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See WILKBNS, " Leben des gelehrten Luc* Holstenn_ ' 1723,
NICEKON, "Me"moires," vol. xxxi. ; M5LLER, "Cimbria Literate;**
"Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Holt, (FRANCIS LUDLOW,) an English barrister, was
queen's counsel and vice-chancellor of Lancashire from
1826 to 1844. For many years he was editor of Bell's
" Weekly Messenger." Died in 1844.

a, e, i, 5, u, y, long: i, e, o, same, less prolonged; a, e, I. o, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure: far, fall, lit; mf t; nftt; good; moon;



Holt, (Sir JOHN,) an eminent English judge, born at
Thame in December, 1642, was entered at Gray's Inn in
1658, and called to the bar in 1663. Having become
eminent in his profession, he was chosen recorder of
London; but for his firm opposition to the despotic
measures of James II. he was removed. He distin-
guished himself in the Convention Parliament of 1688,
and at the accession of William III. was appointed lord
chief justice of the king's bench in 1689. In 1700 he
declined the office of lord chancellor. He performed
the duties of chief justice with wisdom, honour, and
courage, until the end of his life. " His name," says
Mackintosh, " never can be pronounced without venera-
tion as long as wisdom and integrity are revered among
men." Died in 1709.

See LORD CAMPBELL, " Lives of the Chief Justices ;" "Life
of Sir John Holt," (anonymous,) 1764; Foss, "The Judges ol

Holt, (JOHN,) an English writer and teacher, born in
Cheshire in 1742. He wrote, besides a few other works,
"Characters of the Kings and Queens of England," (3
vols., 1786-88.) Died in 1801.

Holt, (JOSEPH,) an American minister of state, born
in Breckinridge county, Kentucky, about 1807. He
practised law at Louisville. In March, 1859, he was
appointed postmaster-general. He succeeded John B.
Floyd as secretary of war in December, 1860, and by his
energy and zeal for the Union rendered important
services in the critical times which ensued. About Sep-
tember, 1862, he became judge-advocate-general of the
armv. Died August I, 1894.

Holte, holt, (JOHN,) an English school-master, born
in Sussex about 1470, wrote the first Latin grammar
ever printed in England, which was dated about 1497.

Holtei, von, fon hol'tf, (KARL,) a German poet and
dramatist, born at Breslau in 1797. He produced many
comedies and dramas, among which are "The Old
General," and " Glory and Poverty," a volume of poems,
(1826,) "German Songs," (1834,) and memoirs of his
life, entitled " Forty Years," (1843-50.) Died in 1880.

Holty or Hoelty, hbl'tee, ( LUDWIG HEINRICH
CHRISTOPH,) an excellent German lyric poet, born at
Mariensee, near Hanover, in 1748. He studied at Gbt-
tingen, where he formed friendships with Voss, Stoll-
berg, and others. He supported himself for a time by
translating from the English, and giving lessons, until his
health failed. His elegies, idyls, and odes are admired
for tenderness of feeling, artless grace, and naivetl. He
died prematurely in 1776. The first edition of his poems
appeared in 1783.


and Poetry of Europe ;" notice of Holty i

published by Voss in 1804.

Holtzlinus, holts-lee'nus, (JEREMIAS,) a German
philologist, born at Nuremberg; died at Leyden in 1641.

Holtzmann, holts'man, (ADOLF,) a German philolo-
gist, born at Carlsruhe, May 2, 1810. He was educated
at Berlin, Munich, and Paris, and became professor of
German at Heidelberg, where he died, July 3, 1870.
Among his numerous works are translations of the
" Mahabharata" and the " Ramayana," and an " Old-
German Grammar," of which only one volume has been

His son, HEINRICH JULIUS, born in 1832, published
a large number of theological works, becoming a rep-
resentative of the advanced modern school in theology.

Holub, ho'loop, (Dr. EMIL,) a Bonemian traveller,
born at Holitz, October 7, 1847. He practised the pro-
fession of medicine in the diamond-region of South
Africa, and became a high authority on the ethnology,
geography, languages, and natural history of trans-
equatorial Africa. Among his works are " Seven Years
in South Africa," (1880-81,) "African Colonization,"
(1882,) etc.

