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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Lefuel, leh-fu-e'l', (MARTIN HECTOR,) a French archi-
tect, born at Versailles in 1810. In 1853 he succeeded
Visconti as architect of the structures by which the
Louvre is joined to the Tuileries. He designed the
fafades and distributed the interiors of this work, which
was finished in 1857. He designed the palace of the
Universal Exposition of 1855. Died January I, 1881.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'raJe."

Le Gallienne, ( RICHARD, ) an English author and
journalist, was born at Liverpool in 1866, and became
a journalist in London in 1891. He published several
volumes of poetry and prose, beginning with " My
Lady's Sonnets," (1887,) also translated in verse the
poems of Omar Khayyam.

Legalloi8 or Le Gallois, l?h-ga'lwa', (JuLiEN JEAN
CESAR,) a French physiologist, born near Dol, in Bre-
tagne, in 1770. In 1801 he took the degree of M.D.,
and wrote an able treatise entitled " Is the Blood iden-
tical in all the Vessels through which it passes ?" He
merited a high rank among physiologists and experi-
menters by his " Experiments on the Principle of Life,
especially on that of the Movements of the Heart and
on the Seat of this Principle," (1812.) Died in 1814.

Le Gallois, (PIERRE,) a French bibliographer,
born at Paris. He published " Academic Conversa-
tions," (1674,) and a "Treatise on the Finest Li-
braries of Europe," (1680.)

Legare, pronounced leh-gree', (HUGH SWINTON,) an
American statesman and scholar, of Huguenot descent,
was born at Charleston, South Carolina, January 2, 1797.
He graduated at the South Carolina College about 1815,
after which he pursued his studies in Paris and Edin-
burgh. He was well versed in Greek and other lan-
guages. He also studied law, and gave much attention
to juridical philosophy. In 1830 he was elected attorney-
general of South Carolina. He contributed many able
articles to the " Southern Review," and was an adherent
of the Union when nullification was agitated in his State.
Having served as charge-d'affaires at Brussels for about
three years, he returned home in 1836, and was elected
by the voters of Charleston a member of Congress, in
which he served one term, (1837-39.) As a lawyer he
stood high in his profession. In 1840 he advocated the
election of General Harrison to the Presidency by several
eloquent speeches in New York, Virginia, etc. He was
appointed in September, 1841, attorney-general of the
United States under President Tyler. He died at Boston
in June, 1843. Among his writings are an "Essay on
Classical Learning," an " Essay on Roman Literature,"
and "The Constitutional History of Greece."

Legare, (Bullen,) (MARY SWINTON,) sister of Hugh
S. Legare, noticed above, was born at Charleston, South
Carolina, about 1800. She has acquired distinction as an
artist

Legazpi, de, da 14-gath-pee', (MIGUEL LOPEZ,) a
Spanish commander, born at Zubarraja. He went to
Mexico in 1545, and commanded an expedition sent in
1 564 against the Philippine Isles, which he conquered
ab.iut 1565-70. Died in 1572.

Legendre or Le Gendre, leh-zh&NdR', (ADRIEN
MARIE,) an eminent French geometer, and one of the
most profound analysts of his time, was born at Tou-
louse in 1752. He was educated at Mazarin College,
Paris, and in early life obtained a chair of mathematics
in the Ecolc militaire of that city. Having written a
prize essay on the balistic problem, and a memoir on
the attraction of spheroids, (1782,) he was admitted into
the Academy of Sciences in 1783. He was associated
in 1787 with Cassini and Mechain in the operation to
connect the Observatories of Paris and Greenwich by a
series of triangles. In 1794 he published his admirable
" Elements of Geometry," which has been extensively
used as a text-book in various languages, and has done
more to popularize his name than any other work. He
was a member of the bureau of longitudes, and from



a. e. i.



<ig i. . o, - .inie, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short: a, e, i, o, ol'scure: far. fill, fat; mft; ndtjgood; moon;



LEGENDRE



LEGOYT



1807 to 1815 an honorary councillor of the Imperial
University. In 1807 he produced an important work
called " Exercises on Integral Calculus," etc., ("Exer-
cices de Calcul integral sur divers Ordres de Transcen-
dantes," 3 vols.,) which contains his discoveries on the
subject of elliptic functions. This subject was more
fully developed in his "Traite des Fonctions elliptiques
et des Integrates Euleriennes," (3 vols., 1827.) He also
made valuable additions to the theory of numbers, on
which he published an essay. Died in 1833. Laplace,
Lagrange, and Legendre formed a mathematical trium-
virate, which the French consider entitled to 'pre-
eminence among European geometers of that age.

