ce, [AaodixTi,] the name of several Grecian
princesses, one of whom was the mother of Seleucus Ni-
cator, founder of a Syrian dynasty. Another was the
wife of Antiochus Theos, whom she poisoned in 246 B.C.
Her son, Seleucus Callinicus, then became king.

La-om'e-don, [Gr.[ic6av,] the king and founder
of Troy, and the father of Priam. According to ancient
legends, Neptune and Apollo were condemned to serve
Laomedon for one year, and the former built the walls
of Troy for a stipulated price, but after the work was
finished the perfidious king refused to pay Neptune.
Laomedon was killed by Hercules for another breach
of faith.

Laomedon, a Greek general in the service of Alex-
ander the Great, enjoyed the confidence of that king in
a high degree. After the death of Alexander he became
governor of Syria, in 323 B.C. He was driven out by the
army of Ptolemy about 321 B.C.

Lao-Tse, la'o'tseh' or la'o'tsuh', or Lao-Tseu, Wo'-
tsuh', written also Laou-Tsze andLao-Tze, sometimes
called Lao-Kiun, (kyoon,) a celebrated Chinese phi-
losopher or sage, who was born, it is said, in the province
of Honan, 565 years before Christ, or fourteen years be-
fore the birth of Confucius. He was born, we are told,
with white hair and eyebrows, whence he was named

as k; c as s; g hard; g asy; G, H, VL,giitturai; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this,


O5f =See Explanations, p. 23.)




Lao-Tse, the "hoary or aged child," and Lae-ffiun, the
"aged prince." His white hair seems to have been re-
garded as an indication of his early wisdom. Many other
marvels are told concerning his birth, which need not be
related here. It seems probable that Lao-Tse was not
wholly unacquainted with the religious doctrines oflndia,
not only those of the Brahmans, but perhaps also of the
Booddhists. For some years he was archivist and his-
toriographer to one of the Chinese princes. He was, it
is said, profoundly versed in the doctrines and institutions
of the ancients. He taught the existence of a supreme
Being, under the name of Too, or the "supreme reason."
His followers are called Tao-Sse (tS'o sa) or Taosc,
that is, the "disciples of Reason." Instead of referring,
like Confucius, to the authority of the ancient sages, he
taught that we must seek for the principles of right
within ourselves, in complete retirement from all worldly
pursuits and thoughts. On one occasion Confucius had
an interview with Lao-Tse, who cautioned him against
seeking the honours of the world. Lao-Tse observed
that the possessor of true wisdom seeks rather to hide
than to display his riches. Confucius left him deeply
impressed with his extraordinary character, and evidently
regarded him as something wonderful, if not divine. We
are told that after this interview Confucius said to his
disciples, " It does not astonish me to see the birds fly,
the fishes swim, or the beasts run ; I know that the fishes
may be taken with nets, the beasts with snares, and that
the birds may be shot with an arrow. But I cannot tell
how the dragon* can fly on the wind through the clouds
and raise himself to heaven. To-day I have seen Lao-
Tse : he can be compared only to the dragon." The
date of Lao-Tse's death is unknown. He was undoubt-
edly an extraordinary man, and his influence is not yet
lost in China. The following sayings of his may serve
to give an idea of the cast and calibre of his mind : " He
only can be called wise (or enlightened) who knows him-
self; he only can be called valiant who subdues him-
self; he only can be called rich who knows what is
necessary." Like the Brahmans of India, Lao-Tse
taught the final absorption of pure and enlightened souls
into the supreme eternal Spirit, and that, "having thus
become one with the supreme Reason, they will exist
eternally." He inculcated universal benevolence : we
ought to show kindness not only to the sincere and vir-
tuous, but also to the insincere and wicked. "Those
who are holy," he says, "will treat all men as a father
treats his children." The religion of the Tao-Sse, at
the present day, seems closely allied to Booddhism ;
and many of its votaries of both sexes, like the followers
of Gautama, spend their lives in monasteries. The
modem Tao-Sse are much addicted to superstitious
observances, and deal largely in sorcery. They are very
popular with the common people, and in some parts of
the empire their influence rivals that of the Booddhists.

