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Greek grammarian, is supposed to have lived in a later
period. He was author of a small work on grammatical
figures, Hepl Zxrifiarav, which is extant.

See SUIDAS, " Lesbonax."

LescaiUe, 14'kST or l&'ki'ye, (CATHERINE,) a Dutch
poetess, born at Amsterdam in 1649, was called "the
Sappho of Holland." She wrote tragedies," Genseric,"
" Cassandra," " Herod and Mariamne," etc. Died in 1711.

See MURERI, " Dictiotmaire Historique."

Lescaille, (JACQUES,) a Flemish or Dutch poet and
publisher, born in 1610, was the father of the preceding.
Died in 1677.

Lescale. See SCALIGER.

Lescallier, l&TcS'leJi' or 14'kll'yi', (DANIEL,) a
French officer of the marine, born at Lyons in 1743. He
wrote a " French-English Vocabulary of Marine Terms,"
(1777,) and "Travels in England, Russia," etc., (1800.)
Died in 1822.

Lescarbot, la'kaVbo', (MARC,) a French writer and
lawyer, born at Vervins. He contributed to form the
first French colony in Canada, and, having returned to
France, published in 1609 a " History of New France."

Lescene-DeBmaisonB,l's4n'd&'m|'zoN', (JACQUES,)
a French historical writer, born at Granville in 1750.
He published in 1781 a " History of the Last Revolution
in Sweden," and in 1789 a "Political History of the
French Revolution." Died in 1808.

LeschaBsier, 14'shrse-a', (JACQUES,) a French jurist,
born in Paris in 1550; died in 1625.

Leschenault de La Tour, l^sh'nS' d?h 13 toon,
naturalist and traveller, born at Chalons-sur-Sa6ne in
1773. He travelled in Hindostan about five years, (1816-
21.) Among his works is a "Treatise on the Vegetation
of New Holland." Died in 1826.

Lfis'-ekei [\eaxm] or LeVcheus, [Ato-jojf,] a Greek
poet, born in the island of Lesbos, lived about 700 01
600 B.C. He is the reputed author of a poem called
"The Little Iliad," ('IXi( /uxpa.)

L'Escluse. See L'CI.USE.

Lesconvel, de, deh IJ'kdN'vel', (PIERRE,) a French
writer of fiction, born about 1650 ; died in Paris in 1722.

Lescot, les'ko', (PIERRE,) an eminent French archi-
tect, born in Paris about 1510. Little is known of his
life, except that he was abbe 1 of Clagny. He designed
the Louvre, which was begun about 1541. The part of
this palace called the Facade de 1'Horloge is considered
a master-piece. Another specimen of his good taste is the

: greatest :

See QUATREMERE DE QuiNCV, " Vies des plus illustres Archi
ties :"^' Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

i, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, fl, y, short; ^, e, i, <j, obscure; fir, fill, lit; met; not; good; moon.




Lescun, de, deh les'kuN', (THOMAS DE Foix,) SEI-
GNEUR, a French general, was a younger brother of
Lautrec. He was made a marshal of France in 1521.
After fighting the armies of Charles V. at several places
in Italy, he was mortally wounded at Pavia in 1525.

Lescure, de, de.h 1& kuV, (Louis MARIE,) MARQUIS.
a French royalist and Vendean chief, was born in 1766,
and was a cousin of Larochejaquelein. He was the most
scientific officer in the Vendean army, and was noted for
his cool bravery. He distinguished himself at Fontenay
and Torfou, and was mortally wounded at Tremblaye
in October, 1793. "His humanity," says Alison, "was
angelic. Alone of all the chiefs in that memorable
struggle, it could be said with truth that his glory was
unstained by human blood." (" History of Europe.")


