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tragedy than Lee, if, instead of favouring the impetuosity
of his genius, he had restrained it within proper bounds."

See "Retrospective Review,'* vol. i:i., 1821.

Lee, (RACHEL FANNY ANTONINA,) an eccentric Eng-
ish authoress, originally named DASHWOOD, was born
about 1770. She wrote an "Essay on Government,"
which was commended by Wordsworth. Died in 1829.

See DE QUINCEV, "Autobiographic Sketches," chap. iv.

Lee, (RICHARD HENRY,) an American statesman and
orator, and one of the signers of the Declaration of In-
dependence, was bom in the county of Westmoreland,
Virginia, in 1732. He was educated in England, and,
after his return, v/as elected about 1757 to the House of
Burgesses in Virginia. He married Miss Aylett in early
life. In 1765 he eloquently defended the resolutions
against the Stamp Act, introduced by Patrick Henry.
He was a delegate from Virginia in 1774 to the Conti-
nental Congress, and took a prominent part in the pro-
ceedings of that body. The memorial to the people of
British America, authorized by the Continental Congress,
is attributed to his pen. In June, 1776, he introduced
into Congress the measure declaring the colonies free
and independent States, which motion he supported by
a most eloquent and powerful speech. Mr. Lee was
again elected to Congress in 1778 ; he became president
of that body in 1784, and was elected a United States
Senator from Virginia in 1789. Like most other Vir-
ginians, he disapproved the Federal Constitution. Died
in 1794.



See GOODRICH, "Lives of the Signers to the Declaration of In-
pendence ;" " Memoirs of the Life of R. H. Lee," by his grand-
son, R. H. LEH, 2 vols., 1825 ; " North American Review" for April.



as k ; <; as s: g hard; g as ;'; G, H, Y.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.



,

dependence ;" " Memoirs of the Life of R.
n, R. H. LEH, 2 vols., 1825 ; "
126, (by EDWARD EVERETT.)

Lee, (ROBERT,) D.D., a theologian, born at North Dur-
ham in 1804, was a minister of the Established Church of
Scotland. He became professor of biblical criticism in
the University of Edinburgh in 1846. Died in 1868.

Lee, (ROBERT EDWARD,) a distinguished American
general, a son of General Henry Lee, was born at
Stratford, Westmoreland county, Virginia, January 19,
1807. His mother's name was Anne Carter. He gradu-
ated at the head of his class at West Point in 1829,
and married in 1832 a daughter of George Washington
Parke Custis, who was the adopted son of General
Washington. He obtained the rank of captain in 1838,
and served in the Mexican war (1846-47) as chief engi-
neer of the army of General Scott, by whom his conduct
was highly commended. For his services in Mexico he
was raised to the rank of brevet colonel. He was
superintendent of the Academy at West Point from
September, 1852, to April, 1855. By his marriage he
became proprietor of the Arlington House, on the Poto-
mac, where his family resided when the civil war began.
He was appointed a colonel of cavalry in March, 1861.
On the 20th of April, 1861, he resigned his commission
by a letter to General Scott, to whom he wrote, " My
resignation would have been presented at once, but
for the struggle it has cost me to separate myself from
a service to which I have devoted all the best years of
my life."

About the 2ist of April he was appointed major-
general in command of all the forces of Virginia. In
July ensuing, his rank was fixed as brigadier-general in
the Confederate army, and he took command of a force
in Northwestern Virginia. He was opposed to General
Rosecrans in this campaign, the results of which wen-



e Explanations, p.



