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entered the service of Henry IV. in 1595, and was
then made a marshal of France. He was riding in the
carriage with the king when the latter was assassinated
in 1610. Died in 1614.

MARQUIS, was a great-grandson of the preceding. In
1687 he was sent as ambassador to Rome, with a large
retinue of armed men, for the purpose of maintaining a
claim to certain privileges or franchises which the pope
refused to grant (See INNOCENT XI.) Livardin en-
tered Rome as a victor at the head of an army, but was
excommunicated, and returned to France in 1689. Died
in 1701.

Lavater, la'va-ter or IS'vS'taiR', (JOHN CASPAR,) a
celebrated Protestant minister and writer on physiog-
nomy, born at Zurich in 1741. He was educated for the
church, which profession was congenial to his character.
In 1763 he made a journey to Berlin with Henry Fuseli
the artist. He produced in 1767 his admirable " Swiss
Songs," and in 1768 an ingenious work entitled " Pros-
pects into Eternity," ("Aussichte in die Ewigkeit") He
was ordained a deacon in 1769, and a few years later
became pastor of a church in Zurich. His sermons
were much admired, and widely diffused by the press;
but he was censured by some for a tendency to paradox,
superstition, and mystical theology. In 1775-78 he pub-
lished, in German, his celebrated " Physiognomic Frag-
ments for the Promotion of the Knowledge and Love
of Mankind," ("Physiognomischen Fragmente zur Be-
fb'rderung der Menschenkenntniss und Menschenliebe,"
4 vols.) This is the result of multiplied and curious
observations generalized into an ingenious system. He
was the author of numerous religious and moral works
in prose and verse, among which are " Pontius Pilate,"
(1782,) and two poems, "The Messiah" (4 vols., 1783-86)
and "The Human Heart," (1789.) He was a friend of
Goethe, with whom he corresponded. In the commo-
tions which followed the French Revolution he displayed
courage and firmness in opposing the French party,
(though not with carnal weapons ;) and at the capture
of Zurich by Massena, in September, 1799, he was shot
in the street by a soldier. After suffering from the wound
more than a year, he died in 1801. His character was
eminently honest and noble. "Lavater's spirit," says
Goethe, in his Autobiography, "was altogether im-
posing. Near him, you could not resist his decided in-
fluence ; and I had to submit to observing brow and
nose, eyes and mouth, in detail, and to weighing their
relations and proportions to each other. . . . Many
times in my after-life I had occasion to think about this
man, who is one among the most excellent with whom I
have ever attained to so intimate a relation."

Lavater, (Louis,) a Swiss Protestant clergyman, born
in 1527. He lived in Zurich, and wrote many theological
and other works, among which is a curious treatise on
spectres, apparitions, etc., (1570.) Died in 1586.

Lavedau, ("HENRI LEON EMILE,) a French drama-
tist, born at Orleans in 1859. After publishing several
volumes of journalistic contributions, he took to the
drama, writing a brilliant comedy, "line Famille,"
'1890,) which was given a prize by the Academy.
Dlher plays are " Le Prince d'Auree," "Deux No-
blesses," and " Viveurs." He was elected a member
of the Academy in 1898.

as*; <;zss; ^hard; gas/;G, H, Y., guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; thasin//;w. (Jty^See Explanations, p.




Laveleye, de, deh lfv'14', (MILE Louis VICTOR,) a
Belgian economist, born at Bruges, April 5, 1822. He
was educated at Paris and Ghent, and in 1864 became
professor of political economy at the Liege University.
Among his works is a treatise on the Provencal litera-
ture, (1844.) " Histoire des Rois francs," (1847,) "La
Question de 1'Or," (1860,) "Questions contemporaines,"
(1863,) "Essai sur 1'ficonomie rurale," (1863,) "Etudes
d'Economie rurale," (1864,) " Essais sur les Formes du
Gouvernement," (1872,) " De la Propriete," (a work of
great merit, 1874,) and " Elements d'Economie publique,"
(1882.) Died at Namur, January 2, 1892.

