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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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to which is prefixed the Diary of his own Life." 1794 ; HUME, " His-
tory of England," chap. Hi. ; "Retrospective Review," vol. vii., 1823.

Laudati, low-dl'tee, (GIOSEFKO,) an Italian painter
of the Roman school, born at Perugia in 1672, was a
favourite pupil of Carlo Maratta. Died after 1718.

Lau'der, (Sir JOHN,) Lord Fountainhall, an eminent
Scottish lawyer, born in Edinburgh in 1646. He became
a member of Parliament, and opposed the arbitrary
policy of James II. Died in 1722.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Lauder, (ROBERT SCOTT,) a Scottish painter, born
near Edinburgh in 1803. Among his best works are
"The Bride of Lammermuir," "Trial of Effie Deans,'
and other scenes from Scott. He worked mostly in
London and Edinburgh. Died April 21, 1869.

Lauder, (Sir THOMAS DICK,) a Scottish author, born
in 1784, inherited a baronetcy from his father, and lived
near Edinburgh. He was one of the early contributors
to "Blackwood's Magazine," and author of various
works, among which are " Lochandhu," a novel, " High-
land Rambles," (1837,) and a "Tour round the Coasts
of Scotland." Died in 1848.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Lauder, (WILLIAM,) a Scotchman, who gained no
toriety by literary impostures designed to prove that
Milton was a plagiarist In 1751 he published an "Es-
say on Milton's Use and Imitation of the Moderns in
his Paradise Lost," in which he charged Milton with
making too free use of the ideas of Grotius and others.
He was convicted of having interpolated in Grotius's
Latin drama "Adamus Exsul" several verses copied
from an obscure version of Milton's poem. He died in
Barbadoes in 1771.

Lau'der-dale', JAMES MAITLAND,) EARLOF, an able
Scottish Whig statesman, born in 1759, was the son of
the seventh Earl of Lauderdale, and was first styled
Lord Maitland. About 1781 he was elected to the
House of Commons, where he acted as the political
friend of Fox, and in 1787 was chosen one of the man-
agers of the impeachment of Hastings. He inherited the
title of earl in 1789, and was chosen one of the Scottish
representative peers in 1790. He favoured the French
republic, and opposed the war against the French which
began in 1793. In 1806 he became a peer of the United
Kingdom, and keeper of the seal of Scotland, and was
sent by Mr. Fox to Paris with full powers to negotiate
a peace, but without success. On the fall of the Whig
ministry in 1807 he gave up the seal of Scotland. He
died in 1839, leaving his title to his son James. He wrote
several treatises on finance and political economy.

Lauderdale, (JOHN MAITLAND,) DUKE OF, a British
courtier, born at Lethington in 1616, was a grandson
of John Lord Maitland, Chancellor of Scotland. His
father was first Earl of Lauderdale. He was conspicu-
ous among the Scottish insurgents of 1638, and began his
public career as a zealous supporter of the Covenant
After the restoration of 1660 he became the prime fa-
vourite of Charles II., and in 1670 was a member of that

a e, I o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 5, u, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; mSt; not; good; moon




corrupt cabinet called the Cabal. "Under the outward
how of boisterous frankness," says Macaulay, " he was
perhaps the most dishonest man in the whole Cabal."
He was created duke in 1672. In 1678 he became min-
ister for Scottish affairs, which he managed in a violent
and arbitrary manner. "He had the fortune, beyond
any other minister," says Hume, "to maintain an ascend-
ant over Charles II. during the greater part of his reign."
(" History of England.") Died in 1682. As he left no
male issue, his brother inherited the earldom.

Laudivio, low-dee've-o, (ZACCARIA,) an Italian poet,
horn near Genoa, lived about 1470. He wrote " Letters
of the Grand Turk," ("Epistolae Magni Turci," 1473,)
often reprinted, and " On the Praises of Wisdom and
Virtue," ("De Laudibus Sapientiae et Virtutis.")