LEE



1514



LEECH



rather favourable to the Unionists ; though no impor-
tant battle was fought. About December, 1861, he was
ordered to take charge of the coast-defences of South
Carolina and Georgia. He returned to Richmond in
March, 1862, and on the 3d of June took the chief com-
mand of the army destined to defend the capital. On
the 26th of June he attacked the army of General
McClellan at Mechanicsville. The conflict was renewed
on the 27th at Gaines's Mill, where both armies suffered
heavy losses. Having been attacked at Savage's Sta-
tion on the 2gth, the Union army retired to Malvern
Hill, close to the James River. Lee's army was defeated
at Malvern Hill, July I, losing about 6500 killed and
wounded. General McClellan was, nevertheless, soon
after compelled to retreat, and to abandon the siege of
Richmond. The seat of war having been transferred
to the northern part of Virginia, General Lee gained a
victory over General Pope at Bull Run, or Manassas,
on the 2gth and 3Oth of August, and invaded Maryland
about the 4th of September. He commanded in person
at the great battle of Antietam, September 17, where he
had, according to Pollard, about 70,000 men. His loss
at South Mountain and Antietam rs reported to have
been 1842 killed and 9399 wounded, besides several
thousand prisoners. General Lee retired to Virginia on
the 1 8th, but was not pursued, and occupied a strongly-
fortified position at Fredericksburg, where General
Burnside attacked him on the 131(1 of December and
was repulsed with heavy loss. Or. the 2d and 3d of
May, Generals Lee and Hooker fought a great battle at
Chancellorsville, where the former had the advantage ;
but the losses were nearly equal, and the retiring Union
army was not pursued. Having been largely reinforced,
he assumed the offensive with an army of about 95,000
men, and crossed the Potomac on the 24th of June, 1863,
for the invasion of Pennsylvania. Marching against
Harrisburg, he was confronted at Gettysburg by the
Union army, commanded by General Meade and posted
on a range of hills. The Union army acted on the
defensive in the battle of Gettysburg, which began on
the 1st of July and was renewed on the 2d without a
decisive result. On the 3d, General Lee made several
desperate assaults, which were repulsed, and the Union
army was finally victorious. According to the report of
General Meade, the Federals took here 13,621 prisoners,
including the wounded. General Lee retired in the
night of the 4th of July, through the rain, and returned
to Virginia. His army was not engaged in any great
battles during the ensuing winter.

The campaign of 1864 was opened about the 4th of
May by General Grant, who crossed the Rapidan and
advanced towards Richmond. A severe and indecisive
battle ensued at the Wilderness on the 5th and 6th of
May. General Grant continued to approach his objective
point by a series of flank movements, alternating with
great battles at Spottsylvania Court-House, May 9-12,
at the North Anna River, May 23, and Cold Harbour,
June 3. In these battles General Lee acted mostly on
the defensive in fortified positions, and his losses were
probably less than those of Grant. General Grant, how-
ever, referring to those battles, says, " Bloody and terrible
as they were on our side, they were even more damaging
to the enemy." Having crossed the James River about
June 15, the Union army commenced the long siege of
Petersburg, near which several actions were fought in
July and August. (See GRANT, ULYSSES S.)

In February or March, 1865, General Lee was appointed
commander-in-chief of all the Confederate armies. During
the winter of 1864-65 the army of Virginia had been
mostly inactive, and greatly trammelled by the necessity
of defending Richmond ana Petersburg. About the 301(1
of March the armies operating against these cities began
to move, and to cut the Danville and Southside Railroads,
by which Lee's army received supplies. The right wing
of his army was defeated by General Sheridan at Five
Forks on the 1st of April, and General Grant made a
general and successful assault on the works at Peters-
burg on the 2d. General Lee evacuated Richmond and
Petersburg in the night of April 2, and retreated towards
Danville with about 35,000 men. He was pursued by
the cavalry under General Sheridan, who attacked him



on the 6th near the Appomattox River and took about
6000 prisoners. He received pacific overtures from
General Grant on the 7th, and surrendered his army at
Appomattox Court-House on the 9th of April, 1865. It
was then agreed by the contracting parties that " each
officer and man will be allowed to return to his home,
not to be disturbed by United States authority so long
as they observe their paroles and the laws in force where
they reside." Soon after the end of the war, General Lee
became president of Washington College, at Lexington,
Virginia. Speaking of the character of Lee as a general,
Mr. Greeley remarks that he knew how to make the
most of a good defensive position, " the single point in
which (but it is a vital one) his admirers can justify
their claim for him of a rare military genius." He
died, at Lexington, October 12, 1870.

Lee, (SAMUEL,) D.D., an eminent English Orientalist,
born at Longnor, in Shropshire, in 1783. He learned
the trade of a carpenter, which he followed for some
years, during which he studied Latin, Greek, Hebrew,
Syriac, Arabic, etc. About 1817 he took the degree of
B.A. a* Cambridge, and entered holy orders. He was
chosen professor of Arabic at Cambridge in 1819, and
professor of Hebrew about 1832, after which date he
obtained the rectory of Barley. He published a Hebrew
Grammar, (1830,) a "Hebrew, Chaldaic, and English
Lexicon," (1840,) an " Inquiry into the Nature, Progress,
and End of Prophecy," (1849,) and other works. Died
in 1852.