Lescuiel, de, deh la'kii'rel', (JEHANNOT,) a French
poet, who probably lived in the earlier part of the four-
teenth century. Nothing is known of his life. His ex-
tant ballades and rondeaux are of singular grace and

Lesdiguieres, de, deh li'de'ge-aiR', ( FRANCOIS DE
BONNE,) DUKE, a distinguished French marshal, born in
Dauphine in 1543. He fought for the Protestants in
the civil war which began about 1562, and obtained the
chief command of the Protestant army in 1575. He was
one of those who most effectually aided Henry IV. in
obtaining the throne. In 1608 he was rewarded with the
rank of marshal and a dukedom, and about 1610 com-
manded the army in Italy, where he defeated the Span-
iards. He was accused by some writers of conspiring
with other Protestant leaders to form a republic after
the death of Henry IV. ; but he refused to fight against
the court in the civil war that began about 1620. In
1622 he abjured Calvinism, and was appointed Con-
stable of France. Died in 1626. Henry IV. once said
he would acknowledge his own inferiority to no captain
in Europe except Lesdiguieres.

See Louis VIDEL, "Vie du Marshal de Lesdiguieres," 1638:
BRANT&MH, " Vies des grands Capitaines :" DH THOU, " Historia sui
Temporis;" J. C. MARTIN. "Histoire abre'ge'e de la Vie de F. de
Bonne," 1802: " Nouvelle Biographic G^ne"rale."

' Leseur, leh-zUR', (J EAN HAPTISTE CICERON,) a French
architect, born near Kambouillet, October 5, 1794. His
principal books are "History and Theory of Architec-
ture," and a valued " Chronology of the Kings of Egypt "
Died in 1883.

Leseur, leh-zUR', (THOMAS,) an able French geometer,
born at Rethel in 1703. He became a professor of ma-
thematics in the College of Sapienza, in Rome. There
he formed an intimacy with F. Jacquier, whom he as-
sisted in two works, viz., a "Commentary on Newton's
Principia" and "Elements of the Integral Calculus,"
(1748) Died in 1 770.

Leske, leVkeh, (NATHANIEL GOTTFRIED,) a German
naturalist, born at Muskau in 1757 ; died in 1786.


LEsley, (JOHN,) Bishop of Ross, a Scottish Catholic
prelate, chiefly noted for his zeal and fidelity in the
service of Mary Queen of Scots, was born in 1527. He
escorted Mary from France to Scotland in 1561, and was
soon after appointed Bishop of Ross. When Queen
Mary was detained as a prisoner in England, and com-
missioners were ordered to examine her cause in 1568,
Lesley was one of the commissioners whom she chose
to defend her. Having taken part in the matrimonial
intrigue between Mary and the Duke of Norfolk, he was
imprisoned in the Tower in 1571, and released in 1573.
He passed the remainder of his life in exile. He wrote a
Latin work " On the Origin, Customs, and Achievements
of the Scotch," (1578,) eloquent arguments in defence of
Queen Mary, and other works. Died in 1596.

See ROBERTSON, "History of Scotland:" LAING, "History of
Scotland;" BURTON. "History of Scotland," vol. iv. chap. xli. ;
FROUDH, "History of England;" CHAMBBKS, "Biographical Dic-
bonary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Lgs'ley, (J. PETER,) an American geologist, born in
Philadelphia, September 19, 1819, graduated at the Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania in 1838, and at the Princeton
Theological Seminary in 1844. He was engaged upon
the geological survey of Pennsylvania, 1839-41, became

pastor of a church near Milton, Massachusetts, in 1847,
but in 1850 devoted himself to the profession of a geolo-
gist. In 1873 he was appointed professor of geology in
the University of Pennsylvania, and in 1874 was put in

Geological Survey of Pennsylvania," (1875,) etc. He
was an original member of the National Academy of
Sciences, was secretary and librarian of the American
Philosophical Society 1858-85, and president of the
American Association for the Advancement of Science

Lea'lie (Us'le) or Lesley, (ALEXANDER,) Earl of
Leven, an eminent Scottish general. He served some
years under Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, who pro-
moted him to the rank of field-marshal. In 1628 he
defended Stralsund with success. Having returned
home in 1639, when the Covenanters were preparing to
resist Charles I., he was chosen general-in-chief of their
army ; but before any battle was fought a treaty of peace
was made. War was renewed in 1640. Leslie defeated
the king's army at Newburn, and another treaty followed.
He commanded the large Scottish army which, in Jan-
uary, 1644, marched to assist the English Parliament.
Having effected a junction with the army of Fairfax, he
led a division at Marston Moor, (1644,) where he was
driven off the field, though his allies gained the victory.
In May, 1646, Charles I. delivered himself up to the
army of Leslie, then encamped at Newark. On account
of his great age, he resigned his command in 1650. Died
in 1661.

