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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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is one entitled " New Essays on the Human Understand-
ing," ("Nouveaux Essais sur 1'Entendement humain,"
about 1765,) in which he controverts the opinions of Locke.
Another of his works is called " Pre-Established Har-
mony," (" Harmonic pre-e'tablie.") His"Monadologie,"
(1714,) in which his metaphysical system is developed,
is one of the most remarkable monuments of his intel-
lectual power. "There was only one man in the world,"
says Hallam, "who could have left so noble a science as
philosophical jurisprudence for pursuits of a still more
exalted nature and for which he was still more fitted ;
and that man was Leibnitz himself." ("Introduction to
the Literature of Europe.") He was never married. His
disposition was cheerful, his manners were affable, and
his habits temperate. A complete edition of his works
has recently been published by Foucher de Careil, Paris.
See FONTENELLE, " E*loge de Leibnitz;" J. A. EBERHARD,
"Characteristik des Freiherrn von Leibnitz," 1817; LAMPRECHT,
"Leben des Freiherm G. W. von Leibnitz," 1740; HISSMANN,
"Versuch iiber das Leben des Freiherrn von Leibnitz." 1783: DB
JAUCOURT, " Vie de Leibnitz," 1734 ; GUHRAUER, " G. W. yon Leib-
nitz, Biographic," 2 vols., 1845 . G. SCHILLING, " Leibnitz als
Denker," 1846; JEAN SYLVAIN BAII.LY, " Eloge de Leibnitz," 1769 ;
JOHN M. MACKIH, " Life of G. W. Leibnitz," Boston, 1845 : EMJL
F. VOGEL, "G. W. von Leibnitz," Leipsic, 1846; DR. F. HOEFER,
article in the "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale;" BtOT, article in th
"Biographie Universelle ;" "Edinburgh Review" for July, 1846
"Atlantic Monthly" for June, 1858.

Leibnitziua. See LEIBNITZ.

Leicester, EARL OF. See DUDLEY, (ROBERT,) and


Leicester, les'ter, OF HOLKHAM, (THOMAS WILLIAM
COKE,) EARL OF, an eminent English agriculturist, was
the son of Wenman Roberts, of Norfolk, and was born
in 1752. His father assumed the name of Coke when
he inherited the estates of his uncle Thomas Coke, who
was Earl of Leicester and a descendant of Sir Edward
Coke. From 1776 to 1832 he represented the county of
Norfolk in Parliament, and was a constant supporter of
the Whig party. He owned a very large and highly-
cultivated estate at Holkham, and became distinguished
for his liberality and zeal in the improvement of agricul-
ture. After the death of the Duke of Bedford (1802) he
was reputed to hold the highest place among English
cultivators. In 1837 he was raised to the peerage, as
Earl of Leicester of Holkham. The last name of this
title was annexed to distinguish him from another Earl
of Leicester. Died in 1842.

Leich, UK, (JOHANN HEINRICH,) a German philolo-
gist, born at Leipsic in 1720, became professor of phi-
losophy at that city in 1748. He wrote the "Life and
Reign of Constantinus Porphyrogenitus," and several
other works. Died in 1750.

Leicbner, liK'ner, (ECCARD,) a German naturalist
and physician, born in Thuringia in 1612. He practised
at Erfurt, where he died in 1690.

Leicbner, (JOHANN GEORG HEINRICH,) a German
painter, born at Erfurt in 1684; died in 1769.

Leichhart, liK'haRt, (LUDWIG,) a German traveller,
born at Trebatsch, in Prussia, October 23, 1813. He
went to Australia in 1841, and there conducted several
important explorations. He was either murdered or
died of starvation on one of these journeys in 1848.