Hol'w^ll, (JOHN ZEPHANIAH,) born in Dublin in 1711.
Having studied surgery, he went to India in I73 2 > an< ^
became a member of the council at Calcutta about 1755.
He was one of those who survived the confinement in
the " Black Hole," of which he published a narrative,
(1757.) He succeeded Colonel Clive as Governor of

Bengal in 1759. Holwell also published "Interesting , lle Biographic Giinerale."
as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/'; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.

Historical Events relative to Bengal and Hindostan, with
the Mythology of the Gentoos," (3vols., 1764-71.) Died
in 1798.

Hol'y-day, (BARTEN,) D.D., an English divine, bor
at Oxford in 1593, was chaplain to Charles I. He wrote
" Survey of the World," a poem, and translated Juve-
nal and Persius. Died in 1661.

Holyoak, hol'yok, (FRANCIS,) an English clergyman,
born in Warwickshire about 1567, published a "Dic-
tionary of Latin Words," (1606,) which was enlarged
by his son Thomas. Died in 1653.

HSl'yoake, (GEORGE JACOB,) an Engjjsh agitator,
born at Birmingham, April 13, 1817. He for many years
edited " The Reasoner" and " The Present," organs of
" secularism" in civilization and morals, and was for a
time imprisoned on a charge of atheism, although he
asserted that his system was not opposed to theology,
though apart from it He all his life refused to take an
oath, from which circumstance he incurred much loss.
He published a large number of books, among which
are a " History of Co-operation," (1874,) " Self-Help
a Hundred Years Ago," (iSSS,) "Sixty Years of an
Agitator's Life," (1892,) and "Public Speaking and
Debate," (1895.)

Holyoke, hol'ySk, (EDWARD AUGUSTUS,) M.D., an
American physician, was born in Marblehead, Massa-
chusetts, in 1728. He graduated at Harvard in 1746,
and for seventy-nine years followed his profession with
I eminent success in Salem, where he died, March 31, 1829.
i At the age of ninety-two he performed the operation of
paracentesis, and on his hundredth anniversary partook
of a public dinner given him by the physicians of Salem
and Boston.

See " Memoirs of Edward A. Holyoke," Boston, 1829.

Hol'yoke, (SAMUEL,) an American teacher and com-
poser of vocal and instrumental music, born at Boxford,
Massachusetts, in 1771. He published " Harmonia
Americana," (1791,) "The Columbian Repository of
Sacred Harmony," (1809,) and other works. Died in

HoVy-wood, Hall-fax, or Sac'ro Bos'co, (JOHN,)
a noted mathematician of the thirteenth century, was
professor of mathematics in the University of Paris.
The time and place of his birth are unknown. He wrote
a work entitled " De Sphaera Mundi."

Holzbauer, holts'bSw'er, (!GNAZ,) a German com-
poser, born in Vienna in 1711, produced operas, sym-
phonies, etc. " He has a good style," says Mozart, " and
composes very fine fugues." Died in 1783.

Holzer, holt'ser, (JOHANN,) an eminent German
fresco-painter and engraver, was born near Marienburg,
in the Tyrol, in 1709. He painted numerous frescos in
Augsburg of religious subjects, among which is "The
Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian." He produced spirited
etchings of " The Adoration of the Magi," after Berg-
miiller, of the "Ecce Homo," after his own design, and
of other paintings. Died in 1740.

Homann, ho'man, QOHANN BAPTIST,) a German
geographer and engraver of maps, born at Kamlach, in
Suabia, in 1664. He settled in Nuremberg, and published
many maps, which were more than ordinarily accurate
He formed a large collection of the same, under the title
of "Atlas," (1716.) His establishment, called "Officina
Homanniana," was well known throughout Europe.
Died in 1724.

Homberg, hom'be'RG, (WiLHELM,) M.D., an excel-
lent chemist, born of German parents at Batavia, in Java,
in 1652, came to Europe at an early age. He studied
chemistry and other natural sciences with Otto Guericke
and Boyle, and visited the principal capitals of Europe
in pursuit of knowledge. About 1685 he practised medi-
cine at Rome with success, and in 1691 removed to
Paris, where he was chosen a member of the Academy
of Sciences, to which he contributed many memoirs.
He was patronized by the Duke of Orleans, who chose
him as his first physician. He discovered boracic acid
and Homberg's pyrophorus. Died in Paris in 1715.
See FONTKHBLLK, " filoge de Homberg;" NICERON, "Mi-
ires;" F. HOEFER, " Histoire de 1 Chimie," tome ii. ; "Noo-

Explanations, p. 23.)