Leslie, (CHARLES,) a British polemical writer on
politics and religion, was born in Ireland about 1650.
He took orders about 1680 in the Anglican Church, and
gained distinction as a disputant against the Catholics.
In the Revolution, however, (1688,) he was a staunch
Jacobite and nonjuror, at the sacrifice of his preferment
in the church. He wrote several controversial works
against the Jews, Deists, Socinians, and other sects. In
his " Snake in the Grass" he attacked the Society of
Friends. After the death of James II., Leslie joined the
court of the Pretender in France. He died in Ireland
in 1722. His most esteemed work is a "Short and
Easy Method with the Deists," (1694.) Dr. Johnson
pronounced him the only one of the nonjurors that
could reason.

See BURKKT, "History of his Own Time;" MORE>I, "Diction-
uire Historique."

Leslie, (CHARLES ROBERT,) an eminent English his-
torical painter, born of American parents in London in
1794, was a brother of Eliza Leslie the authoress. After
passing twelve years in Philadelphia with his parents,
he removed in 1813 to London, where he was instructed
in the study of art by West and Allston. Among his
first successful works was " Sir Roger de Coverley going
to Church," (1820.) He was elected an Associate of the
Royal Academy in 1821, and Royal Academician in 1826.
His subjects are mostly of a homely and familiar char-
acter, illustrative of the works of Shakspeare, Moliere,
Cervantes, and other humorous writers. Among his
most admired productions are his illustrations of "Don
Quixote." He was also successful in portraits. In 1847
he was chosen professor of painting in the Royal Acad-
emy. He published a "Life of John Constable," (1843.)
and a "Hand-Book for Young Painters," (1855.) Died
in 1859. "The more I learn of art," says Ruskin, "the
more respect I feel for Mr. Leslie's painting as such
Given a certain quantity of oil-colour to be laid with one
touch of the pencil so as to produce at once the subtlest
and largest expressional result possible, and there is no
man now living who seems to me to come at all near Mr.
Leslie, his work being in places equal to Hogarth for

See RUSKIN, "Modem Painters;" C. R. LESLIE, "Autobio
graphic Recollections," edited by TOM TAYLOR, Boston, 1865
"Quarterly Review" for April, i8So: "North American Review
fur January, 1861.

Leslie or Lesley, (DAVID,) an able Scottish general
After serving with distinction under Gustavus Adolphus

fiat; 9 as*; ghard; gas/; G, H, K, guttural; N,nasa/; R, trilled; last; th as in MM. (J^T*See Explanations, p. 23.




of Sweden, he returned to Scotland about 1642. He
had obtained the rank of major-general when he fought
against Charles I. at Marston Moor in 1644. The suc-
cess of this action was ascribed chiefly to Cromwell and
Leslie. In 1646 he defeated Montrose at Philiphaugh.
On the resignation of the Earl of Leven, (1650,) Leslie
was chosen commander-in-chief of the Scottish army
raised to restore Charles II. He intrenched his army
between Edinburgh and Leith, and prudently declined
Cromwell's offer of battle. Leslie followed the English
army to Dunbar, where they were reduced to extremi-
ties for want of provisions. Against his own judgment,
he was induced by the clergy to descend from his ad-
vantageous position and offer battle. The result was a
signal defeat of the Scotch, September 3, 1650. Leslie
was second or third in command at Worcester in 1651.
In the retreat from this battle he was made prisoner, and
was confined in the Tower until 1660. He received the
title of Lord Newark in 1661. Died in 1682.