Laudon, von, fon low'don, written also Laudohn
and London, (GIDEON ERNST,) BARON, a famous field-
marshal of the Austrian army, was born in Livonia in
1716. He entered the service of Maria Theresa in 1743,
and for his exploits in several campaigns was rewarded
with the rank of general in 1757. The next year he was
made lieutenant-general, and contributed greatly to the
victory of Hochkirchen over the Prussians. In 1759 he
gained a complete victory at Kunersdorf, where Frederick
the Great commanded in person. He was raised to the
rank of field-marshal in 1778, gained several victories
over the Turks in 1788, and was chosen generalissimo
in 1789. Died in 1790.

Lauffer, lowf'fer, ( JAKOB, ) a Swiss historian and
Protestant divine, born at Zoffingen in 1688. He wrote,
in German, a " History of Helvetia," (or Switzerland,)
(" Helvetische Geschichte," 1736-38.) Died in 1734.

Laugel, lo'zhe 1 !', (ANTOINE AUGUSTE,) a French writer,
born at Strasbourg, January 20, 1830. He visited the
United States in 1864, and published "The United
States during the War," (1866,) "England, Political
and Social," (1873,) "Great Historical Figures," (1875,)
"Louise de Coligny," (1877,) "France, Political and
Social," (1877,) and other works.

Laugh'lin, (JAMES LAURENCE,) an American
economist, born at Deerfield, Ohio, in 1850. He
graduated at Harvard in 1873, and became professor
of political economy at Cornell in 1890 and at Chicago
in 1892. He published several works.

Laugier, 16'zhe-i', (ANDRft,) an able French chemist,
born in Paris in 1770. In 1809 he succeeded Fourcroy
as professor of chemistry in his native city. His lectures
were published with the title of " Cours de Chimie gene-
rale," (3 vols., 1828.) He excelled in chemical analysis,
and wrote numerous memoirs on the analysis of minerals.
Died in 1832.

See P. J. ROBIQL-ET, "Notice historique sur A. Laugier," 1833;
" Nouvelle Biographic Ge'Derale."

Laugier, (ERNEST,) an astronomer, a son of the
preceding, born in Paris in 1812, obtained in 1841 the
Lalande medal for the discovery of a comet and the cal-
culation of its orbit Died April 5, 1872.

Laugier, (JEAN NICOLAS,) a French engraver, born
at Toulon in 1785, worked in Paris. Among his works
are " Leonidas at Thermopylae," and " Trance of Saint
Paul," after Poussin. Died February 24, 1875.

Laugier, (MARC ANTOINE,) a French writer and
priest, born at Manosque in 1713. He preached in sev-
eral pulpits of Paris, and afterwards obtained the abbey
of Ribeaute in 1757. He published, besides other works,
a successful "Essay on Architecture," (1753-55,) and a
'History of Venice," (12 vols., 1759-68,) which was the
best which had appeared until that of Daru was pub-
lished in 1819. Died in 1769.

Laugier, de, deh 16'zhe-A', (CESAR DE BELLECOUR,)
COUNT, a general, was born in the isle of Elba in 1789.
He is ranked among the best military writers of Italy.
In May, 1848, he obtained the chief command of the Tus-
can corps raised to fight against Austria. With about
5000 men he resisted 30,000 Austrians for six hours near
Mantua. He was minister of war under Leopold II. in
1850 and 1851. Among his works is " Annals and Vicis-
situdes of the Italian Peoples from 1801 to 1815," (13
vols., 1829-32.) Died at Florence, March 25, 1871.

Laujon, 16'zhoN', (PIERRE,) a French poet, born in
Paris in 1727. He composed admired songs and lyrical

dramas. In 1807 he was chosen a member of the Insti-
tute. Died in 1811.

Sec " Monthly Review," vol. bcviii., 1812, (Appendix.)

Lauman, law'man, (JACOB G.,) an American general,
born in Maryland in 1813. He commanded a brigade
at the battle of Shiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862, and a divi-
sion at the siege of Vicksburg, June and July, 1863.
Died in Burlington, Iowa, in 1867.

Laumont, de, deh 16'm6N', (FRANC.OIS PIERRE NI-
COLAS GiUet zhe'y^',) a French mineralogist, born in
Paris in 1747. He discovered several minerals, and
wrote memoirs which were printed in the "Annales des
Mines" and other journals. Died in 1834.

Launay, de, deh lo'nj', (FRANgois,) a French jurist,
born at Angers in 1612. He was professor of French
law at the College Royal, and published several legal
works. Died in 1693.