Home, (DAVID.) See HUME.

Home, (DAVID,) a Scottish Protestant minister, who
lived in France during the reign of James I. of Eng-
land. He wrote "Apologia Basilica," (1626.)

Home, (Sir EVERARD,) an eminent Scottish surgeon,
born in the county of Berwick in 1756, studied medicine
with his brother-m-law, the celebrated John Hunter.
He practised in London with distinction, and was presi-
dent of the Royal College of Surgeons. He published
" Lectures on Comparative Anatomy," and other pro-
fessional works. Died in 1832.

Home, (HENRY,) Lord Kames, a Scottish judge, born
at Kames m 1696, was called to the Edinburgh bar in
1724. After publishing several legal treatises, which
were well received, he was appointed in 1752 a judge of
the court of sessions, and took the title of Lord Kames.
In 1758 he wrote a valuable work, entitled " Historical
Law Tracts." His greatest work, " Elements of Criti-
cism," (1762,) was regarded by some as an admirable per-
formance, and is highly commended by Dugald Stewart
Dr. Johnson said, "The Scotchman has taken the right
method in his ' Elements of Criticism.' " He was ap-
pointed one of the lords of justiciary in 1763. Died in 1782.

See LORD WOODHOUSELEE, "Memoirs of the Life of Henry
Home," i8of-io, a vols. ; WILLIAM SMELLIE, "Life of Lord
K.vnes," 1800 : CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent

Home or Hume, (JoHN,) a popular Scottish drama-
tist, born at Ancrum in 1724. He was licensed to preach
in 1747, and settled at Athelstaneford. In 1756 he
became at once distinguished by the publication of his
"Tragedy of Douglas," which was performed first at Edin-
burgh with unbounded applause, and is still very popular
on the stage. " I think nobody can bestow too much praise
on Douglas," says Professor Wilson. " There has been
no English tragedy worthy of the name since it ap-
peared." It rendered the author so obnoxious to the
elders of the Kirk that he retired from the ministry.
He was patronized by the Earl of Bute, who procured
him a pension of 300. Home wrote several other
dramas, much inferior to "Douglas," and a " History of
the Rebellion in 1745." Mrs. Siddons once said "she
never found any study [which, in the technical language
of the stage, means the getting verses by heart] so easy
as that of Douglas." Died in 1808.

See SIR WALTER SCOTT'S critique on the " Life and Writings of
John Home," in the "Quarterly Review" for June, 1827; HENRY
MACKENZIE, " Life of John Home," prefixed to a collection of his
works, 3 vols. 8vo, 1822; "Noctes Ambrosianae" for April, 1822;
CHAMBERS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Ho'mer, [Gr. 'O^poc; Lat. HOME'RUS ; Fr. HOMERE,
o'maiR'; Ger. HOMER, ho-maR';* It. OMERO, o-ma'ro,l
the reputed author of the two great epics the " Iliad" ana
the " Odyssey," and the most celebrated poet that ever
lived, is generally supposed to have been born at Smyrna,
or Chios, t (Scio,) and to have flourished about one thou-
sand years before the Christian era ; but both the place
and the century of his birth are involved in the greatest
uncertainty. The best ancient authorities, including
Aristotle and Aristarchus, represent him as contemporary
with the Ionian migration which occurred about one
hundred and forty years after the Trojan war. Of the
two great poems above named, the " Iliad" has been
aptly called " the beginning of all literature." In the
opinion, indeed, of the greatest critics of antiquity, it was

See principles of German pronunciation, in the Introduction.
t If the weight of authorities is m favour of Smyrna, the greater
umber would seem to be on the side of Chios. (See Smith's " Clas-
sical Dictionary.") Byron appears to give the preference to the lat-
ter ; for he calls Homer

"The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle."