Leslie, (ELIZA,) an American writer, sister of Charles
Robert, noticed above, was born in Philadelphia in 1787-
She was the author of numerous tales and sketches,
which display uncommon powers of humour and satire
and acquired extensive popularity. Among the principal
of these are "Pencil Sketches, or Outlines of Character
and Manners," (1833,) " Atlantic Tales," " The American
Girl's Book," and "Althea Vernon," (1841.) She also
published "The Domestic Cookery Hook," the "Beha-
viour Book," and other similar works. Died in 1858.

Leslie, (FRANK,) pen-name of Peter Carter, born
at Ipswich, England, in 1821. He joined the staff of
the " Illustrated London News," went to the United
States in 1848, and founded " Frank Leslie's Illus-
trated Newspaper" in New York in 1855. He founded
several other newspapers. On his death, in 1880, his
wife assumed the name of Frank Leslie and continued
to publish the " Weekly" and other periodicals.

Leslie, (GEORGE DUNLOP,) an English painter, a son
of C. R. Leslie, noticed above, was born in London, July
2, 1835. He became a Royal Academician in 1876. His
pictures are mostly of a cheerful and domestic kind.

Leslie, (HENRY DAVID,) an English musician and
composer, born in London, June 18, 1822. In 1856 he
founded the Choral Society in London which bears his
name. His compositions are numerous and varied in
nature. Died February 4, 1896.

Leslie, (JOHN,) born in Scotland about 1570, was the
father of Charles Leslie, (1650-1722.) He spoke Latin
and several modern languages. He was appointed
Bishop of Raphoe in 1633, and built a strong* castle,
which he defended against Cromwell in the civil war.
He is said to have been the last in Ireland to submit
to the victor. In 1661 he became Bishop of Clogher.
Died in 1671.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Leslie, (Sir JOHN,) an eminent Scottish geometer and
natural philosopher, born at Largo, in Fifeshire, in 1766.
He was educated at Saint Andrew's and Edinburgh, and
became a resident of London in 1790. In 1793 he pro-
duced a translation of Buffon's " Natural History of
Birds," which was very favourably received. About
1795 he invented the Differential Thermometer. He
published in 1804 his ingenious "Experimental Inquiry
into the Nature and Propagation of Heat," for which
the Royal Society awarded him the Rumford medal. In
1805 he was elected professor of mathematics in the
University of Edinburgh, although the clergy formally
protested against his election, because he had com-
mended Hume's " Theory of Causation." He succeeded
Playfair as professor of natural philosophy in Edinburgh
in 1819, and contributed much to the perfection of the
apparatus and experiments of that department. He
wrote many scientific articles for the " Encyclopaedia
Britannica" and "Edinburgh Review." Among his
separate publications were "Elements of Geometry,"
etc., (1809,) and " Elements of Natural Philosophy,"
(1823.) He wrote an interesting and excellent "Dis-
course on the Progress of Mathematical and Physical
Sciences during the Eighteenth Century," which is one

of the preliminary dissertations in the first volume of
the new edition of the " Encyclopaedia Britannica." His
treatise on " Heat," above noticed, indicates a remarka-
ble original genius, and constitutes an era in the history
of that branch of science. Died in 1832.

Leslie, (THOMAS EDWARD CLIFFE,) an able econo-
mist, born in the county of Wexford, Ireland, probably
in 1827. He was called to the English bar, and in
1853 was appointed professor of jurisprudence and
political economy in the Queen's College, Belfast, but
he lived chiefly in London and on the Continent. His
principal works are "The Land System of France,"
(2d edition, 1870,) "Essays in Political and Moral
Philosophy," (1879,) and a volume on "Land Sys-
tems." Died in 1882.

Leapinaase. See ESPINASSE, DE L'.