See PAUTHIEK, "Chine," pp. 110-120: LHGGR, "Life and Teach-
ings of Confucius," chap. v. t London, 1867, Tnibnerft Co. : BROCK-
HAUS, " Conversations- Lexikon," article "Lao-Tse :" LOOMIS," Con-
fucius and the Chinese Classics," p. 278 ft s'9-I J- P. A. RRMUSAT,
" Me"moire sur la Vie et !es Opinions de Lao-Tseu," 1829.

Lao-Tseu. See LAO-TSE.

Laou-Tse or Laou-Tsze. See LAO-TSE.

La Paix, the French of EIRENE, which see.

Laparelli, 15-pa-rel'lee, ( FRANCESCO, ) an Italian
architect, born at Cortona in 1521. lie planned the
city of Valetta, Malta, and assisted Michael Angelo in
the design of Saint Peter's, at Rome. Died in 1570.

La Perouse. See PBROUSE, DE LA.

La Peyrere. See PF.VRERF, LA.

La Pey ronie, de, deh U pi'ro'ne', (FRANCOIS GIGOT,)
a French surgeon, born at Montpellier in 1678. He re-
ceived the title of first surgeon to the king, (Louis XV.,)
and wrote a " Treatise on Diseases of the Brain," ( 1 708. )
Died in 1747.

La Peyrouse, de, deh U pj'rooz', (PHILIPPE PICOT,)
BARON, a French naturalist, born at Toulouse in 1744.
He published, besides other works, a " Flora of the Pyr-
enees," (1795-1801.) Died in 1818.

See DHCAMPE, " filoge de M. le Baron de La Peyrouse," 1819.

The dragon of the Chinese is regarded as a supernatural 01
divine being

Lapham, lap'am, (INCREASE A.,) an American natu-
ralist, born at Palmyra, New York, in 1811. He pub
lished " Wisconsin : its Geography and Topography
History, Geology, and Mineralogy," (1844,) " Antiquities
of Wisconsin," (1855,) etc. He died Sept 14, 1875.

Lapi, la'pee, (NICCOL6,) an Italian painter, born at
Florence in 1661, was a pupil of Luca Giordano. The
gallery of Florence contains a "Transfiguration" by him.
Died in 1732.

Lapide, a, J IS'pe-da', called also Steen, (stan,)
(CORNELIUS,) a Flemish Jesuit, born in the diocese of
Liege. He wrote " Commentaries on the Bible." Died
in 1657.

Lapis, la'pess, (GAETANO,) a painter of the Roman
school, born in Umbria in 1704 ; died in 1776.

Lapisse, It'pess', (PIERRE BELON,) Baron de Sainte-
Helene, a French general, born at Lyons in 1762, was
killed at Talavera in July, 1810.

Lapithae, lap'I-Mee, [Gr. \amSai ; Fr. LAPITHES, If-
pet',] a fabulous tribe of Thessalians, whose story is
intimately connected with that of the Centaurs. They
were ruled by a chief named Pirithous, to whose mar-
riage the Centaurs were invited. At this marriage-feast
occurred the celebrated fight of the Lapitha: and the
Centaurs, which was a favourite subject with the ancient
poets and artists.

Lapithes. See LAPITH..

Lapito, li'pe'to', (Louis AUGUSTS,) a French land-
scape-painter, born near Paris in 1805. Many of his
works are in the royal galleries of Luxembourg, Tuile-
ries, etc. Died April 7, 1874.

Laplace, If pltss', ( CYRILI.E PIERRE THEODORE,) a
French navigator, born in 1793. He commanded two
scientific expeditions, of which he gave accounts in the
following works : a " Voyage around the World, per-
formed in 1830-31-32," (5 vols., 1833-39,) and "Circum-
navigation of the Artemisia, 1837-40," (4 vols., 1845-48.)
He was made a vice-admiral in 1853. Died in 1875.

La Place, (PIERRE.) See PLACE, DE LA.