Bride of Abytfos, canto ii

It has been suggested (and it seems highly probable) that Homer,
though born at Smyrna, may have afterwards removed to Chios,
where his family, or a branch of it, (the Homeridje,) are said to have
Hired for several generations. Seven different cities are said to have
disputed for the honour of having given birth to Homer, as expressed
m the following couplet by Antipater of Sidon :


X/ivpya, XiiK. KoAo^wc, Idaxi), IIvAot , 'Apyof , Afliji ai.
Literally. " Seven cities (or states) contended for the wise race of
Homer, [i.e. the race or origin of the wise Homer,] Smyrna, Chios,
Colophon, Ithaca, Pylos, Argos, and Athens." Some writers substi-
tute Salamis for Ithaca nd Rhodes ("PoSiw) for Pylos.

not only the beginning, but the end ; it was not merely
the first attempt at the production of a great poem, but
the faultless model which excited alike the admiration and
despair of all succeeding poets. In the words of Aris-
totle, 'Ofajpof . . . tea xo2 diai'oip Travraf irntp$efoj}K.\
" Hie omnes sine dubio," says Quintilian, "in i mini genere
eloquentiae procul a se reliquit" Some other ancient
writers speak in even stronger terms of praise.

Among the ancients, none appears ever to have doubted
that Homer was a real personage, and that he was the
author of the most wonderful poem of antiquity, (the
" Iliad.") But before or about the time of the Christian
era there was a class of critics who denied that the
" Iliad" and " Odyssey" were the productions of the same
author. They were called Xupi'sovrff, or " Separators."
It cannot be denied that there is a remarkable difference
between those works, not in one or two points only, but
in several important respects. Perhaps the most striking
difference is that which exists in respect to the character
of the gods in the two poems. The gods of the " Iliad"
are completely human in their character, unless it be
that they have more than human foibles or vices. They
are capricious and selfish, and seldom, if ever, show
much regard for justice. The deities of the " Odyssey"
appear as the rewarders of merit and the avengers of
sin or crime. There is, moreover, a marked difference
in the spirit or tone of the two poems. To explain this
difference, Longinus tells us that the " Iliad" was com-
posed by Homer when he was in the vigour of life, while
the " Odyssey" was the production of his old age.

Modern critics had seemed disposed to leave the ques-
tion of Homer's age and the authorship of the Homeric
poems very much where they had been left by the writers
of antiquity, until a little before the close of the last cen-
tury, when F. A. Wolf startled the world by announcing
a new theory respecting the Homeric poems, (1795.) He
maintained that, as writing was not in use among the
Greeks until long after the time in which those poems
must have been composed, it would have been wholly
impossible for an^r poet, however great his genius, to
compose and retain in memory even one such work as
the "Iliad" or "Odyssey." For this and other reasons,
he concludes that the two great epics which go under the
name of Homer were really produced by a number of
different authors, and that these separate productions
were, after the introduction of the art of writing, thrown
together as they happened to fit, so as to form a continu-
ous whole. The inconclusiveness, not to say absurdity,
of such a train of reasoning must, we think, be obvious
to every unbiassed mind. We meet, even now, with
persons who by two or three perusals can commit to
memory the whole of such a poem as the " Lady of the
Lake." " Who can determine," says Miiller, " how
many thousand verses one thoroughly filled with his sub-
ject . . . might produce in a year and confide to the
faithful memory of disciples devoted to their master and
his art ?" When we take into consideration the fact
that the mental activity of the ancients, instead of being
divided and diluted among an endless variety of studies
or pursuits, was concentrated and constantly exercised
on a comparatively few, the retaining of even two such
works as the " Iliad" and " Odyssey" will not, perhaps,
seem more incredible than many feats of memory which
are known to have been performed in modern times.
Nor must it be forgotten that the poetry of Homer, unlike
that of many of our great modern poets, is, generally
speaking, remarkable for the simplicity and directness of
its language ; and these qualities, added to the marvellous
facility and animation of the narrative, render the verse
extremely easy to be learned and retained in memory.

The consummate art with which the various parts of
the " Iliad" (though sometimes seemingly disconnected)
are arranged and adapted so as to delay the denouement
and yet to heighten the interest till near the very end,
proves the poem to have been, beyond all reasonable
doubt, the work of one master-mind. But this master-
mind may very probably have used materials prepared

t " Homer has surpassed all [other writers] in diction (or expres-
sion) and in thought"

J " In every kind of eloquence he undoubtedly has left all [others]
far behind him."