Lespinasse, les'pe'nis', ( AUGUSTIN, ) COUNT, a
French general, born at Preuilly in 1737. In 1796 he
fought under Bonaparte in Italy, and directed the artil-
lery at Mantua, Castiglione, and Arcola with great skill,
and obtained the rank of general of division. Died in 1816,

Lesquereux, IJ'keh-RUh', (CHARLES Lfio,) a Swiss-
American botanist, born at Fleurier, near Neufchatel,
November 18, 1806. He was educated at the College
of Neufchatel, was a professor at Eisenach, and later the
head of a college at Chauz de Fonds. When twenty-
five years old, he became totally deaf. He was director
of the exploitation of the peat-bogs of Neufchatel. In
1848 he was brought to the United States by Prof.
Agassiz. Besides two volumes on peat-bogs, (in French,
1844, 1845,) he published " Musci American!," (with W.
S. Sullivant, 1856, 1865,) " Manual of the Mosses of
North America," (with T. L. James, 1884,) and a large
number of monographs and reports on the fossil botany
of North America, chiefly published in connection with
the various State and United States surveys. D. 1889.

Lessart, de, deh l&'sSR', (ANTOINE DE VALDEC,) a
French minister of state, born in Guienne in 1742. H
was appointed minister of the interior about January I,
1791, and minister of foreign affairs in December of that
year. His policy offended the dominant party, which
impeached him in March, 1792. He was imprisoned,
and perished in the massacre of September, 1792.

See I IIIKRS, "History of the French Revolution."

Lesaeps, de, deh 14'sSp', (FERDINAND,) a French
diplomatist, born at Versailles in 1805. He became
onsul at Cairo about 1833, and in 1842 was appointed
consul at Barcelona. During the bombardment of this
city by Espartero, Lesseps performed perilous acts of
humanity, for which he received testimonials of honour
from several governments. He was minister at Madrid
from April, 1848, to February, 1849. In May, 1849, he
was sent to Rome to negotiate a peace between the
popular party and the French army. He was recalled
in disgrace in June of that year, because he was too
favourable to the Roman republic. He projected the
ship-canal across the Isthmus of Suez, which, under his
superintendence, was completed, at a cost of nearly sixty
millions of dollars, and opened in November, 1869. Sub-
sequently (1873-1880) he perfected a plan for the con-
struction of a canal across the Isthmus of Panama, but,
after the expenditure of over $120,000,000, the company
was forced into liquidation. In 1892-93 the manage-
ment was charged with breach of trust, and five direc-
tors were condemned, he being sentenced to a fine and
five years' imprisonment. He was too ill to be taken
from his house, and died December 7, 1894.

Lesseps, de, (JEAN BAPTISTE BARTHELEMI,) a French
traveller and civil officer, born at Cette in 1766. As
interpreter he accompanied La Perouse's expedition in
1785, and on their arrival at Kamtchatka (1787) was
sent home by land with despatches, etc. He published
a Tournal of his Travels from Kamtchatka to France,
(1790.) Died in 1834.

Lesser, les'ser, (FRIEDRICH CHRISTIAN,) a German
naturalist and theologian, born at Nordhausen in 1692.
He became pastor of a church in Nordhausen in 1739.

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, fit; met; not; good; moon;




His most popular work is the "Theology of Insects,"
(1738.) "The plan of this work is excellent," says
Walckenaer; "but the art of describing with precision
and narrating with elegance is not found in it." He also
wrote the "Theology of Stones," (1735.) Died in 1754.
See J. P. F. LESSER, " Nachricht von dem Leben und den
Schrilten F. C. Lessers," 1755 ; MEOSHL, "Gelehrtes Deutschland."

Lesser, de, (A. CREUZE.) See CREUZE DE LESSER.