See "Nouvelle Biographic Gf'ne'rale;" " Memoir of Legendre"
in the " Report of the Smithsonian Institution" for 1867, translated
from the French of fiuE DB BEAUMONT; "North American Re-
view" for July, 1828.

Legendre, (Louis,) a French historian, born at
Rouen in 1655. He became a canon of the church of
Notre-Dame, Paris, and published, besides other works,
a " History of France, ending at the Death of Louis
XIII.," (3 vols., 1718.) Died in 1733.

Legendre, (Louis,) a subaltern demagogue of the
French Revolution, born in 1756. He was deputed in
1792 to the Convention, in which he voted with the
"Mountain." "He was," says Lamartine, "the most
courageous friend of Danton, and was by turns the
agitator and moderator of the people." The next day
after the arrest of Danton, Legendre openly defended
him in the Convention by a speech. Died in 1797.

Legendre, (NICOLAS,) a French sculptor, born at
Etampes in 1619, worked in Paris. His subjects are
chiefly religious. Died in 1671.

Le Gentil. See LA BARBINAIS.

Legentil de la Galaisiere, leh-zhoN'te' deh II gr-
14'ze-aiR', (GUILLAUME JOSEPH HYACINTHS JEAN BAP-
TISTET) a French astronomer and traveller, born at
Coutances in 1725. In 1769 he went to Pondicherry to
observe the transit of Venus, but failed, because the sun
was hidden by clouds. He published a "Voyage in the
Indian Seas," (1779,) which contains valuable observa-
tions on monsoons, currents, and tides, and information
respecting the manners, religion, and science of the
Hindoos. Died in 1792.

See JEAN DOMINIQUE CASSINI, " loge de M. Ltgentil," 1810.

Leger, li'zha' or la'zhaiR', (ANTOINE,) a Protestant
divine, born in Savoy in 1594. He was professor of
theology and Oriental languages at Geneva from 1645
until his death, in 1661. He published a Greek edition
of the New Testament, (1638.)

Leger, (ANTOINE,) a son of the preceding, was born
in Geneva in 1652, and was ordained a minister. He
filled the chair of philosophy for twenty-four years at
Geneva with eminent success. He published several
scientific treatises and many sermons. Died in 1719.

Leger, QEAN,) a cousin of the preceding, was born
in Savoy in 1615. He was a pastor of a church of the
Waldenses, and, having escaped from the massacre of
1655, he went to France, and solicited the intervention
of the court for his countrymen. In 1663 he became
pastor of a Walloon church in Leyden. He wrote a
" History of the Churches of the Valleys of Piedmont,"
(the Waldenses, 1669.) Died about 1670.

See " Abre'ge' de la Vie de Jean LiSger, teite par lui-meme," ai
the end of his " History of the Waldenses."

Leger, SAINT. See SAINT-LEGER.

Legge, %, (GEORGE,) Lord Dartmouth, an English
admiral, born about 1648. He distinguished himself in
the war against the Dutch in 1671, was made Baron of
Dartmouth in 1682, and admiral in 1683. At the acces-
sion of James II., in 1685, he was appointed master ol
the horse and general of the ordnance. He commandec
the fleet in 1688, and made an ineffectual effort to pre
vent the landing of the Prince of Orange. After taking
the oath to William III., he joined a Jacobite conspirac;
in 1690. " He laid a plan," says Macaulay, " for betray
ing Portsmouth to the French." He was arrested foi
treason, and sent to the Tower, where, after a shor
confinement, he died of apoplexy in 1691.

Legge, (JAMES,) LL.D., an eminent British scholar



born at Huntly, in Scotland, December 20, 1815.
ie was educated at Aberdeen and London, went to
Halaccaand Hong-Kong as a missionary, and in 1876
was appointed professor of Chinese at Oxford. He
niblished annotated translations of several important
Chinese classics, and was author of " The Notions'of
he Chinese respecting God and Spirits," (1852,)
' Life of Confucius," and "The Religions of China,"
;i8So.) Died in 1897.