Launay, de, (PIERRE,) a French Protestant theo-
logian, born at Blois in 1573. He received the title of
counsellor to the king, and tnught Greek gratis at the
Academy of Saumur. He wrote a " Paraphrase on the
Epistles of Saint Paul," (2 vols., 1650,) and other com-
mentaries on Scripture, which were highly esteemed
Died in 1661.

Laxiney, de, deh I5'n&', (BERNARD RENE JOURDAN,)
the last governor of the Bastille, was born in Paris in
1740, and became governor in 1776. The storming of
that state prison by the populace, being the first violent
symptom of the Revolution, has rendered his name
historical. On the I4th of July, 1789, he repulsed the
insurgents for several hours with cannon and other
guns, and attempted to blow up the building by firing
the magazine, but was prevented. He was massacred
immediately after the capture of the place.


Launitz, low'nits, (ROBERT EBERHARD,) a nephew of
the following, was born at Riga, in Russia, November 4,
1806. He was a pupil of Thorwaldsen. lie came to the
United States in 1828, and was for many years devoted
chiefly to monumental sculpture. Died in New York,
December 13, 1870.

Launitz, von, fon low'nits, (NIKOLAUS KARL EDUARD
SCHMIDT,) a German-Russian sculptor, born at Grobin,
in Courland, November 23, 1797. He was a pupil of
Thorwaldsen, and worked mostly at Frankfort-on-the-
Main, where he died, December 12, 1869.

Launoi or Lauuoius. See LAUNOY.

Launoy or Lauuoi, de, deh 15'nwa', [Lat. LAUNO'-
IUS,] (JEAN,) a French doctor of the Sorbonne, born near
Valogne in 1603, had a high reputation for learning. In
1643 he was chosen royal censor of books. He published,
besides many works on theology, a " History of the Col-
lege of Navarre," (1677,) and defended the liberties of
the Galilean Church against the pretensions of the court
of Rome. He was noted for his zeal and sagacity in
expunging the names of spurious saints from the calen-
dar, and was said to have dethroned more saints than
ten popes had canonized. Died in 1678.

See BAYLH, "Historical and Critical Dictionary;" NIC^RON,
" Me"moires :" J. REISER, "J. Launoius Theologus," etc., 1685

Laura. See NOVES, DE, and PETRARCH.

Laura, (FiLippo.) See LAURI.

Lauraguais, de, deh lo'rt'gi', (Louis LEON FELI-
CITE,) COMTE, Due de Brancas, an eccentric French
nobleman, born at Versailles in 1733. He patronized
literature and science, and by his chemical experiments
associated his name with those of Lavoisier and Daicet
He wrote many political treatises. Died in 1824.

See "Nouvelle Biographie G^ne'rale."


Laurati, low-ra'tee,(PlETRO,) an Italian fresco-paintei,
born at Sienna in 1282; died in 1340.


Laurelius, low-rfi'le-us, or Laurel, low'rel, (OLAUS,)
a Swedish theologian, born in West Gothland in 1585.
He became Bishop of Westeris in 1647. He published,
besides other works, a "System of Theology," (1641,)
which was esteemed a standard work. Died in 1670.

Laurenberg, low'ren-be'RG', or Lauremberg, low'-
rem-be'RG', (JoHANN,) a poet and philologist, born at
Rostock in 1590. He ranked high among the poets of

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planations, p. 23. )




his time. Among his works are four poetical satires,
(1652-70,) and "Graecia Antiqua," a description of
ancient Greece, (1661.) Died in 1658.

Laurenberg, (PETER,) a botanist and anatomist, a
brother of the preceding, was born at Rostock about
1575. He became professor at Rostock in 1624, and
published several works on anatomy. Died in 1639.

Lau'rence or Law'rence, (Dr. FRENCH,) an eminent
English civilian and author, born at Bristol, graduated
at Oxford about 1780. "He was," says Lord Brougham,
" one of the most able, most learned, and most upright
men that ever adorned the legal profession. ... He
united in himself the indefatigable labour of a Dutch
commentator with the alternate playfulness and sharp-
ness of a Parisian wit." He was a member of Parlia-
ment about twenty years. About 1797 he was chosen
professor of civil law at Oxford. He was the intimate
friend and executor of Edmund Burke. He wrote some
of the " Probationary Odes," and contributed largely to
the epigrams and satires, in prose and verse, of ' The
Rolliad." Died in 1809.