Leidy, li'de, (JOSEPH,) M.D., LL.D., a distinguished
American naturalist, of German extraction, bom in
Philadelphia, September 9, 1823. He graduated as M.D.
at the University of Pennsylvania in 1844, and the same
year commenced the practice of his profession, but soon
abandoned it for more congenial pursuits. In 1846 he
was chosen to the position of chairman of the curators
in the Academy of Natural Sciences. From 1846 to
1852 he gave private courses of lectures on anatomy and
physiology, and in 1853 he was elected professor of
anatomy in the University of Pennsylvania, which position
he held until his death. Besides anatomy, human and
comparative, he devoted much attention to natural his-
tory, more especially zoology and palaeontology. The
third volume of the " Catalogue of Scientific Papers,"
published by the Royal Society of London, gives a list
of one hundred and eleven of his published papers up
to 1860. Among the most important of these are the
" Flora and Fauna within Living Animals," and the

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xplanations, p. 23. )




" Ancient Fauna of Nebraska," both published by the
Smithsonian Institution. Subsequently, besides publish-
ing an " Elementary Treatise on Human Anatomy," he
largely added to his list of scientific papers, among the
most important of these being the " Cretaceous Reptiles
of the United States," published in the " Smithsonian
Contributions to Knowledge," (1865,) "The Extinct
Mammalian Fauna of Dakota and Nebraska," (4to, with
30 plates,) published as the seventh volume of " Jour-
nal of the Academy of Natural Sciences" of Philadelphia,
and the " Fresh- Water Rhizopods of North America,"
(1879,) published under the auspices of the government.
In 1866 he received the degree of LL.D. from Harvard
University. In 1871 he became professor of natural
history at Swarthmore College, in 1884 director of the
department of biology at the University of Pennsyl-
vania, and in the same year president of the Academy
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Died in 1891.

Leigh, lee, (CHARLES,) F.R.S., an English naturalist,
born in Lancashire about 1650. He practised medicine
in London and other cities, and published several works,
the most important of which is a " Natural History of
Lancashire, Cheshire, and the Peak of Derbyshire,"

Leigh, (Sir EDWARD,) an English writer and biblical
scholar, born in Leicestershire in 1602, was educated for
the law. In the civil war he favoured the popular causi,
and was a member of Parliament, from which he was
expelled in 1648 by the extreme opponents of the king.
He displayed much learning in his " Critica Sacra,
or the Hebrew Words of the Old and the Greek of the
New Testament," (1639,) and published a "Treatise of
Divinity," (1646,) and other esteemed religious works.
Died in 1671.

Leighton, la'ton, (ALEXANDER,) a Scottish clergy,
man, born at Edinburgh in 1568. He was professor of
moral philosophy in that city for several years prior to
1613, when he removed to London and obtained a lec-
tureship. For libellous or offensive expressions against
the king, queen, and the bishops in his book called
" Zion's Plea," (1629,) he was punished by the Star
Chamber with mutilation, the pillory, and long imprison-
ment. He was released in 1640, and died about 1646.
Laud appears to be responsible for the cruel treatment
of Leighton.

Leighton, (ALEXANDER,) a Scottish author, born at
Dundee in 1800. He is said to have written nearly all
" Wilson's Tales of the Borders," and published " Ro-
mance of the Old Town of Edinburgh," and several
volumes of sketches. Died December 24, 1874.

Leighton, la'tpn, (FREDERICK,) LORD, an Eng-
lish painter, born at Scarborough, December 3, 1830.
He was educated on the Continent, painting in Ger-
many, France, Italy, and the Netherlands. His
"Cimabue," the first of his pictures shown in Eng-
land, (1854,) is truly a great work of art. His
numerous pictures are often on classical, scriptural,
dramatic, or medieval subjects. In 1878 he was
knighted and made president of the Royal Academy,
was created a baronet in 1886, and raised to the peerage
as Lord Leighton of Stretton in 1896. Died in 1896.

Leighton, (JoHN,) an English artist, born in West-
minster, September 12, 1822. His reputation rests
largely upon his illustrative designs, and especially on
his work as an art-educator.

Leighton, (ROBERT), a British divine of eminent
merit, born in London about 1612, was the son of Alex-
ander Leighton, (1568-1646.) About 1641 he became
minister of the Presbyterian church at Newbottle, near
Edinburgh. Finding that his moderation was unaccept-
able to the contentious spirit and fierce zeal which then
prevailed, he retired from the pulpit, and was chosen
principal of the University of Edinburgh. When Charles
II. resolved to restore Episcopacy in Scotland, (about
1661,) Leighton was made Bishop of Dumblane. About
1670 he became Archbishop of Glasgow. His conduct
was more conciliatory than that of the other bishops.
He had a nigh reputation as a preacher, and published
sermons and other works, which are greatly esteemed.