Lee, (SAMUEL P.,) an American naval officer, born in
Virginia, became a midshipman in 1825. He commanded
the Oneida in the battle against the forts below New
Orleans in April, 1862, and in 1863 commanded the
North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. He became com
modorein 1866 and rear-admiral in 1870. Died in 1897.

Lee, (SIDNEY,) an English biographer, bom at
London in 1859 and educated at Oxford. He became
assistant editor on the great " Dictionary of National
Biography" in 1883, and principal editor in 1891.
His published works include " A Life of William
Shakespeare," (1898.)

Lee, ( SOPHIA, ) an English dramatist and novelist,
born in London in 1750, was a sister of Harriet, noticed
above. She began her literary career in 1780 by the
" Chapter of Accidents," a comedy, which was success-
ful, and was followed by novels entitled "The Recess,"
(1785,) and "The Life of a Lover." In 1796 she com-
posed " Almeyda, Queen of Granada," a tragedy, of which
Mrs. Siddons performed the principal rtle with applause.
She wrote two of the "Canterbury Tales" published by
her sister, and other works. Died in 1824.

See BOADEN, " Life of Mrs. Siddons," chap. vi. p. 103.

Lee, (THOMAS,) a Virginian planter, distinguished for
his talents, was president of the Council of Virginia. He
was the father of Richard Henry, Francis Lightfoot, and
Arthur Lee. Died in 1750.

Lee, (THOMAS,) an American jurist, born at Charles-
ton, South Carolina, in 1769. He was appointed by
President Monroe judge of the United States district
court for South Carolina in 1823. Died in 1839.

Lee, (WILLIAM HENRY FITZHUGH,) an American
soldier, son of General Robert E. Lee, was born at
Arlington, Virginia, in 1837. He entered the army
in 1857, and became a Confederate cavalry leader in
the civil war, advancing from captain to major-general.
He was elected to the senate of Virginia in 1875, and
was in Congress from 1886 till his death, October 15,
1891.

Lee-Hamilton, (EUGENE JAMES,) an English
author, born at London in 1845, half-brother of the
authoress Violet Paget ( Vernon Lee). He was in the
diplomatic service 1869-75, and published "Poems
and Transcripts," (1878,) "Apollo and Maryas,"
(1884,) "The Fountain of Youth," (1891,) etc., and
translated Dante's " Inferno," (1898.)

Leeb, lap, (JoHANN,) a German sculptor, born at
Memmingen in 1790; died about 1856.

Leech, (JOHN,) an English artist and caricaturist,
born in London about 1816. He is chiefly known as the



S.e, i, o,u,y,/0va,e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, ii, y, short; 3.,e,\,Q,of>siurt; fir, fall, fat: mSt; n6t;good; moon



LEECH



1515



LEFEVRE



designer of the humorous figures which illustrate the
London " Punch." His sketches are excellent as works
of art, though drawn with rapidity and haste. He pub-
lished " Pictures of Life and Character," and " The
Rising Generation," (1848,) which display a rare percep-
tion of the varieties of character and the keenest sense
of the ludicrous. Died in 1864.

See the "North British Review" for March, 1865.

Leech, (SAMUEL V.,) D.D., a Methodist clergyman,
born at Albany, New York, March 17, 1837. He was
educated in the seminary at Cooperstown, New York,
and at Evanston, Illinois, graduating from his theological
course in 1857. He held important pastorates at Annap-
olis, Martinsburg, West Virginia, Baltimore, and Albany,
and did much work for denominational journals. Among
his writings are "The Drunkard," (1862,) " Round Lake
Letters," (1874,) a "Reply to Ingersoll," (1881,) etc.

Leech'man, (WILLIAM,) a learned Scottish theolo-
gian, born in'Lanarkshire in 1706. He was professor of
theology at Glasgow for seventeen years. His lectures
in defence of revealed religion against Voltaire and Hume
are commended. He published a collection of sermons,
and a work " On the Nature, Reasonableness, and Ad-
vantages of Prayer," (1743.) Died in 1785.