Laurence, (RICHARD,) a brother of the preceding,
was born at Bath in 1760. He became professor of
Hebrew at Oxford in 1814, and Archbishop of Cashel
in 1822. Died in 1838. He was a great authority on
the Ethiopic language and literature, and translated
several of the sacred books found in that tongue.
Laurens. See Du LAURENS.

Lau'rena, (HENRY,) an American statesman, born at
Charleston, South Carolina, in 1724. Soon after the
breaking out of the Revolution he was elected a dele-
gate to the General Congress, of which he subsequently
became president, in November, 1777. While on his
voyage as ambassador to the Hague, in 1780, he was
taken by the British and imprisoned for fourteen months
in the Tower of London. In conjunction with Franklin
and Jay, he afterwards signed the preliminaries to a treaty
with England, November, 1782. Died in 1792.

See " National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans."
Laureus, (JOHN,) an American patriot and soldier,
born in South Carolina about 1756, was a son of the
preceding. He entered the army early in 1777, became
an aide-de-camp to Washington, and was wounded at
Germantown. It is stated that he distinguished him-
self in every action of the army which Washington
commanded. He was an intimate friend of General
Hamilton. In 1781 he was sent to France on a special
mission, for which he was selected by Washington. He
was successful, and returned in time to take part in
the victory at Yorktown, October, 1781. He was killed
in a battle on the Combahee River, South Carolina,
in August, 1782. Colonel Laurens is represented as
having been a man of rare endowments, as blending in
harmonious union the character of a gallant officer, a
fine scholar, and an accomplished gentleman
Laurent, (PAUL MARIE,) a French historian, born in
Ardeche in 1793. His principal work is a "History of
Napoleon," with 500 designs by Horace Vernet, (9 vols.,
1838-42.) Died at Versailles, August 7, 1877.

Laurent, (PIERRE,) a skilful French engraver, bom
at Marseilles in 1739, worked in Paris. He excelled in
landscapes and animals, and published engravings of
the master-pieces of the Louvre. Died in 1809.

Laurent, (PIERRE JOSEPH,) a skilful Flemish media
nician, born at Bordeaux in 1715. He was appointed
director of the canals of Flanders at the age of twenty-
one, and gained repL'ationby the junction of the Somme
with the Scheldt, lie was very skilful in the fabrication
of artificial limbs. Died in 1773.

Laurentie, 16'roN'te', (PIERRE SEBASTIEN,) a French
historical and political writer, born at Houga (Gers) in
1793. He edited several royalist journals in Paris, and
published "Studies, Literary and Moral, on the Latin
Historians," (2 vols., 1822.) and a "History of France,"
(1841-43.) Died at Paris, February 9, 1876.
Laurentius, JOANNES.) See LYDUS.
Laurentius, (LYDUS.) See LYDUS.
Laurentzen, low'rent-zen, or Lorentsen, lo'rent-
s?n, (JoHAN,) a Danish historical writer, born at Ribe.

He wrote on Danish history, and produced a Danish
version of the Bible, (1719.) Died about 1728.

Lauretti, low-ret'tee, or Lanreti, low-ra'tee, (ToM-
MASO,) an Italian painter, born at Palermo, worked at
Rome for Gregory XIII., and became president of the
Academy of Saint Luke. His pictures of" Brutus Judging
lis Sons" and " Horatius Codes Defending the Bridge"
were much admired. Died about 1600, aged eighty.