His commentary on the first epistle of Peter was often
reprinted. In 1674 he resigned his archbishopric, prob-
ably from his abhorrence of the violent contest which
disturbed the Church and State. Died in 1684.

Leighton, (ROBERT,) a Scottish poet, born at Dundee,
February 20, 1822, entered upon a business life, residing
in his later years in Liverpool. His principal book was
"Rhymes and Poems," (1855.) His most famous poem
is " The Bapteesment of the Bairn," published in a later
collection, (1875.) Died May I o, 1869. His brother WIL-
LIAM (born at Dundee, February 3, 1841 ; died at Liver-
pool, April 22, 1869) was also a poet of much promise.

Leighton, (ROBERT,) a British journalist and
author, son of the preceding, was born at Ayr, Scot-
land, in 1859. He engaged in journalism in 1884,
and wrote novels of adventure, such as " The Golden
Galleon," (1897,) "The Splendid Stranger," (1898,)
etc. He married in 1889 the novelist Marie Connor,
and collaborated with her in writing " Convict 99,"

Michael Dred, Detective," and other popular

Leiningen, li'ning-en, [Fr. LINANGE,] a great
family of German princes and counts, having as
branches the families of Leiningen-Billigheim, Lei-
ningen-Neudenau, Alt-Leiningen-Westerburg, Neu-
Leiningen-Westerburg, etc.

Leisewitz, li'zeh-wits', (JoHANN ANTON,) a German
dramatist, born at Hanover in 1752, wrote a popular
tragedy, entitled "Julius von Tarent" Died in 1806.

Leialer, lis'ler, (JACOB,) an adventurer and revolu-
tionist, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, in Germany, emi-
grated to America in 1660, and became a resident of
Albany. He was appointed one of the commissioner!
of the court of admiralty in 1683. In 1689 he was the
leader of a mob which seized the fort and public funds
of New York, " for the preservation," as he said, " of the
Protestant religion." Having declared himself for the
Prince of Orange, he strengthened the fort, and was
proclaimed by his adherents commander-in-chief of the
province. Sloughter having been soon after appointed
Governor of the colony, Leisler was arrested, and exe-
cuted in 1691.

Leismann, lis'man, (JoHANN ANTON,) a German
painter, born at Salzburg in 1604. He settled in Venice,
painted landscapes and battles, and had a high reputa-
tion. His manner is said to resemble that of Salvator
Rosa. Died in 1698.

Leitner, lit'ner, (GOTTLIEB WILHELM,) .Ph.D., a
celebrated linguist, born at Pesth, in Hungary, October
14, 1840. He studied in Brusa, Constantinople, Malta,
and King's College, London. When fifteen years old, he
was a first-class interpreter in the British service in the
Crimea. In 1861 he was made professor of Arabic and
of Mohammedan law in King's College, London. He
afterwards was principal of the Lahore Government Col-
lege, the Lahore Oriental College, registrar of the Punjab
University, (which he founded,) etc. He published many
books on linguistic, archaeological, historical, and ethno-
logical subjects, mostly regarding Asia, and especially
the northwest of India. He was said to speak, write,
and read twenty-five languages. Died in 1899.

Leith, leeth, (Sir JAMES,) a British general, born in
Aberdeenshire, Scotland, in 1763. He served as major-
general under Sir John Moore in the Peninsula, and
took part in the battle of Corunna, in 1809. He was
appointed commander of the forces in the West Indies
in 1814. Died in 1816.

Lejay, leh-zh^', (GABRIEL FRANCOIS,) a French Jes-
uit, born iri Paris about 1660. He was eminent as a
professor of rhetoric in Paris, where Voltaire was hii
pupil. He published, besides other works in Latin,
"Bibliotheca Rhetorum," (" Library of Orators," 1725,)
which is said to be a valuable systematic treatise on
eloquence. Died in 1734.