Laplace, (PIERRE SIMON,) one of the greatest as-
tronomers and mathematicians of any age or country,
was born at Beaumont-en-Auge, (Calvados,) in France,
March 23, 1749. His father was a peasant or poor
farmer. After making great progress in the high mathe-
matics at the Academy of Beaumont, he went to Paris,
where, through the influence of D'Alembert, he became
professor of mathematics in the military school about
1 768. He was chosen a mcmbrf-adjcrint of the Academy of
Sciences in 1773, and about that time produced a capital
" Memoir on Differential Equations and the Secular In-
equalities of the Planets." Addressing himself to the
arduous questions of mathematical astronomy, he began
to confirm the theories of his predecessors ana to demon-
strate in detail the principles of Newton. In 1785 he
became a titular member of the Academy of Sciences,
which he enriched with memoirs on pure mathematics,
general astronomy, and the theory of the planets. He
favoured the popular cause in the Revolution, and offered
homage to the rising star of Bonaparte, who in 1799 nomi-
nated him minister of the interior, thinking, perhaps,
that the man who asc-rtained the laws of the planetary
perturbations might also regulate the disturbing forces
of the social and political spheres. This experiment was
a failure, and Laplace was removed from that office to
the sftiat fonsrniatrur in December, 1799. "He was,"
said Napoleon, "below mediocrity as a minister. lie
looked at no question in its proper point of view, but,
always searching for subtleties, aimed to conduct the gov-
ernment on the principles of the infinitesimal calculus."

In 1796 he published important discoveries in his
" Exposition of the System of the Universe," (" Exposi-
tion du Systeme du Monde,") which is a kind of trans-
lation into popular language, without analytical formulas,
of his greater work, " La Me'canique celeste." It was
the " Exposition" that procured for him the reputation
of a pure and elegant writer, and eventually opened to
him the Academic Fransaise in 1816. The clearness
and facility with which he explains and demonstrates the
great laws of astronomy render this work one of the most
admirable resumes which have ever appeared. " No work
of that kind existed at that time," says Parisot, "which

k, e, !, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 5, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fit; m8t; n6t; good; m5on-




combined the same merits in the same degree." He
received the title of count in 1806. He was for many
years a member, and eventually president, of the bureau
of longitudes. In 1814 he voted to erect a provisional
government on the ruins of Napoleon's empire, and he
remained aloof from the Imperialist party during the
Hundred Days. He was created Marquis Laplace in
1817, and in the same year was chosen president of the
Academy of Sciences. He had been chosen an associate
of many foreign Academies. Among his important pro-
ductions are " The Analytic Theory of Probabilities,"
(1812,) and a "Philosophic Essay on Probabilities,"
(1814.) The capital monument of his genius is his
"Treatise on Celestial Mechanics," ("Trait^ de la M^-
canique celeste," 5 vols., 1799-1825,) which will doubt-
less preserve his memory to the latest posterity. Among
his great discoveries are the theory of Jupiter's satel-
lites, and the causes of the grand inequality of Jupiter
and Saturn, and of the acceleration of the moon's mean
motion. He shares the honour of proving the stability
of the planetary system with Lagrange, than whom he
has attained a higher celebrity by ranging over a wider
field of discovery. One of his last expressions was,
" What we know is but little, (pen de chose ;) that which
we know not is immense." Died in 1827.

See FOURIER, " filoge de La Place ;" ARAGO, " Biographic dc
La Place," (and English version of the same, published in 1859 ;)
"Nouvelle Biouraphie Generale;" PUISIBUX et CHARLES, "No-
tices sur Malherbe, Laplace," etc., 1847; "Quarterly Review" for
February, 1809; "Edinburgh Review" for January, 1808, and Jan-
uary, 1810: " Foreign Quarterly Review" for September, 1828.

La Place or Laplace, de, deh If'pltss', (CHARLES
EMILE PIERRE JOSEPH,) MARQUIS, a son of the great
astronomer, was born in Paris in 1789. He entered
the army young, and served in the campaigns of Ger-
many, (1809,) of Russia, (1812,) and of France, (1814.)
He became a peer of France in 1827, a lieutenant-general
in 1843, ar >d a senator in 1853. Died October 30, 1874.

La Place, de, [Lat. PLAO<E'US,] (JosuE,) a French
Protestant theologian, born in Bretagne about 1605. He
became professor of theology at Saumur in 1633. Among
his works are a treatise " On the Imputation of the First
Sin of Adam," (" De Imputatione Primi Peccati Adami,"
1655,) in which he opposes the doctrine that the sin of
Adam is imputed to all his posterity, and " An Argument
for the Divinity of Christ," (1657.) Died in 1665.