Lauri, low'ree, (BALTHASAR,) a Flemish landscape-
jainter, born at Antwerp about 1570; died at Rome in

Lauri or Laura, low'ra, (FlLiPPO,) an eminent painter
of history and landscapes, son of the preceding, was born
n Rome in 1623. Filippo painted in preference small
cabinet pictures which were remarkable for imagination
and spirit. He also painted figures for the landscapes
cf Claude Lorrain. His design and composition are
lighly commended by E. Breton in the " Nouvelle
Biographic Generate. " Died in 1694. His brother
FRANCESCO was a promising artist when he died in
1635, aged twenty-five.
Lauria. (ROGER DI.) See LORIA.
Laurier. (Sir WILFRED,) a Canadian statesman,
was born at St. Lin, Quebec, in 1841. He was edu-
cated at McGill University, entered the Quebec assem-
bly in 1871, the Dominion Parliament in 1874. He
became the leader of the Liberal party in 1891, and
in 1896 was made premier of Canada, being the first
French Canadian to hold that post. He was knighted
in 1897.

Lauriere, de, deh IS'r^-aiR', (EysEBE JACOB,) a pro-
found French jurist, bonTin Paris in 1659. He was
thoroughly versed in legal science, and attained great
proficiency in literature. Among his numerous works
are "The Origin of the Law of Amortizement," (1692,)
and " Library of Common Law," (" Bibliotheque des
Coutumes," 1699.) Died in 1728.
See " NouveJle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Laurillai d, lo're'yaV, (CHARLES LEOPOLD,) a French
naturalist and artist, born at Montbeliard in 1783, was a
pupil of Cuvier, who employed him in the execution of
his anatomical designs. He published "The Mammifera
and Human Races," (1849.) Died in 1853.
Laurimanus. See LAUWERMAN.
Lauriston, de, deh 15'res'toN', (JACQUES ALEXAN-
DRE BERNARD LAW,') MARQUIS, a marshal of France,
was born in India in 1768, and was great-nephew of
John Law, the famous projector. In 1800 he became
aide-de-camp to Bonaparte, and served at the battle of
Marengo. He was made a general of brigade in 1802,
general of division in 1805, and governor-general of
Venice in 1807. Having received the title of count,
as commander of the artillery of the imperial guard, he
took part in several victories over the Austrians in 1809.
He was sent as ambassador to Russia in 181 1, and com-
manded a corps in the campaign of 1813. He was created
a marquis in 1817, became minister of the royal house-
hold in 1821, received a marshal's baton in 1823, and
was appointed minister of state in 1824. Died in 1828.
Laus du Ferret See DUPERRET.
Lauterbach, low'ter-baK', (WOLFGANG ADAM,) a
German jurist, born in 1618, wrote a work on the Pan-
dects, (3 or 4 vols., 1600-1714-) Died in 1678.

Lauth, lot, (ALEXANDRE,) a skilful French anatomist,
born at Strasbourg in 1803. He published a "Manua
for the Anatomist," (1829,) and other able professional
works. Died in 1837.

Lautb, (FRANZ JOSEF,) a German Egyptologist,
born in 1822. He became a professor in the Univer-
sity of Munich in 1869. His published various works,
the most important being " Manetho und der Turiner
Kbnigspapyrus." Died February u, 1895.

Lautrec, 16'tuek', (ODET DE Foix,) MARSHAL, a
brave French general, was a cousin of Gaston de Foix.
He was wounded at Ravenna in 1512. Just after Con-
stable Bourbon had resigned the command, Francis I.
appointed Lautrec his lieutenant-genera! in Italy, (1516.)
He was defeated at Bicoque in 1522, and fought by th
side of Francis I. at Pavia in 1525. In 1527 he resumed

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command of the army in Italy, and was besieging Naples,
when he died of fever in 1528.

See SISMONDI, " Histoire des Fran^ais."

Lauwerman.Iow'er-man'.ILat. LAURIMA'NUS.KCOR
NELIS,) a Dutch teacher and Latin poet, born at Utrecht
about 1520; died in 1573.

Lauzun, Due DE. See BIRON, (ARM AND Louis IE.)

Lauzun, de, cleh IO'ZUN', (ANTOINE NOMPAE DE
CAUMONT,} DUKE, a French courtier and general, whose
life presents remarkable vicissitudes, was born in Gascony
in 1632. He became a favourite of Louis XIV., who
gave him a high rank in the army before he had merited
it by services. In 1671 he commanded the army which
ccompanied the king to Flanders. He was engaged to
^nna Maria, Duchess of Montpensier, a granddaughter
of Henry IV., but the match was broken off, and, having
incurred the enmity of Madame Montespan, he was im-
prisoned from 1671 to 1681, when his penalty was com-
muted into exile from court. It is supposed that he was
secretly married to the lady first above named. When
the throne and person of James II. of England were
menaced by revolution, (1688,) that king confided his
wife and son to Lauzun, who escorted them to Paris
and by that service regained the favour of Louis XIV.
He commanded the French army sent to Ireland to fight
lor James II., was defeated at the battle of the Boyne in
1690, and returned to France about the end of that year.
Died in 1723. "His life was like a romance," said La
Bruyere, "except that it lacked probability."