Leg'gett, (WILLIAM,) an American journalist and
niscellaneous writer, born in New York in 1802. In
1828 he founded in his native city a literary gazette en-
itled "The Critic," which was subsequently united with
'The Mirror." To these journals he contributed a num-
)er of spirited tales and sketches, afterwards published
under the titles of " Sketches of the Sea" and "Tales by
a Country Schoolmaster." He married Elmira Waring
n 1828, and became associated with Mr. Bryant as
editor of the " Evening Post" in 1829, and in 1836 estab-
ished "The Plaindealer," (issued weekly,) which soon
acquired a high reputation for its independent spirit and
he distinguished ability with which it was conducted.
He was appointed a diplomatic agent from the United
_tates to the republic of Guatemala in April, 1838, but,
while preparing for his departure, died suddenly, on
the 29th of May, 1838. Two volumes of his political
writings, with a Memoir, were published by his friend
Mr. Theodore Sedgwick, who says, in his preface, " It is
not the suggestion of a too fond affection, but the voice
of a calm judgment, which declares that, whatever public
career he had pursued, he must have raised to his
memory an imperishable monument."

See R. W. GRISWOLD, " Poets and Poetry of America ;" Duvc-
tlNCK, " Cyclopaedia of American Literature," vol. ii. ; " Quarterly
Review." 1828; "Democratic Review" for January, 1840, (with
portrait.)

Legillon, leh-zhe'ydN', (JEAN FRANCOIS,) a Flemish
painter, born at Bruges in 1739; died in Paris in 1797.

Legipont, leh-zhe'p6N', (OLIVER,) a learned monk
and writer, born at Soiron, in Limburg, in 1698; died
in 1758.

Le Glay, leh glj, (ANDRE JOSEPH GHISLAIN,) a
French historian, born at Arleux in 1785. Died in 1863.

Legnani, ln-ya'nee or lin-ya'nee, (STEFANO,) an
Italian painter, also called Legnanino, born at Milan in
1640, was a pupil of Cignani and Carlo Maratta. H
painted frescos at Milan. Died in 1715.

See E. CORAZZI, " Elogio storico di S. Legnani," 1720.

Legobien, leh-go'be^N', (CHARLES,) a French Jesuit,
born at Saint-Malo in 1653, became secretary of the
missions to China. He published, about 1702, a collec-
tion of letters from missionaries in China, etc., entitled

Lettres edifiantes et curieuses ecrites des Missions
e'trangeres." This interesting publication was continued
by Duhalde. Died in 1708.

Le Gonidec, leh go'ne'dek', (JEAN FRANCOIS MARIE,)
a French philologist, born at Conquet, in Bretagne, in
1775. He published a good " Dictionnaire Breton-
Fran9ais," (1821.) Died in 1838.

Legote, la-go'ta, (PABLO,) a Spanish painter, born
about 1600 ; died at Cadiz about 1670.

Legouv6, leh-goo'vi', (ERNEST WILFRID,) a French
poet and novelist, born in Paris in 1807. He obtained a
prize of the French Academy for his poem " On the In-
vention of Printing," (1829,) and produced several dramas.
He was admitted into the French Academy in 1855.

SeeQuBRARD, "La France Litte'raive."

Legouv6, (GABRIEL MARIE JEAN BAPTISTS,) a French
dramatic poet, father of the preceding, was born in Paris
in 1764. He produced "The Death of Abel," (1792,)
which was very successful, and other tragedies. He be-
came a member of the Institute in 1798. His tragedy
"Henry IV. of France" (1806) displays dramatic skill
and elegant diction. He composed several popular
poems, one of which is entitled "Female Merit," ("Me-
rite des Femmes," iSor.) Died in 1812.

Le Gouz. See Gouz.

Legoyt, leh-gwa', (ALFRED,) a French economist and
statistician, born at Clermont-Ferrand in 1815, became



as k: c as s : g AarJ: g asy; G, H, K. guttural; N, ntsal; R, trilled; s as *; th as in this. ( J=See Explanations, p. 23.)