Leasing, ISs'sing, (GoTTHOLD EPHRAIM,) an eminent
author, regarded as the father of the new era of German
literature, was born at Kamentz, in Upper Lusatia, in
1729. When twelve years old, he was sent to the high
school at Meissen, where he distinguished himself by
his application and his rapid acquisition ol knowledge.
Being destined by his parents to the ministry, he entered,
at the age of seventeen, the university at Leipsic. While
here, his taste for general literature and his fondness for
the theatre caused him to neglect, and ultimately to
abandon, the study of theology, that he might devote
himself wholly to his favourite pursuits. Not to mention
several dramas of minor importance, Lessing brought
out in 1755 "Miss Sarah Sampson," a tragedy, which
was received by the German public with extraordinary
favour, and was translated into other languages. In
1757 he commenced, in concert with Mendelssohn and
Nicolai, the publication of the " Bibliothek der schonen
Wissenschaften," (literally, the " Library of the Beautiful
Sciences,") a literary journal of great merit. He pub-
lished in 1766 his "Laocoon, or the Limits of Poetry
and Painting." This work has exerted a great and per-
manent influence on the science of criticism in Germany,
both in literature and art. In 1768 appeared the " Dra-
maturgie," another critical work, in which Lessing
opposes the French and defends the English drama.
He completed in 1772 his "Emilia Galotti," which has
been styled " the master-piece of German tragedy, as
the ' Laocoon' is the master-piece of German criticism ;"
and in 1775 he brought out his " Minna von Barnhelm,"
regarded as the most perfect of his comedies. His
last important work was "Nathan the Wise," ("Nathan
der Weise,") a sort of controversial drama in iambic
verse, directed against religious intolerance. Our limits
will scarcely permit us to do more than allude to his
various minor productions, nearly all of which, in a
greater or less degree, bear the decided impress of an
earnest, independent, and original mind. We may,
however, mention his " Letters on Literature," (" Lite-
raturbriefe,") his " Education of the Human Race,"
("Erziehung des Menschengeschlechts,") and especially
his " Fables," so rich in wit and original thought : many
of these have a literary application.

One of the great objects for which Lessing earnestly
laboured was to build up a national literature. The
Germans had previously, to a great extent, neglected
or despised the rich native resources of their own
tongue. Lessing sought by precept and example to re-
call his countrymen from the almost exclusive study of
the French, recommending in preference the English
dramatic models, as superior in themselves and better
adapted to the genius of the German people.

In 1760 Lessing was made a member of the Royal
Academy of Sciences at Berlin, and soon after accom-
panied General Tauenzien, Governor of Silesia, as his
secretary, to Breslau, where he resided five years. During
this period he became addicted to gambling ; but this
vice does not appear to have materially interfered with
his application to literature. In 1770 he obtained the
oCce of head librarian of the Wolfenbiittel Library.
Soon after, he discovered and published the famous
" Wolfenbiittel Fragments," (on the discrepancies of the
gospel narratives,) by Reimarus, who, however, at that
time was not known as the author. This publication
brought upon Lessing much censure and reproach : he
was accused of a deliberate design to undermine Chris-
tianity. If, however, we may believe his friend Herder,
he gave those "Fragments" to the public " purely for
the interests of truth, for the sake of freer inquiry and
of examination and confirmation on all sides." A candid
Examination of Lessing's own writings will, we are per-
suaded, go far to justify, if not fully to confirm, Herder's

opinion. The extraordinary activ : ty and incessant appli
cation of Lessing's mind at length wore out his physicaj
constitution. He died at Brunswick 1781, aged fifty-two.

See E. P. EVANS, " Life and Works of G. E. Lessing," from the Ger-
man of ADOLP W. T. STAHR, 2 vols., 1867 ; DANZEL, " G. E. Lessing,
sein Leben und seine Werke," 1850 ; C. G. LSSSING, " G. E. Lessing'i
Leben," etc., 3 vols., 1793; D6RING, "G. E. Lessing's Biographic,'
1853; DILLER, " Erinnerungen an G. E. Lessing," 1841; SCHINK,
" Characterislik G. E. Lessing's," 1825: GROSSMANN, "Lessin^'t
Denkmal," 1791: A. TOLHAUSEN, " Klopstock, Lessing, and Wie-
land," London, 1848 ; H. G. GRAEVH, " G. E. Lessing's Lebensge-
schichte," etc., 1829; F. SCHLSGEL, " Characteristics and Criticisms"
(" Ch.iracteristiken und Kritiken") on Lessing,'' 1801 ; "Charac-
teristics of Men of Genius," by E. P. WHIPPLE, 1840; "Black-
wood's Magazine" for November, 1826, (by DE QUINCEV :) HEDGE,
" Prose Writers of Germany," 1847 " Biographic Universelle."

Lessing, (KARL FRIEDRICH,) an eminent Germin

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 87 of 425)