See LA BRUvfeRB, " Caracteres ;" SAINT-SIMON, " Me'moires ;"
DANGBAU, "Journal ;" " NouveTJe Biographic Ge'ne'rale ;" Dat-OBT,
"Histoire de la Detention de Fouquet, de Pellisson et de Lauzun,''
3 vols , 1829; "Quarterly Review" for January, 1822.

MOKENCY,) Due de Laval, born in Paris in 1768, was
the son of the Due de Laval. He was sent as ambas-
sador to Spain in 1814, to Rome about 1820, and to
Vienna in 1828. In 1829 he was transferred to the court
of Saint James. Died in 1837.

Lavalette, de, deh IS'vS'le't', (Pere ANTOINE,) a
French Jesuit, born in 1707. He was chosen superior-
general of the missions of South America in 1754. He
engaged in mercantile speculations which resulted in a
disgraceful bankruptcy. This affair was one of the
causes or pretexts of the abolition of the order of Jesuits
in France in 1762 ; for the order refused to pay the debts
of Lavalette, as directed by the courts.

QUIS, a French diplomatist, born at Senlis in 1806. He
was minister-plenipotentiary to the Sublime Porte from
1851 to 1853, and was raised to the dignity of senator in
the latter year. In 1865 he was appointed minister of
the interior. He became minister of foreign affairs in
December, 1868. Died May 2, 1881.

La Valette, de,(jEAN PARISOT.) See VALETTE, DE LA.

Lavalette, de, (MARIE CHAMANS,) COUNT, a favour-
ite officer and minister of Bonaparte, was born in Paris
in 1769. He entered the army in 1792, and obtained
the grade of captain at Arcola m 1796. Soon after this
date, Bonaparte employed him in important missions,
and gave him for his wife fimilie de Beauharnais, a
niece of Josephine. During the Egyptian campaign
(1798) he was one of Bonaparte's favourite attendants.
In 1800 he was called to preside over the post-office
department, first with the title of commissary, and soon
after with that of director-general. At the restoration
of 1814 he retired to private life, but on the return of
Napoleon from Elba he resumed his functions as post-
master-general on the 20th of March, 1815. In the same
year he was arrested by the agents of Louis XVIII. and
condemned to death. Just before the day of execution,
Madame Lavalette visited him in prison, and remained
in his place while he escaped disguised in her dress. By
the aid of Sir R. Wilson and other Englishmen, he
reached Flanders safely. He was pardoned by the king
in 1822, and died in 1830, leaving two volumes of me-
moirs of his life, (1831.) His wife was tried and acquitted,
but became permanently insane in consequence of the
exertion and excitement.

^ See LAVALKTTH, " Me'moires et Souvenir*," a vols., 1831, and
Node* biographique sur le Comte de La Valetta," Paris, 1830.

La Vallee, 13 vn&', (JOSEPH,) Marquis de Bois-Ro-
bert, a French writer, born at Dieppe in 1747. Aniong
his works is a piquant journal called " Semaines cri-
tiques," (4 vols., 1797.) Died in London in 1816.

See the "Monthly Review," vol. bunv., 1818, (Appendix.)

Lavallee, (THEOPHILE SEBASTIEN,) a French histo-
rian, born in Paris in 1804. He published a "History
of the French from the Time of the Gauls to 1830," (3
vols., 1839 ; loth edition, 1854,) and other works. He
died at Versailles, August 29, 1866.

La Valliere. See VALLIERE, DE LA.

Lavardin, de, deh It'viR'daN', MARSHAL, a French
general, whose proper name was JEAN DE BEAUMANOIR,
was born in Maine in 1551. He fought as second in
command of the Catholic army at Coutras in 1578, bat

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