LE GRAIN



1518



LEIBNITZ



chief of the bureau of general statistics, and published
"La France statistique," (1843,) etc - D ' e ^ i" 1869.

Legrain or Legrin, leh-gsaN', (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a
French historian, was born in Paris in 1565. He held
some office at the court of Henry IV., and was master
of requests of the queen Marie de Medicis. He
wrote a History of the Reign of Henry IV., (" Decade
contenant la Vie et les Gestes," etc., 1614,) and "The
History of Louis XIII. from 1610 to 1617," (1618.)
Died in 1642.

Legrand or Le Grand, leh-gRoN', (ANTOINE,) a
French writer and monk, born at Douay, lived about
1650-80. He was professor of philosophy and theology
in Douay, and was a disciple of the Cartesian philosophy,
on which he wrote several treatises. He published a
"Sacred History from the Creation to Constantine the
Great," (1685,) and other works.

Le Grand, (BAPTISTE ALEXIS VICTOR,) a meritorious
French engineer and administrator, born in Paris in
1791. He became engineer-in-chief of the first class,
and in 1834 was appointed director-general of bridges,
roads, and mines. He was elected to the Chamber of
Deputies five times. It is stated that no person con-
tributed more to the success of the vast plan conceived
in his time to increase the riches of France by facility of
transport His moral dignity, public spirit, and various
merits are highly commended by M. Villemain, who
calls him a true model of the able and zealous adminis-
trator. Died in 1848.

Legrand, (CLAUDE JUST ALEXANDRA) a French
general, born in the department of Oise in 1762. As
general of division, he commanded under Moreau at
Hohenlinden, (1800,) and served at Austerlitz, (1805.)
He maintained his reputation at Jena (1806) and at
Wagram, (1809.) He commanded the second corps-
d'armee at the Berezina, (1812.) Died in 1815.

Legrand, (JACQUES GUILLAUME,) an eminent French
architect, born in Paris in 1743, was a pupil of CMrisseau,
whose daughter he married. After he had travelled in
Italy and acquired a pure taste, he was employed as
architect of several public edifices in Paris, among which
are the Halle aux files, (Corn-Market, 1783,) Halle aim
Draps, (Cloth-Market, 1786,) and Theatre Feydeau,
(1790.) Molinos was associated with him in these works.
Legrand published a " Comparison between Ancient and
Modern Architecture," (1799,) and wrote an "Essay on
the History of Architecture," (1809.) Died in 1807.

Legrand, (JOACHIM,) a French historian and abbe\
born at Saint-Lo in 1653, was a person of great erudi-
tion. He was secretary of legation in Spain about 1702,
and was afterwards employed in the foreign office. He
published a " History of the Divorce of Henry VIII. of
England," (1688,) and a few other historical works.
Died in 1733.

Legrand, (Louis,) a French theologian, born in Bur-
gundy in 1711. He became professor or mattre des itudts
in the seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, and published,
besides other works, a " Treatise on the Incarnation of
th? Word," (1751.) He composed the censures which
the Faculty of Theology published against Rousseau's
"Emile" (1762) and Buffon's "fipoques de la Nature."
Died in 1780.

Legrand, (MARC ANTOINE,) a French dramatist and
actor, born in Paris in 1673. He composed a number
of popular comedies, among which are " The Blind
Clairvoyant," (1716,) and "Roi de Cocagne," 1719. Died
in 1728.

Legrand d'Aussy, leh-gRoN' do'se', (PIERRE JEAN
BAPTISTE,) a French littlratmr, born at Amiens in 1737.
He wrote, besides other works, " Fabliaux, or Tales of
the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries," (1779.) In 1795
he was chosen keeper of the French manuscripts of the
National Library. Died in 1800.

Legranzi, 15-gRan'zee, or Legrenzi, la-gRen'zee,
(GIOVANNI, ) an Italian composer, born near Bergamo
about 1625 ; died about 1690.

Legras, leh-gRa', (ANTOINE,) a French scholar and
writer, born in Paris about 1680. He published, besides
other works, "The Works of the Fathers who lived in
the Time of the Apostles, with Notes," (1717.) Died
in 1751.