Lavergne, de, deh It'v^Rn', (Louis GABRIEL LBONCB
Guilhaud ge'16',j a French economist and writer, born
at Bergerac in 1809. Among his works are a "Memoir
on the Rural Economy of France," (1857,) and many
important articles in the "Revue des Deux Mondes"
on Spanish history, literature, etc. Died Jan. 18, 1880.

La-ver'na, [Fr. LAVERNE, li'vSRn',] in Roman my-
thology, was regarded as the patroness of thieves and

Laverne. See LAVERNA.

La Verne, de, deh 13 veRn, (LEGER MARIE PHILIPPE
Tranchant trox'shoN',) COMTE, a French tactician
and writer on the art of war, born near Vesoul in 1769.
Among his works is a " History of General Suwarow,"
(1809.) Died in 1815.

Laves, la'v?s, (GEORG LUDWIG FRIEDRICH,) an emi-
nent German architect, and chief director of buildings
for the kingdom of Hanover, was born at Uslar in 1789.
In 1852 he finished the new theatre at Hanover, which is
regarded as his best work. Died April 30, 1864.

Lavialle, It've-Jl', (PIERRE JOSEPH,) D.D., a bishop,
born at Lavialle, France, in 1820. He studied with the
Sulpitians at Paris, was ordained at Louisville, Ken-
tucky, in 1844, became in 1849 professor of theology in
Saint Thomas's Seminary, and in 1856 president of Saint
Mary's College. In 1865 he was consecrated Bishop of
Louisville. Died at Nazareth, near Bardstown, Ken-
tucky, May II, 1867.


La Ville de Mirmont, de, deh IS v61 deh meR'mdN',
(AI.KXANDRE JEAN JOSEPH,) a French dramatic poet,
born at Versailles in 1782. His drama "Le Libere"
(1835) gained the Montyon prize of the French Acad-
em>. Died in 1845.

La Villemarque, de, deh li vel'mf R'ki', (THEODORE
CLAUDE HENRI Hersart hSR'siR',) VICOM TE, a French
philologist, born at Quimperle in 1815. He published
"The Popular Songs of Bretagne," (1839,) with a French
version, and other works. Died in 1895.

Lav'ing-tpn, (GEORGE,) a learned English prelate,
born in Wiltshire in 1683. He became a canon of Saint
Paul's, London, in 1732, and Bishop of Exeter in 1747.
He published, besides sermons, " The Enthusiasm of the
Methodists and Papists Compared." Died in 1762.

La-viul-a, [Fr. LAVINIE, It've'ne',] a daughter of
Latinus, King of Latium, and his wife Amata, who
promised her to Turnus. She was married to jijneas
instead of Turnus because an oracle had declared that
she should be the wife of a foreign prince. She was the
mother of .tineas Sylvius.

Lavinie. See LAVINIA.

Lavisse'. (ERNEST,) a French historian, born at
Novion-en-Thierache, Aisne, in 1842. He was elected
a member of the French Academy in 1892.

Lavocat, li'vo'kS', (ANToiNE,) a French mechanician
and inventor, born near Nancy in 1707 ; died in 1788.

Lavoisier, li'vwa'ze-4', (ANTOINE LAURENT,) an
illustrious French chemTcal philosopher, and the chief
founder of modern chemistry, was born in Paris on the
26th of August, 1743. After leaving the College Maza-
rin, where he obtained high honours, he pursued with
zeal the study of astronomy, mathematics, and especially
chemistry. In 1766 he gained the prize offered by the
Academy of Sciences in 1763 for an improved method
of lighting the streets of Paris, and in 1768 was chosen
an associate of that institution. About this period he
entered the public service as farmer-general, in order to
obtain the funds required for his scientific researches,