Lejay or Le Jay, (Gui MICHEL,) a Frenchman, known
by the Polyglot Bible which bears his name, was born
in Paris in '1588. He expended the labour of seventeen
years and a large patrimony in the publication of his

i, e, T, o, u, y, long: a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, ii, v. short; a, e. i, Q, obsc ure; fir, fall, fit; mil; not; good; mnnr




"Bible in Hebrew, Samaritan, Chaldee," etc., ("Biblia
Hebraica, Samaritana, Chaldaica, Graeca, Syriaca, Latina,
Arabica," 1645,) which is a master-piece of typography.
Lejay was assisted in editing this work by Morin, Gabriel
Sionita, and other learned men. He was made a privy
councillor. Died in 1674.

Lejeune, leh-zhun', (CLAUDE,) a famous French
musician and composer, born at Valenciennes about
1540. He received the title of composer to Henry IV.
Died about 1600.

Le Jeune, (HENRY,) painter, born in Flanders in
1819, studied at the British Museum, and in 1841
gained the gold medal of the Royal Academy for his
picture of "Samson bursting his Bonds." He was
curator of the painting school at the Royal Academy

lie Jeune, (JEAN.) See JEUNE, LE.

Lejeune or Le Jeune, (Louis FRANCOIS,) BARON,
a French general and painter, born at Strasburg in 1775.
For his conduct at Austerlitz he was made chef-de-batail-
lon in 1805. He obtained the rank of general of brigade
at Borodino in 1812, and is said to have saved the army
of Oudinot at Hoyerswerda. He painted, besides other
subjects, "The Battle of Marengo," (1801,) "The Battle
of Lodi," (1804,) and "The Battle of the Moskwa,"
(1824.) Died in 1850.

Lejeune, (PAUL,) a French missionary, born in 1592,
laboured in Canada for many years. He published a
descriptive work on Canada and its native tribes, (7
vols., 1640.) Died in 1664.

Lejeune-Dirichlet, (GUSTAV.) See DIRICHLET.

Lekain, leh-kaN', (HENRI Louis,) a famous French
actor, born in Paris in 1728. He was patronized by
Voltaire, who discerned in him the germ of great talent
while he was acting in a private troupe. He made his
dlbut in 1750, and attained a celebrity scarcely equalled
by that of any actor of modern times except Garrick.
Lekain was most successful in tragedy and in the ex-
pression of deep emotion. Voltaire designated him as
the only truly tragic actor. In the latter part of his
career he performed at Berlin, by request of Frederick
the Great Died in 1778.

Le Keux. leh-kooks, f (HENRY,) a skilful English
engraver, born in 1788. He engraved some works of
Turner and Prout, illustrations of Sir Walter Scott's
Poems, etc. Died in 1868.

Le Keux, (JOHN,) an English architectural engraver,
a brother of the preceding, was born in London in 1783
or 1784. He excelled in the engraving of Gothic ar-
chitecture, the principles and details of which he had
diligently studied. His works have contributed much
to the diffusion of a taste for the Gothic style in England.
He engraved part of Britton's " Cathedral Antiquities,"
and of Pugin's "Antiquities of Normandy" and "Gothic
Specimens," and other works. He died in 1846.

Le Laboureur, (JEAN.) See LABOUREUR, LE.

Le'land, (CHARLES GODFREY,) an American littera-
tear, born at Philadelphia in 1824. He published in
1855 "The Sketch-Book of Meister Karl" and "The
Poetry and Mystery of Dreams," a translation of Heine's
" Pictures of Travel," (" Reisebilder," 1856,) " Sun-
shine in Thought," (1862,) "Legends of Birds," (1864,)
"Hans Breitmann's Ballads," (1867-70,) "The Music-
Lessons of Confucius, and other Poems," (1870,) "Gau-
deamus," (1871,) "The Egyptian Sketch-Book," (1873,)
"The English Gypsies," (1873,) "English Gypsy Songs,"
(1875,) " The Minor Arts," (1880,)" The Gypsies," (1882,)
and "Heine's Complete Works," (1891 et s c -j.)

Lel'aud or Laylonde, la'lgnd, (JOHN,) an eminent
English antiquary and linguist, born in London soon
after 1500. He learned the ancient and modern lan-
guages at Oxford and Paris. Having entered into holy
orders, he became chaplain to Henry VIII., who em-
ployed him as librarian and in 1533 gave him the title
of his antiquary, with orders to explore the antiquities
of England. He spent about seven years in collecting
materials for history, and in 1545 compiled his "Account
of British Authors," (" Commentarii de Scriptoribus Bri-
tannicis.") He became insane in 1550, and died im552,
leaving many manuscripts.