Legraverend, leh-gRiv'RdN', (JEAN MARIE EMA-
NUEL,) a French jurist, born at Rennes in 1776, published
a "Treatise on Criminal Legislation in France," (1816,)
and other approved works. Died in 1827.

Legrenzi. See LEGRANZI.

Legrin. See LEGRAIN.

Legroing de la Maisonneuve, leh-gRwaN' deh
li mi'zo'nuv', (FRANCOISE THERESE ANTOINETTE,)
COUNTESS, a French authoress, born in Lorraine in 1 764.
She wrote " Zenobia," a novel, (1800,) an " Essay on the
Education of Women," (iSoi,) and a " History of the
Gauls and of France from the Earliest Times to the End
of the Reign of Hugh Capet," (1830.) Died in 1837.

Legros, lijh-gRo', (ALPHONSE,) a French painter,
born at Dijon in 1837. He resided in England after
1863, and in 1876 became Slade professor of art at
University College, London. He aided in the revival
of etching, and made bronze medallions of Darwin,
Tennyson, etc.

Legros or Le Gros, leh-gRo', (NICOLAS,) a French
Jansenist theologian, born at Rheims in 1675. He passed
the last twenty-five years of his life in Holland, to which
he retired for refuge from persecution. Among his works
are a French translation of the Bible, (1739,) which is
esteemed for fidelity, and a " Manual for the Christian,"
(1740.) Died in 1751.

Legros, (PIERRE,) a French sculptor, born in Paris
in 1666. He studied in Rome, where he executed many
admired works. His statue of Saint Dominic is reckoned
among the master-pieces of the Basilica of Saint Peter.
He also adorned the chateau of Versailles. He sacri-
ficed less to the depraved taste of the time than most
other French artists. Died in Rome in 1719.

Le Guaspre. See DUGHET.

Lehmann, la'min, (CHRISTIAN GOTTFRIED WIL-
HELM,) a German scholar, born at Halberstadt in 1765.
He published a " Summary of the Natural History of
Man," (1799.) Died in 1823.

Lehmann, (HEINRICH,) a skilful German painter of
history and portraits, born at Kiel in 1814. He became
in youth a resident of Paris, where he obtained medals
of the first class in 1840, 1848, and 1855, and was em-
ployed by the emperor to adorn the palace of Luxem-
bourg. Died in April, 1882.

Lehmann, (JOHANN GEORG,) a German topographer
born in 1765, invented about 1793 a new method of sur
vexing, since called by his name. Died in 1811.

Lehmann, (JOHANN GEORG CHRISTOPH,) a German
botanist, born about 1794, was professor of botany at
Hamburg. He wrote monographs of several genera,
and other works. Died in 1861.

Lehmann, (JOHANN GOTTLOB,) a German philoso-
pher, who acquired a European reputation as a mine-
ralogist. In 1761 he removed from Berlin to St.
Petersburg, and received a professorship in the
Academy of that city. He published a work on min-
eralogy for the use of schools, (1759,) etc. Died in
1767.

Lehmann, (RUDOLF,) a painter, and a brother
of Heinrich, was born at Hamburg in 1819. He
worked mostly in Rome, and received medals at the
Salon of Paris. Many of his works represent the
manners, costumes, and scenery of Italy. He pub-
lished "An Artist's Reminiscences," (1894,) "Men
and Women of the Century," (1896,) etc.

Lehoc, leh-ok', (Louis GREGOIRE,) a French littfra-
(fur, bom in Paris in 1743. Among his works is "Pyr-
rhus," a tragedy, (1807.) Died in 1810.

Lehrberg, laR'biRG, (ARON CHRISTIAN,) a Russian
scholar, bom at Dorpat, in Livonia, in 1770. He re-
moved to Saint Petersburg, and wrote " Inquiries into
the Early History of Russia," (1814.) Died in 1813.

Le Huirou, leh hu-i'Roo', (JULIEN MARIE,) a French
historian, born at Prat in 1807. He wrote on the history
of the Franks, Gauls, etc. Died in 1843.