Leeds, DUKE OF. See DANBY, EARL OF.

Leemans, la'mans, (CoNRAD,) a Dutch archaeologist,
born at Zalt Boemel in 1809, published an extensive
work "On the Egyptian Monuments of the Museum of
Leyden," (1835-52.) Died October 14, 1893.

Leepe, van der, vin der la'peh, (JAN ANTOON,) a
' ' - -' born at Brussels in 1664,
His execution is easy, his
Among his works is



Flemish
rxcelled



landscape-painter,
marine views.



touch light, and his colour good,
a " Flight into Egypt." Died in



1720.

Lees, (EowiN,) an English botanist and author, born
at Worcester, May 12, 1800. Among his works are
" Affinities of Plants and Animals," " Pictures of Na-
ture," "The Botany of Worcestershire," (1868,) "The
Forest and Chace of Malvern," (1877,) "Scenery and
Thought," (1880,) etc. Died October 28, 1887.

Lees, (FREDERIC RICHARD,) an English total-absti-
nence writer and speaker, born near Leeds, March 15,
1815. He has published many volumes on religion, criti-
cism, health, and physiology, and especially on temper'
ance.

Lee'ser, (ISAAC,) a Jewish theologian and religious
writer, born in Westphalia in 1806, emigrated to Amer-
ica, and became in 1829 rabbi of the principal synagogue
of Philadelphia. Died in 1868.

Leeu, Leuw, or Leeuw, van der, vtn der 16 or luh,
(GABRIEL,) a Dutch painter of animals, born at Dort ir
1643. He worked at Amsterdam, Paris, Naples, anc
Rome with success, and adopted the Italian manner.
His touch was grand and decided. His works represent
flocks of sheep, herds of cattle, etc. Died in 1688.

Leeu or Leeuw, van der, (PiETER,) a painter of land-
scapes and cattle, a brother of the preceding, was born
about 1645. His style resembles that of Van der Velde.
He was a good colorist, and painted with facility. Diec
about 1705.

Leeuw or Leuw, van der, vtn der Ib or luh, (WiL
LEM,) a Flemish engraver, born at Antwerp in 1600
He engraved many works of Rubens, among which is
" Daniel in the Lions' Den," and several works of Rem
brandt, including " David Playing on the Harp." Died
about 1665.

Leeuwen, van, vin luh' wen or 16'wen, ( SIMON,) a
Dutch jurist, born at Leyden in 1625 ; died in 1682.

Leeuwenhoeck. See LEUWENHOEK.

Leeves, leevz, (Rev. WILLIAM,) an English composer,
born in 1749, was the author of the air of " Auld Robin



Gray." Died in 1828.

Lefebure, leh-fa'biiR',
litterateur, born in Paris



(Louis HENRI,) a
in 1754. He wrote a



French
prize



essay against lotteries, besides several treatises on music
and botany. Died in 1839.

Lefebure de Fourcy, leh-fa'buV deh fooR'se',
(Louis,) a French mathematician, born at Saint Do-
He succeeded Lacroix as professor in



scriptive Geometry," (4th edition, 1843,) and "AnalytU
Geometry," (1827.) Died March 12, 1869.

Lefebure-Wely, leh-fa'biiR' vi'le'. (Louis JAMES
ALFRED,) (real name Lefebvre,) a French musician
and composer, born in Paris, November 13, 1817. He
vas best known as an organist, but he was also a versa-
ile and prolific composer. Died December 31, iS6q.
Lefebvre. See LEFEVRE.

Lefebvre, leh-fJvR' or leh-feVR', (CHARLEMAGNK

THEOPHILE,) a 'French traveller, born at Nantes in

Si I , became an officer in the navy. He wrote " Travels

n Abyssinia," (6 vols., 1845-50,) a scientific work ol

much merit Died July 6, 1860.