Leland, (JoHN,) an English dissenting minister, born
in Lancashire in 1691. He became pastor of a Presby-
terian congregation in Dublin in 1716. In 1733 he pub-
lished an "Answer to Tindal's 'Christianity as Old as
the Creation.'" He wrote other approved treatises in
defence of Christianity, and in 1754 published his chief
work, a "View of the Principal Deistical Writers that
have appeared in England in the Last and Present Cen-
tury." Died in 1766.

See the " Monthly Review" for March, 1754, March, 1755, and
June, 1764.

Leland, (JOHN,) an American Baptist divine, born al
Grafton, Massachusetts, in 1754. He published nume-
rous sermons, and essays on various subjects. Died in

Leland, (THOMAS,) a classical scholar and historical
writer, was born in Dublin in 1722. He took orders, anc 1
became eminent as a preacher. In 1756 he produced
the first volume of an excellent translation of Demos-
thenes' Orations, which was finished in 1770. He was
appointed professor of oratory in Trinity College in 1763,
His principal works, besides the above-named, are a
" History of the Life and Reign of Philip of Macedon,"
(1758,) a "Dissertation on the Principle of Human Elo-
quence," (1764,) and a "History of Ireland," (1773.)
Died in 1785.

See the " Monthly Review" for August, 1758. and September and
November, 1773.

Lelenz, leh-luh', (ADOLPHE, ) a popular French
painter of genre, born in Paris in 1812. Among his
works are " The Spanish Smugglers," and " The Return
from Market," (1847.) Died July 27, 1891.

Leleux, (ARMAND,) a painter of genre, etc., a brother
of the preceding, born in Paris in 1818; died in 1885.

Lelewel, la-la'vel, ? (JOACHIM,) one of the most emi-
nent Polish historians of modern times, was born at
Warsaw in 1786. He conspired with the insurgents at
Warsaw against Constantino of Russia in November,
1830, and was proposed for dictator; but Chlopicki was
preferred. Lelewel held several high offices in the new
government for a short time, until the victories of the
Russians drove him into exile in 1831. After 1833 he
resided at Brussels. Among his most popular works
are a " History of Poland," (1829,) a " History of Poland
under Stanislas Augustus," (1831,) and " Poland of the
Middle Ages," (1846-51.) He published (in French) an
important work on "Mediaeval Geography," (1852,) and
various other books. Died in 1861.

See L. CHODZKO, "Notice biographique sur J. Lelewel," 4tb
edition, 1834.

Lelli, lel'lee, (ERCOLE,) an Italian painter and modeller
of the Bolognese school, born in 1702. He excelled in
the art of anatomical preparations. Died in 1766.

Leloir, leh-lwjR', (Louis AUGUSTE,) a French painter,
born in Paris, March 15, 1843. He became one of the
most graceful and refined of recent French painters,
ranking very high as a draughtsman, a colourist, and a
designer. Died in 1884.

Lelong, leh-16N', JACQUES,) a French priest and
bibliographer of high reputation, bom in Paris in 1665,
was learned in languages and literary history. He be-
came librarian in the Maison Saint-Honore, at Paris.
Among his principal works are " Bibliotheca Sacra ; or,
Syllabus of nearly all Editions and Versions of the
Scriptures," (2 vols., 1709,) and "Bibliothequehistorique
de la France," (1719,) containing a catalogue of works
which treat on French history, with notes. An enlarged
edition of the latter was published by Fevret de Fon-
tette, (5 vols., 1768-78.) Died in 1721.

Le Lorrain, leh lo'rlN', (Louis JOSEPH,) a French
engraver and mediocre painter, born in Paris in I7'5J
died in Saint Petersburg in 1 760.

Lelorrain or Le Lorrain, (ROBERT,) a French sculp-
tor, born in Paris in 1666, was a pupil of Girardon. He
was chosen a member of the Royal Academy in 1701.
His works display good talents, but are censured for
mannerism. Died in 1743.