Leibnitz or Leibniz, von, fon lib'nlts or lip'nlts,
[Lat LEIBNITZ'IUS,] (GOTTFRIED WILHELM,) BARON, a
German philosopher and mathematician of the first



a, e, I, 6, u, y, /onf/a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, U, y, short; a, e, i, p, obscure; far, fall, fat; m5t; not; good; moon;



LEIBNITZ



1519



LEIDY



order, pre-eminent among the moderns as a universal
genius, was born at Leipsic on the 6th of July, 1646.
He was a son of Friedrich Leibnitz, professor of moral
philosophy at Leipsic. After learning Latin and Greek
at the school of Saint Nicholas, he entered the University
of Leipsic at the age of fifteen, and studied law, philoso-
phy, mathematics, etc. He acquired a profound know-
ledge of the works of Plato and Aristotle, whose systems
he endeavoured to harmonize. In 1666 he produced a
remarkable treatise on the combination of numbers and
ideas, " De Arte Combinatorial and took the degree of
doctor of laws at Altorf. He accepted in 1667 the office
of councillor of state at Frankfort, and published his
"New Method of Learning and Teaching Jurispru-
dence," ("Nova Methodus discendae docendaeque Juris-
prudentiae," 1668,) an ingen : ous and profound essay on
Roman law, which raised him to the first rank of philo-
sophic writers.

Attracted by a tendency to universality in science, he
meditated the plan of an encyclopaedia, which became
one of his favourite projects, and produced in rapid
succession works on politics, religion, and philosophy,
in Latin and French, for he scarcely ever wrote in his
mother-tongue. He advanced new and bold theories of
motion in his "Theory of Concrete Motion" ("Theoria
Motus concreti") and "Theory of Abstract Motion,"
("Theoria Motus abstract)," 1671.) In 1672 he visited
Paris, where he met Cassini and Huyghens, and declined
to enter the Academy of Sciences with the condition that
he should abjure the Protestant religion. Proceeding
to London, he formed an acquaintance with Newton,
Boyle, and others, and was chosen a Fellow of the Royal
Society. In 1676 he removed to Hanover, having been
appointed by the Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg his coun-
sellor (He/rath) and librarian. About this time he made
the great discovery of the infinitesimal calculus, nearly
identical with Newton's method of fluxions. Many
years later an acrimonious controversy was carried on
between the friends of these two rivals, respecting the
priority of claim to this discovery. A committee of
the Royal Society of London (about 1705) decided in
favour of Newton ; but M. Biot maintains that Leibnitz
anticipated Newton in respect to publicity by a letter to
Oldenburg in 1676, and accords to both the honour of
the original invention. Leibnitz developed the power
of this calculus with a marvellous felicity in its applica-
tion to the theory of curves, to mechanical problems, etc.

In 1682 he became editor of the "Acta Eruditorum"
of Leipsic, a journal which he rendered celebrated. He
wrote in 1693 a treatise on geology, entitled "Protogaea,"
"which," says Hallam, "no one can read without per-
ceiving that of all the early geologists Leibnitz came
nearest to the theories which are most received in the
English school at this day." He was appointed presi-
dent of the Academy of Sciences at Berlin in 1702, with-
out being required to change his residence or to retire
from the service of the Elector of Brunswick. Charles
VI. of Germany gave him the titles of baron and of aulic
councillor, but could not prevail on him to enter his
service. Between 1690 and 1700 he was engaged in a
long epistolary negotiation with Bossuet in order to re-
store the unity of the Catholic and Protestant churches,
lie crowned his career as author by his great work
entitled " Essay of Theodicea on the Goodness of God,
the Liberty of Man, and the Origin of Evil," ("Essai de
The'odicee sur la Bontede Dieu, laLibertede 1'Homme,
et 1'Origine du Mai," 1710.) According to his system,
God is the supreme Reason of the universe, the first and
last term in the series of efficient causes, as in that
of final causes. In forming the world He has realized
the ideal models of truth, beauty, and perfection which
existed eternally in His mind. To the parallelism estab-
lished in the divine mind between the reign of efficient
causes and that of final causes, corresponds another har-
mony, of a superior order, between the kingdoms of nature
and of grace. From the infinite perfection of the divine
attributes he deduces the celebrated theory of Optimism,
that among all possible plans of creation the Almighty
has chosen the best, the one which combines the greatest
variety with the greatest order, in which matter, space,
and time are most wisely economized. He died at Hano-



ver, November 14, 1716. Among his important works


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 81 of 425)