Lefebvre, (FRANC.OIS JOSEPH,) Duke of Dantzic, a
Drench marshal, born at Ruffach, in Alsace, in 1755. He
was rapidly promoted in the war which began in 1 792, and
jecaine a general of division in January, 1794. He con-
ributed greatly to the victories of Fleurus (1794) and
Altenkirchen, (1796.) In August, 1799, he was appointed
jy the Directory commander of the military division of
which Paris was the head-quarters. On the i8th Bru-
maire he acted as lieutenant of Bonaparte, to whom he
rendered important services in that coup d'etat which
made him dictator. He was made a marshal of the
empire in 1804, commanded the foot-guards at the battle
of Jena, and was rewarded for his success at the siege
of Dantzic in 1807 by the title of Duke of Dantzic. In
the Austrian campaign of 1809 his skill and courage
were conspicuous at Eckmuhl and Wagram. He com-
manded the imperial guard in the Russian campaign of
1812, and defended France at Montmirail, etc. in 1814.
On the return of Bonaparte from Elba, Lefebvre ac-
cepted a place in his Chamber of Peers, and conse-
quently was excluded from that of Lonis XVIII. in
1816. He was reinstated in his military rank in 1819.
Died in 1820. He had the reputation of being one of
the best generals of the army, uniting great intrepidity
with superior judgment, and had the faculty of animating
his men as if by an electric influence. There have
been few men of higher military genius.

Lefebvre, (JULES JOSEPH,) a French painter,
born at Tournan in 1836. He became notable for
the painting of such subjects as "Psyche," "Lady
Godiva," etc., and was elected to the Academy of
Fine Arts in 1891.

Lefebvre or Lefevre, (VALENTIN.) See FEBRE, Lr
Lefebvre de Cheverus, (JEAN Louis ANNE MADM
LEINE.) See CHEVERUS.

Lefebvre - Desnouettes, leh-fivR' dj'noo Sr,
(CHARLES,) COUNT, a French general, born in Paris in
1773. He entered the army in 1792, and was chosen
one of Bonaparte's aides-de-camp in 1800. As colonel
he distinguished himself at Austerlitz in 1805. He be-
came a general of division in 1808, commanded the chas-
seurs of the emperor's guard in 1809, and was employed
near Napoleon's person in Russia, (1812.) At the first
restoration he was retained in his command by Louis
XVIII. ; but he joined the standard of Bonaparte in
March, 1815, and fought at Waterloo. Having been
condemned to death by a council of war, he escaped to
the United States in 1816. He perished in the wreck
of the Albion packet-ship, as he was returning to Europe,
in April, 1822.

Lefevre. See CAUMARTIN, DACIER, FEVRE, LE-
FEBVRE, and FABER, (JEAN.)
Lefevre, (CHARLES SHAW.) See EVERSLEY.
Lefevre or Lefebvre, (CLAUDE.) See FEVRE, Lt
Lefevre, leh-favR 7 , (JEAN,) a French astronomei,
born at Lisieux, became a member of the Academy of
Sciences in 1682. He edited the "Connaissances des
Temps" from 1684 to 1701. Died in 1706.

Lefevre, (JEAN JACQUES,) a liberal French publisher,
born at Neufchateau in 1779, settled in Paris in his
youth. He published excellent editions of many Greek,
Latin, and French classics, for some of which he wrote
notes. Died in 1858.

Lefevre, (NICOLAS,) an able French chemist, ei
grated to England in 1664 at the invitation of Charles
II., who gave him the direction of a laboratory in



m ngo in 1785. lie succeedea Lacroix as proiessor -.- - - , i,v, nr ,, nrv ; n hi.

the Facult^ of Sciences in Paris, and published "De- H-. "ho gave him the direcl

. as t. -5 as s: g hard: g as ,; G, H, K,g,.ttural; N, nasal; R, trilled: s as ,; %h as in M. <H=See Explanations, p. 23. )



LEFEVRE



1516



LEGENDR&



palace. He wrote "Theoretical and Practical Chem-
istry," (1660.) Died in 1674.

Lefevre, (PIERRE FRANCOIS ALEXANDRA) a French
dramatist and poet, born in Paris in 1741, produced
tragedies entitled "Zuma," (1776,) and "Elisabeth de
France," (1783,) also "Gustavus Vasa," an epic poem.
Died in 1813.

Leffevre, (PIERRE PAUL,) a bishop, born April 30,
1804, at Roulers, Belgium. He was ordained a Catholic
priest in 1831 at Saint Louis, Missouri, and in 1841 was
consecrated Bishop of Zela and administrator of the
diocese of Detroit. Died at Detroit, March 4, 1869.