La Placette, 1J pli'sgt', (JEAN,) a French Protestant
divine and moralist, born at Pontac in 1639. He emi-
grated when the edict of Nantes was revoked, in 1685,
and was pastor of the French church in Copenhagen
from 1686 to 1711. Among his works, which are highly
esteemed, are " Essays on Morality," (2d edition, 4 vols.,
1697,) and " Christian Morals reduced to Three Princi-
pal Duties : the Repentance of Sinners, the Perseverance
of the Righteous, and Growth in Grace," (1695.) Died
in 1718.

See NicriRON, "Memoirea;" QU^RARD, " La France LitteVaire."

La Planche. See REGNIER, (Louis.)

Lapo, la'po, a Florentine architect, was the pupil of
Niccol6 de Pisa, and a friend of Arnolfo di Lapo. Va-
sari represents him as a German, (whose proper name
was Jacob or Jacopo,) and as the father of Arnolfo ; but
others have disproved both of these statements. He
adorned Florence with many fine edifices, which time
has destroyed. Died about 1275.

Lapo, (diminutive of Jacopo,) an Italian canonist,
born in Tuscany, taught canon law at Florence more than
twenty years, and was chosen captain or chief of the
Guelph party. He gained distinction by his researches
for manuscripts of classic authors, and had the good for-
tune to find Cicero's oration for Milo and the Philippics,
which he sent to his intimate friend Petrarch. Died in 1381.

See TIRABOSCHI, "Storia della Letteratura Italiana."

Lapo Gianni, la'po jan'nee, an Italian poet, a native
of Florence, lived about 1250.

See LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe."

Lapo, di, de la'po, (ARNOLFO,) a celebrated Italian
architect and sculptor, born near Florence about 1232,
was the son of Cambio, and the pupil of Cimabue in de-
lign. He had the reputation of being the greatest Tuscan
architect in his time. About 1294 he began to erect

the church of Santa Croce in Florence. His greatest
work is the church of Santa Maria del Fiore, caHed also
the Duomo, or Cathedral, of Florence, which, however,
he left unfinished. Its noble and beautiful dome was
the work of Brunelleschi. Among his master-pieces of
sculpture is the tabernacle of the basilica of San Paolo,
near Rome. Died about 1300.

See VASARI, "Lives of the Painters and Sculptors."

Lapointe, If pwaNt', (SAVINIEN,) a French poet, bora
at Sens (Yonne) in 1812, was a shoemaker in his youth.
He was befriended by Beranger and Victor Hug >, with
whose aid he published a volume of verses called "A
Voice from Below," ("Une Voix d'en bas," 1844.) He
wrote "Memoirs of Beranger," (1857.) Died in 1893.

Laponneraye, If pon'r4', (ALBERT,) a French his-
torical writer, born at Tours in 1808, published, besides
other works, a " History of the French Revolution from
1789 to 1840," (3 vols., 1840.) Died in 1849.

Laporte or La Porte, de, deh It'poRt', (HIPPOLYTE,)
MARQUIS, a French litterateur, born in Paris in 1770.
Among his works are " Ivelina," (3 vols., 1830,) and
"Recollections of an Emigrant," (1843.) Died in 1852.

Laporte, (PIERRE FRANCOIS,) a French comedian and
theatrical manager, went to London in 1824 as member
and joint manager of a company who performed French
plays at the theatre in Tottenham Street. He was subse-
quently manager of the King's Theatre, and introduced
many famous singers and operas to the English public.
Died September 25, 1841.

La Porte, de, (JOSEPH,) ABBS, a French critic and
compiler, born at BeTort in 1713. The most important
or popular of his compilations was the " French Trav-
eller," ("Voyageur Francais,") a melange of romantic
adventures and historical narratives, (42 vols., 1765-95.)
Died in 1779.

Laporte du Theil. See DUTHEIL DE LA PORTE.

Lappe, Up'peh, (KARi,,) a popular German poet, born
near Wolgast in 1774, published "Funereal Garlands,"
("Friedhofskr'anze,") and other works. Died in 1843.