to which he devoted the greater part of his time. He
acquired durable celebrity by the discovery of a new
chemical theory of combustion, (called the anti-phlo-
gistic,) which was partially developed in 1773 in a work
entitled "Physical and Chemical Essays," ("Opuscules
physiques et chimiques,") and which forms a great epoch
in the science of chemistry. In a memoir which he read
to the Academy in 1775, he announced that calcination
and combustion are the results of the union of a "highly
respirable gas" (oxygen) with combustible bodies, and
soon after proposed the theory that the heat produced
during combustion was disengaged from that respirable
air. "These two propositions," says Cuvier, "belong
to Lavoisier in his own right, and form the basis and
fundamental character of the new chemical theory." In
1776 he was appointed to superintend the fabrication of
saltpetre and gunpowder, of which he greatly improved
the quality. Co-operating with other French chemists, he
rendered an important service by reforming the chemical
nomenclature, and published in 1787 "Method of Chemi-
cal Nomenclature," ("Methode de Nomenclature chi-
mique,") in which a simple, systematic, and expressive
terminology was substituted for the absurd or fanciful
terms of the alchemists. He displayed his admirable
talent for explaining the truths which he had discovered
in his "Elementary Treatise on Chemistry," ("Traiti
dlementaire de Chimie," 2 vols., 1789.) He invented the
pneumatic cistern, the gasometer, and other chemical
apparatus. His glorious career was prematurely closed
by an unjust suspicion against the farmers of the revenue,
although in this service he had acquitted himself with
great honour and success. In the reign of terror La-
voisier and many of his colleagues were condemned to
death on frivolous charges, one of which was that they
moistened with water the tobacco of which they had the
monopoly. His request for a respite of a few days, in
order to finish some important experiments, was refused,
and he was executed in May, 1794. About that time he
had published two volumes of a large and important
work on chemical philosophy, entitled "Memoires de
Chimie," which remained unfinished.

See article on Lavoisier, by CUVIHR, in the " Biographic Univer-
selle ;" FOURCROY, " Notice sur Lavoisier," 1796; J. J. LH FRANCOIS
DH LALANDB, " Notice sur la Vie et les Ouvrages de Lavoisier,"
1796; DR. F. HOBFRR, article in the " Nouvelle Biographic Gene-
rale;" KiRta'SKY," HistoiredesLepslateurs-Chitnistes: Lavoisier,
Berthollet, H. Davy," 1845.

Law, (EDMUND,) D.D.,ar. eminent English metaphy-
sician, born in Lancashire in 1703, was the father of Lord
Ellenborough. He was educated at Cambridge, and,
while a student there, published a translation of King's
"Essay on the Origin of Evil," with notes, and an " En-
quiry into the Ideas of Space and Time." He became
rector of Graystock, Cumberland, in 1737, and arch-
deacon of Carlisle in 1743. Soon after this date appeared
his admired " Reflections on the Life and Character of
Christ." He was appointed master of Peter-House,
Cambridge, about 1755, professor of casuistry in 1764,
and prebendary of Durham in 1767. In 1769 he was
made Bishop of Carlisle. He published in 1777 an
edition of the works of Locke, with a life of the author,
of whom he was a disciple. He belonged to the rational
and liberal school of theology. Died in 1787.


Law, (JOHN,) of Lauriston, a famous Scottish pro-
jector and financier, was born at Edinburgh in 1671,
and inherited an estate called Lauriston. About 1694
he went to London, where, by means of his handsome
figure and graceful address, he gained admission into
fashionable society, and supported himself by gaming.
Having killed a man in a duel, he fled to the continent,
where he followed the trade of a gambler with great
success in Paris, Venice, Genoa, etc. About 1715 he
persuaded the Duke of Orleans, Regent of France, to
favour a scheme by which he promised to greatly im-
prove the financial condition of the kingdom. In 1716
he obtained a charter for a general bank of issue and
discount, under the name of Law & Company. In
connection with this bank he formed the Mississippi
Company, with a capital of one hundred million francs,
and with the exclusive right of the trade between France
and Louisiana, China, India, etc. The stock of these

a, e, i, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, %, short: a, e, i, p, obscure; far, fall, fitt; mft; n8t; Rood; moon;



companies was bought up with avidity, and the former
was soon erected into the Royal Bank, with the privilege
of coining gold and silver. The hope of enormous profits
infatuated the public so generally that the stock of the
company rose to twenty times its original value. In
January, 1720, Law was appointed contrttleur-gltUral of
finances, (i.e. prime minister.) The fall of his baseless
fabric was sudden and ruinous in 1720, when the public
confidence began to fail, and the notes of his bank fell
to one-tenth of the nominal value. Law was compelled
to leave France; and he died poor at Venice in 1729.
His system is often called the " South Sea Bubble."