Leffevre, (ROBERT,) a French portrait-painter, born
it Bayeux, in Calvados, in 1756, removed to Paris in
1784. Having acquired a high reputation, he painted
portraits of Napoleon and Josephine, which were so
much admired that more than twenty copies were or-
dered by various cities, courts, and other parties. About
1815 he received the title of first painter to the king.
Died in 1830.

Lefevre or Lefebvre, leh-fivR', (TANNEGUI or TAN-
NEGUY, ttn'ge',) [Lat. TANAQUIL'LUS FA'BER,] an emi-
nent French scholar and critic, born at Caen in 1615, was
the father of the renowned Madame Dacier. He was
appointed by Cardinal Richelieu inspector of the royal
printing-establishment in Paris. After the death of
Richelieu he joined the Ptotestants, and was chosen a
professor in the Academy of Saumur about 1655. He
published annotated editions of Lucretius, (1662,) Lpn-
ginus, (1663,) Horace, (1671,) Virgil, and other classics,
and translated into French several Greek works. Died
in 1672.

See F. GRAVKROL, " Mi?moires pour servir 4 la Vie de T. Le-
fevre," 1686: NiciRON, "Me'moires;" MM. HAAG, "La France
Drotestante :" "Nouvelle Biographic G^n^rale."

Lefevre de la Boderie, leh-fivR' deh It bod're',
(Guv,) a French Orientalist, born near Falaise in 1541.
He co-operated with Arias Montanus in the Polyglot
Bible of Antwerp, for which he edited and translated
into Latin the Syriac version of the New Testament,
(1572.) He also wrote some poems. Died in 1598.

Lefevre d'E'taples, leh-ftvR' da'ttpl', [Lat. FA'BER
STAPULEN'SIS,] (JACQUES,) an eminent French scholar
and theologian, born at Staples about 1455. He was
condemned as a heretic by the Sorbonne, but was justi-
fied by Francis I., who employed him as preceptor to
his son. Lefevre produced the first complete French
version of the Bible, (1530.) His version is used in the
French Protestant churches. He wrote commentaries
on the works of Aristotle. Erasmus expressed veneration
for his character, (singularem vita sanctimoniam veneror.)
Died in 1537.

See C. H. GRAP, " Essai sur la Vie et les ficrits de J. Lefevre
d'Etaples," 1842; BAYLK, "Historical and Critical Dictionary;"
HAAG, " La France protestante ;" " Nouvelle Biographic Geflliale."

Lefevre de Saint-Remy, leh-fSvR' deh saN ra'me',
(JEAN,) a French chronicler, born near Abbeville about
1304 ; died in 1468.

' Lefevre-Deumier, leh-fJvR' duh'me-4', JULES,) a
French poet, born about 1804. He Became private
librarian of President Louis Napoleon in 1849, and
librarian at the Tuileries in 1852. Died in 1857.

Leflo, leh-flo', (ADOLPHE CHARLES EMMANUEL,) a
French general, born at Lesneven in 1804. He was sent
as ambassador to Russia in 1848, was banished in 1852,
but returned to France in 1859. He took an active part
in the defence of Paris in 1870, and was ambassador to
Russia from 1871 to 1879. Died November 16, 1887.

Lefort or Le Fort, leh-foR.', (FRANC.OIS,) a Swiss
general, was born at Geneva in 1656. He entered the
Russian service, and fought several campaigns against
the Turks before the peace of i6Sr. He rendered valu-
able service to the Czar Peter in his contest with Sophia,
his sister and rival ; and when that prince triumphed, in
1689, Lefort became his favourite and chief minister, a
dignity which he merited by his virtues and talents. He
gave wise counsels to the young autocrat, and was the
author of many of the reforms which marked that reign.
Lefort was appointed general-in-chief and admiral about
1693. Died in 1699.

Lefranc. See POMPIGNAN.

Lefranc, (MARTIN.) See FRANC, LE.



Lefranc, leh-fRON', (VICTOR,) a French advocate and
writer, born at Garsin in 1809; died in 1883.

Lefran9ais. See LALANDE.

Lefren, la'fRen or Ifi'fRln, (LARS ULOF,) a Swedish
Orientalist, born in 1722; died in 1803.


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 80 of 425)