Lappenberg, lap'pen-be'RG', QOHANN MARTIN,) an
able German historian, born at Hamburg in 1794. He
studied in Edinburgh, London, and Berlin, and was ap-
pointed minister to the court of Berlin in 1820. In 1823
he became keeper of the archives of the senate of Ham-
burg. He published, besides other works, a continua-
tion of Sartorius's "Authentic History of the Origin
of the German Hanse Towns," (1830,) and a valuable
" History of England under the Anglo-Saxon Kings,"
(2 vols., 1834-37,) which has been translated into Eng-
lish by Thorpe. Died in 1865.

Lappoli, lap'po-lee, (GIOVANNI ANTONIO,) an Italian
painter, born in 1492. He worked in Rome and at
Arezzo. Died in 1552.

Laprade, de, deh li'pRSd', (PIERRE MARIN VICTOR
RICHARD,) a French poet, born at Montbrison in 1812,
was called a disciple of Lamartine. His "Symphonies"
(1856) opened to him the doors of the French Academy
in 1858. He died December 14, 1883.

Lap-raik', (JoHN,) a Scottish minor poet, born in 1727.
He was a correspondent of the poet Burns. He pnb-
lished a volume of poor verses in 1788, and died at Muir-
kirk in 1807.

La Primaudaye, de, deh li pRe'mS'dl', (PIERRE,)
a French writer, born about 1545. Among his works
was "L'Academie Francoise," (1577, often reprinted.)

La Quintinie. See QUINTINIE, DE LA.

Larauza, It'ro'zS', (JEAN Louis,) a French teacher,
born in Paris in 1793. He wrote an "Essay on the Pas-
sage of the Alps by Hannibal," (1826.) Died in 1825.

La Ravardiere, de, deh If rf vtR'de-aiR', (DANIEL
DE LA TOUSCHE,) SIEUR, a French explorer, born in
Poitou about 1570. He conducted an expedition to
Brazil in 1611, and planted a colony on the island of
Maranham ; but they were expelled by the Portuguese in
1615. Died after 1630.

Larcher, laVsha', (PIERRE HENRI,) a French littera-
teur and Hellenist, born at Dijon in 1726. After trans-
lating several works from the English, he published in
1767 an able work, entitled "Supplement to the Phi-
losophy of History," which was designed to refute Vol-
taire, from whom it drew a sarcastic reply. His chief

39 A 1 ; 935^; ghard; gas /; G, H, TH, guttural; N, nasal; 1.,trillcd; sasz; th as in this. (Jl^ = See Explanations, p. 23.)




work is a translation of Herodotus into French, with a
commentary, (1786,) which is highly prized as a monu-
ment of learning. He was a member of the Institute or
Academy of Inscriptions. Died in 1812.

Lar'com, (Lucv,) an American poet, bora at Beverly
Farms, Massachusetts, in 1826. In early life she worked
in the Lowell mills, and was a frequent contributor to
the " Lowell Offering" and the " Operatives' Magazine."
She afterwards engaged in teaching, and subsequently
(1865-74) was editor of " Our Young Folks." Her prin-
cipal works are " Ships in the Mist," etc. (1850.,) " Poems,"
(1868,) " Wild Roses of Cape Ann," (1880,) " New
England Girlhood," (1884,) "As it is in Heaven,"
(1891,) etc. Died April 17, 1893.

Lardizabal, de, di lau-de-tha-bal', (Don MANUEL,)
a Spanish minister of state, born in Biscay about 1750.
In 1814 Ferdinand VII. appointed him minister of the
Indies. Soon after that date he was imprisoned for some
unknown reason, and died in exile in 1823.

Lard'ner, (DlONYSlus,) LL.D., a distinguished scien-
tific writer and editor, was born in Dublin in 1793,
and educated at Trinity College. He wrote at college a
" Treatise on Algebraic Geometry," (1823.) His " Popu-
lar Lectures on the Steam Engine" (1828) passed through
many editions. In 1828 he became professor of natural
philosophy in the London University, and projected the
"Cabinet Cyclopaedia," to which Herschel, Brewster,
and other eminent authors contributed. For this work,
which appeared in 134 volumes, (1830-44,) Dr. Lardner
wrote the treatises on hydrostatics, pneumatics, geome-
try, etc. Between 1840 and 1845 he delivered in the
chief cities of the United States scientific lectures, which
were published, and favourably received. He became
a resident of Paris in 1845, after which he published
hand-books of natural philosophy, astronomy, and other
sciences. Died in 1859.