Lelut, la'lii', (Louis FRANCOIS,) a French physician,
born in Haute-Sa&ne in 1804. He wrote able treatise!
on psychology, insanity, etc. Died January 25, 1877.

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xplanations, p. 23.)




Lelf, (Sir PETER,) or Van der Faes, v9n d?r (is, a
successful portrait-painter, of Dutch descent, was born
at Soest, in Westphalia, in 1617. He removed to Lon-
don in the reign of Charles I. He excelled in the repre-
sentation of female beauty, and became one of the most
fashionable artists of that time. After the restoration
in 1660, he received the title of first painter to Charles
II., the beauties of whose court were the subjects of
his master-pieces. His works are generally censured for
immodesty. Died in 1680.

Lemaire, leh-m5R', (HENRI,) a French novelist, born
at Nancy in 1756. He wrote, besides other works, "The
French Gil Bias, or Adventures of Henri Lan9on," (3
vols., 1792.) Died in 1808.

Lemaire, le>mSR', (JACQUES,) a Dutch navigator and
merchant, who was director-general of a company which
in 1615 sent an expedition to find a new route to the
Pacific Ocean. He discovered the strait which bears
his name and separates Staten Land from Terra del
Fuego, in 1616, doubled Cape Horn for the first time,
and sailed to the East Indies. He died at sea in 1616.
C. Schouten was captain of the ship which made this

See A. G. CHOTIN, " Notice sur J. Lemaire, Navigateur."

Lemaire, (JEAN,) a Belgian poet and historian, born
in Hainault about 1473. He entered the service of
Margaret of Austria as librarian. His principal work
is entitled " Illustrations of the Gauls," (" Illustrations
des Gaules," 1512.) Died about 1548.

Lemaire, (JEANE MADELEINE,) a French artist,
maiden name Coll, born at Rossoline in 1850. She
exhibited a portrait at the Salon at the age of fifteen,
and continued a prolific painter and book illustrator,
her subjects embracing flowers, portraits, an& genre.

Lemaire, (NICOLAS ELOl,)a French classical scholar
and Latin poet, born at Triancourt (Meuse) in 1767. He
was chosen professor of Latin poetiy in the Faculty ol
Letters, Paris, in 1811. He composed Latin verses with
remarkable facility. Among his productions is a Latin
"Ode on the Birth of the King of Rome," (1812.) He
acquired reputation among classical literati by the pub-
lication of all the best Latin authors, in 154 vols. 8vo,
under the title of " Bibliotheca Classica Latina." This
is said to be the best collection of the classics that exists.
Died in 1832.

Lemaire, (PHILIPPE HENRI,) a French sculptor, a
member of the Institute, was born at Valenciennes in
1798. He gained the first prize in 1821, and studied in
Rome. His design for the fronton or pediment of the
church of Madeleine, Paris, was preferred in 1836. This
rast composition is called his capital work. Died 1880.

Lemaire, ( PIERRE AUGUSTE, ) a French classical
scholar, a nephew of Nicolas Eloi, noticed above, was
bom at Triancourt in 1802. He edited Lucan, Lucre-
tius, and other classic authors. Died in 1887.

Lemaistre, leh-m^tR', (ANTOINE,) a French advocate,
born in Paris in 1608, was a brother of Lemaistre de Sacy.
He acquired a great reputation by his eloquence, and
afterwards retired to the cloister of Port-Royal. He was
a friend of Pascal, and a nephew of Arnauld d'Andilly.
Referring to his published forensic speeches, Hallam
says, " Lemaistre is fervid and brilliant ; he hurries us
ith him. Both Lemaistre and Patru do great honour
to the French bar." He was one of the translators of
the Port-Royal New Testament Died in 1658.

Lemaistre, (JEAN,) a French magistrate, who in 1591
was nominated first president of the Parliament of Paris
by the chiefs of the League. At a critical period in the
contest between the League and Henry IV. he procured
decree of Parliament in favour of the latter, (1593.)
Died in 1596.

Lemaiatre de Saci or Sacy, leh-mitR' deh si'se',
(ISAAC Louis,) a French Jansenist theologian, born in
Paris in 1613, was a nephew of Antoine Arnauld le
Grand. He was ordained a priest in 1650, and became

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 82 of 425)