See JOHN PHILIP WOOD, " Memoirs of John Law of Lauriston,"
1824 ; A. COCHUT, " Law, son Systeme et son fipoque," 1853 ; LE-
VASSEUR, " Recherches sur le Systeme de Law," 1857; THEODORE
VIAI., "J. Law et le Systeme du Papier-Monnaie de 1716," 1849,

Law, (WILLIAM,) a pious and mystical English au
thor, born at King's Cliff, Northamptonshire, in 1686.
He became a Fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge,
but forfeited his fellowship by refusing to take the re-
quired oath at the accession of George I. in 1714. He
lived some years as tutor in the family of Gibbon, (father
of the historian,) to whom he was related, and was after-
wards chaplain to Miss Hester Gibbon at King's Cliff.
He adopted the mystical doctrines of Jacob Bohme, (or
Behmen,) which he inculcated in his "Way to Know-
ledge," "Spirit of Love," and "Letters." Mr. Law
published many other works, of which the most popular
is his "Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life," (1729.)
This was praised by Dr. Johnson and by Gibbon.
Died in 1761.

Law, ^WILLIAM ARTHUR,) an English dramatist,
born in 1844. He went on the stage as an actor in
1872, and began play-writing in 1881, producing more
than forty plays.

Lawes, lawz, (HENRY,) an eminent English composer,
born probably at Salisbury in 1600. He was one of the
gentlemen of the royal chapel, and clerk of the cheque
to Charles I., in whose service he continued until 1649.
He composed the music for Milton's "Comus," (per-
formed in 1634,) in which the poet compliments him as

" Whose artful strains have oft delayed
The huddling brook to hear his madrigal,
And sweetened every musk-rose of the dale."

In 1653 he published " Ayres and Dialogues," consisting
of songs, duets, and trios. " Milton probably took lessons
[in music] from him." (Masson.) Died in 1662.

Lawes, (Sir JOHN BENNETT,) BART., an English
agriculturist, born at Rothamsted, Herts, December 28,
1814. He was educated at Eton, and at Brasenose Col-
lege, Oxford. In 1834 he undertook (in connection,
after 1843, with Dr. J. H. Gilbert) that course of experi-
mental farming at Rothamsted which has made his name
everywhere famous. He has also conducted extensive
works for the manufacture of artificial fertilizers. The
published results of the labours of Lawes and Gilbert are
widely recognized as of very great importance to agri-
culture. Died in 1900.

Lawes, (WILLIAM), a brother of Henry Lawes, was
a skilful musician and composer, and was one of the
gentlemen of the royal chapel. He fought for the king
in the civil war, and was killed at Chester in 1645. He
composed music for Sandys's paraphrase of the Psalms,
and many other works.

Law'less, (EMILY,) a novelist, born in Ireland,
daughter of Baron Cloncurry. She published " Hur-
rish," (1886,) "Plain Francis Mowbray," (1889,)
"Grania," (1892,) " Maelcho," (1894,) also "The
Story of Ireland," "With Essex in Ireland," etc.


Law'rance, (JOHN,) a judge, born in Cornwall, Eng-
land, in 1750. He emigrated in 1767 to the city of New
York, where he practised law, and rose to distinction in
his profession. He was a delegate to the Congress of
the Confederation in 1785-87, and represented the city
of New York in the Congress of the United States from
1789 to 1793. In 1794 he was appointed a judge of the
district court for New York. He was elected a Senator
of the United States for New York in 1 796, and resigned

his seat in 1800. He was a Federalist, and a personal
(riend ol Alexander Hamilton. Died in New York in
November, 1810.