Lardner, (NATHANIEL,) D.D., an English theologian
of great merit, was born in Kent in 1684. He studied
at Utrecht and Leyden, and became a dissenting minis-
ter. From 1713 to 1729 he was chaplain in the family
of Lady Treby. He began to preach to the Presbyterian
congregation of Old Jewry, London, in 1723. In 1727
he published the first part of his "Credibility of the
Gospel History," a work of profound reasoning and
research, and one of the most successful arguments in
defence of Christianity ever given to the world. Re-
ferring to this work, Sir James Mackintosh remarks that
it "soon wearies out the greater part of readers, though
the few who are more patient have almost always been
gradually won over to feel pleasure in a display of know-
ledge, probity, charity, and meekness unmatched by an
avowed advocate in a case deeply interesting his wannest
feelings." (See his remarks on Paley in the "View of
the Progress of Ethical Philosophy. ) Between 1733
and 1743 he produced five more volumes of the same
work. He was the author of other treatises, one of
which (" Letter on the Logos," or " Word") advocates
Socinian doctrines. Died in 1768.

See KIPHS, " Life of N. Lardner," prefixed to his complete Works,
II vols., 1788; "Memoirs of the Life of the Rev. N. I^ardoer,"
London, 1769.

La Renaudiere, de, deh li reh'no'de-aiR', (PHILIPPE
FRANCOIS,) a French geographer, born at Vire, in Nor-
mandy, in 1781, was associated with Malte-Brun as editor
of the "Annales des Voyages," (54 vols., 1826-39.) He
published several geographical works. Died in 1845.


La'rea, a name applied to genii, or inferior gods of
human origin, worshipped by the ancient Romans. The
Lares were believed to preside over houses and families,
and were divided into several classes, as Lares domestici,
Lares public!, Lares urbani, etc. They were supposed
to be the spirits of good men who had died, and were
partly identified with the Manes. (See MANES.)

Lareveillere-L6paux or Lare^velliere-Lepeaux,
de, deh IS'ra'v&l'ye^iR' la'po', a French republican,
born at Mortagne in 1753. He was deputed to the Con-
vention in 1792, voted for the death f the king, and
defended the proscribed Girondists in 1793, for which he
was doomed to die, but escaped by concealing himself.
In 1795 he resumed his place in the Convention, where

he acquired the reputation of an effective speaker, and
in October of that year was elected a member of the
Executive Directory. He presided over the department
of science, morals, and religion, and showed his hostility
to the Catholics, who stigmatized him as a fanatic and
"theophilanthropist." He acted with Barras and the
majority of the Directors in the coup ifjtat of the iSth
Fructidor, (September, 1797.) The Directors became
divided into two parties, in which Le'paux was opposed
to Barras, and, finding himself in a minority, he re-
signed in June, 1799. Died in 1824.

See, also, THIERS, "History of the French Revolution;" " Nou-
relle Biographic Generale."

Lareveillere-Lepeaux, (OssiAN,) a French littira-
tfur, a son of the preceding, was born in Paris in 1797.
He wrote important articles for the " Nouvelle Bio-
graphie C-e'ne'rale." He died September 27, 1876.

Largilliere, laVzhe'ye-aiR', (NICOLAS,) a skilful
French painter of portraits~~and history, born in Paris in
1656, was called "the French Van Dyck." He worked
some years in London, where he painted portraits of
James II. and his queen. In 1686 he was elected a
member of the Academy of Paris. He surpassed all his
French rivals in portraits except Rigaud, worked with
great facility, and was a good colorist. Among his works
are portraits of Louis XIV. and Charles Lebrun. Died
in 1746.

See CHARLES BLANC, " Histoire des Peintres ;" HORACE WAL-
POLE, " Anecdotes of Painting."

La Riboisiere or Lariboisiere, de, deh lifreTiwa'-

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 72 of 425)