Law'rence, (ABBOTT,) an eminent American mer-
chant and philanthropist, born in Groton, Massachusetts,
in 1792. As the partner of his brother, Amos Law-
rence, he acquired a large fortune, a portion of which
was invested by them in the cotton-factories of Lowell,
which owes its prosperity chiefly to these enterprising
merchants. He was elected to Congress in 1839, and in
1843 was appointed one of the commissioners to settle
the northeast boundary question with Great Britain. He
was United States minister to England in 1849. He
died in 1855. Among his numerous and munificent do-
nations was that of $100,000 to Harvard University to
found the scientific school called by his name. He also
bequeathed the sum of $50,000 towards erecting mode)

See APPLETON, "Life of Abbott Lawrence;" HUNT, "Lives of
American Merchants."

Lawrence, (AMOS,) a distinguished philanthropist,
brother of the preceding, was born at Groton, Massa-
chusetts, in 1786. Having acquired an immense fortune
as a merchant, he spent a great part of it in various
charities and donations to public institutions ; and the
amount of his benefactions is estimated at $700,000.
Among the colleges to which he gave large sums were
Kenyon College, Ohio, Williams College, and the Theo-
logical Seminary at Bangor, Maine. He died in 1852,
and his "Life and Correspondence" was published by
his son in 1855.

Law'rence, (EDWARD ALEXANDER,) D.D., an Amer-
ican divine, born at Saint Johnsbury, Vermont, October
7, 1808. He graduated at Dartmouth College in 1834,
and at Andover Seminary, was ordained to the Congre-
gationalist ministry in 1839, was a professor in the theo-
logical school at East Windsor, Connecticut, 1854-65,
and published various theological writings. Died at
Marblehead, Massachusetts, September 4, 1883.

Lawrence, (EUGENE,) an American author, born in
New York city, October 10, 1823, graduated at the New
York University in 1842, and studied at the Harvard
Law School. He wrote "Lives of British Historians,"
(1855,) "Historical Studies," (1873,) etc., and contrib-
uted largely to periodical literature. Died in 1894.

Lawrence, (GEORGE ALFRED,) an English novelist,
born in 1827. He was educated at Rugby, and at Ox-
ford, where he graduated with honours in 1848. Called
to the bar in 1852, he abandoned law for literature after
the success of his first novel, " Guy Livingstone." This
was published anonymously in 1857, and was followed
by "Sword and Gown," "Barren Honour," " Anteros,"
etc. He also published a volume of " Ballads." Died
September 23, 1876.

Law'rence, (Sir HENRY MONTGOMERY,) an English
officer, born in Ceylon in 1806, served with distinction
in the campaigns of the Sutlej. He was appointed presi-
dent of the board of government in the Punjaub about
1850, and chief commissioner of Oude in 1857. He
rendered important service by the defence of Lucknow
against the mutinous Sepoys, and was killed during the
siege of that city in July, 1857.

Lawrence, (JAMES,) an American naval officer, of
distinguished bravery, born at Burlington, New Jersey,
in 1781. He served under Commodore Decatur in the
Mediterranean, and was afterwards appointed succes-
sively to the command of the Vixen, the Wasp, the Argus,
and the Hornet. In 1813 he captured the Peacock from
the British after a short engagement, and was soon after
made post-captain, and commander of the frigate Ches-
apeake. On the ist of June, 1813, he encountered near
Boston the British frigate Shannon, and after a severe
contest, in which he was mortally wounded, his vessel
was boarded and taken by the English. It was on this
occasion that he uttered the memorable words, "Don't
jive up the ship." The remains of Captain Lawrence
were subsequently removed to Trinity church-yard,
where a munument has been erected to him. He left a
widow and two children. He had been in command of
:he Chesapeake only a few days, and was a stranger to
he crew, who were not well disciplined.

i; gzsj;G,H,K,gnftural; N, nasal: R, trilled; sasz; th as in this. (fl-j^Kee Explanations, p 23.)




Lawrence, (Sir JOHN LAIRD MAIR,) an Englisl
administrator of great ability, a brother of Sir Henry M
Lawrence, was born in 1810. He entered the civil service
of the East India Company about 1830, and became chiel
commissioner of the Punjaub soon after the conquest ol
that country. He was knighted for his services in the
suppression of the mutiny of 1857, and was appointet
Governor-General of India in November, 1863. In i86<
he was made a peer, with the title of Baron Lawrence oi
the Punjaub and Grately. Died June 27, 1879.

Law'rence, [Lat. LAUREN'TIUS; Fr. LAURENT, 16'-
roN'; It. LORENZO, lo-ren'zo ; Ger. LORENZ, lo'rents,
SAINT, a martyr, born in Rome in the third century
was in 257 appointed by Pope Sixtus treasurer of the
Church. In consequence of edicts issued against the
Christians by Valerian, he suffered martyrdom in 258.
I' is said he was burned to death on a gridiron.

Lawrence, (Sir THOMAS,) a celebrated English por-
trait-painter, born at Bristol in 1769. His artistic talents
were marvellously developed in early childhood, when
he was also remarkable for his memory, musical voice,
and personal beauty. It is stated that he drew with a
crayon accurate likenesses of eminent persons about the
age of six years. In 1782 he became a pupil of Prince
Hoare at Bath, and soon acquired the grace, inspiration,
and delicacy of manner which rendered him unrivalled
among contemporary English artists in the expression
of female beauty. He removed to London in 1787, and
was admitted as an associate of the Royal Academy in
1791. In 1792 he succeeded Sir Joshua Reynolds as
first painter to the king. From that time he was abun-
dantly patronized at the rate of one hundred guineas for
a full-length portrait. In 1797 he painted a portrait of
Mrs. Siddons, which is one of his master-pieces. Be-
tween 1814 and 1820 he painted, by order of the prince-
regent, the King of Prussia, the Emperor of Austria,
Pope Pius VII., Wellington, and many famous generals
and statesmen. He received the honour of knighthood
in 1815, and visited Vienna and Rome in 1819. On the
death of Benjamin West, in 1820, Sir Thomas was elected
president of the Royal Academy. Died in 1830. He
excelled in the art of imparting ideal beauty to his sub-
jects without departing from the reality. Among his
master-pieces are portraits of Benjamin West, John
Kemble, Curran, Lord Erskine, Lady Cowper, and the
Duchess of Sutherland.

Lawrence, (WILLIAM,) F.R.S., an English surgeon,
born about 1785. He became professor of anatomy
and surgery to the Royal College of Surgeons, London,
about 1816, and delivered "Lectures on the Physiology,
Zoology, and Natural History of Man," which attracted
much attention. Among his works are "Anatomico-
Chirurgical Descriptions and Views of the Nose, Mouth,
Larynx, and Fauces," a "Treatise on Ruptures," (5th
edition, 1838.) and a "Treatise on Diseases of the Eve."
Died in 1867.

Lawrence, (WILLIAM,) an American bishop, born
at Boston, May 30, 1850. He studied for the ministry
and was ordained in 1875. In 1884 he became pro-
fessor in the Episcopal Theological School at Cam-
bridge, and was preacher at Harvard University 1888-
93. In 1893 ne was made Bishop of Massachusetts.

Lawrence, (WILLIAM BEACH,) an American jurist
born in New York city, October 23, 1800. He graduated
at Columbia College. New York, in 1818, was admitted
to the bar in 1823, and was secretary of the United States
legation in London from 1826 to 1828. After 1832 he
took a very prominent position at the New York bar.
In 1850 he removed to Rhode Island, of which State he
was acting Governor in 1851. His principal works are a
translation ol Marbois's " History of Louisiana," (1830,)
" Law of Charitable Uses," (1845,) a very valuable anno-
tated edition of Wheaton's "International Law" (1855,)
a (French) " Coinmentaire sur les Elements du Utoit
international," (1868-73,) "Administration of Equity
Jurisprudence,'' (1874,) etc. Died March 26, 1881.

Law'spn, (CECIL GORDON,) an English landscape-
painter, burn at Chelsea in December, 1851. He ex-
hibited many paintings at the Grosvenor Gallery and the
Royal Academy. Died June 10, 1882,

Law'son, (GEORGE,) a learned Scottish divine, born
in West Linton in 1749; died in 1820. His memory

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 76 of 425)