I, e, T, 5, 5, y, kng; a,e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1,6, u, Jf, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fit; m!t; not; good; moon:



(or him by preceding poets, just as the consummate
architect, when erecting an edifice designed to be the
admiration of all coming time, may avail himself of the
materials, and, for subordinate parts of the building, even
of the designs, furnished by inferior workmen. There
seem, indeed, to be strong reasons for believing that
before the time of Homer there existed many poems
treating of the events of the Trojan war, and that he, in
selecting and combining the facts necessary to the plot
>f his great work, occasionally adopted some of the finest
l_ies of his predecessors, at the same time changing or
adapting others to suit his purpose, so as to give the
whole poem the impress of his matchless skill and tran-
scendent genius. This supposition will perhaps best
explain the introduction into the poem of such a great
variety of words or phrases differing in different parts of
the work, as well as the marked diversity of dialects. It
is well known that Shakspeare used freely, in some of
his historic dramas, not only the ideas, but, in repeated
instances, the very lines, of some of the poets that had
gone before him. At other times he appears to have
adopted some of the leading ideas, and perhaps many
of the expressions, of previous dramatists, and yet to
have so cast them into the mould of his own mind, and so
coloured them with the hues of his wonderful imagina-
tion, that he may be said to have surpassed the fabled
achievements of the alchemists, and transmuted his crude
materials into something far more precious than gold.

But, while we claim it as a point established, that the
" Iliad" is virtually and essentially the production of a
single poet, we must admit that the question is still un-
decided whether the same Homer was also the author
of the "Odyssey." "If," says the learned and accom-
plished critic already quoted, "the completion of the
1 Iliad' and ' Odyssey' seems too vast a work for one
man, we may perhaps have recourse to the supposition
that Homer, after having sung the ' Iliad' in the vigour of
his youthful years, in his old age communicated to some
devoted disciple the plan of the ' Odyssey,' which had long
been working in his mind, and left it to him for comple-
tion." (K. ( ). Miiller's " History of Greek Literature.")
The prevailing belief that Homer was blind appears to
have taken its origin from one of the so-called Homeric
hymns addressed to the Delian Apollo, the author of
which calls himself the blind poet who lived in rocky
Chios. The hymn in question was considered by some
of the most judicious of the ancient writers to be the
p. oduction of Homer himself; but this view is not ac-
cepted by the best modern critics. The wonderful accu-
racy of many of the descriptions in the "Iliad" utterly
precludes the idea of their having been written by a
poet who had not himself been an eye-witness of the
scenes which he paints so admirably. But he might, per-
haps, have described in his blind old age scenes which
had been indelibly stamped upon his memory in youth
jr early manhood. (See, on the various questions con-
nected with the Homeric poems, Colonel W. Mure's
"Critical History of the Literature, etc. of Ancient
Greece," (1850,) and the able article on " Homerus," in
Smith's " Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography.")
See, in addition to the works referred to in the article, OLOF
CELSIUS, " Dissertatio de Homeri Vita et Scriptis," 1714 ; LuooLPk
KUESTKR, "Historia critica Homeri," 1696; THOMAS BLACKWELL,
"Enquiry into the Life and Writings of Homer," 1735; KOPPBN,
" Ueber Homer's Leben und Gesange," 1788 : CARL ERNST Sciiu-
BARTH, " Ideen uber Homer und sein Zeitalter," 1821 ; MATTHIAS
ASP, " Disputationes de Homero," 1714; J. E. TURR, " Hometus
en zijn Scnriften," 1810; ALPHONSK DH LAMARTINE, "Homere,"
1852; FORTIA D'URBAN, " Homere et ses ficrits," 1832; BERNARD
THIBRSCH, " Das Zeitalter des Homer," 1824; J. PASCHIUS, "Di-
eertatio de Poetarum Principe Homero," 1687 ; EDOUARD JUSTE,
" Dissertation sur 1'Origine des Poemes attribu^s a Homere,'' 1849;
'* Homer and his Successors in Epic Poetry," in the " Quarterly Re-
view" for January, 1857; MATTHEW ARNOLD'S admirable observa-
ions " On Translating Homer." in liis " Essays," 1865.

Ho'mer, (Rev. HENRY,) an English scholar, born at
Birdingbury in 1752, was educated at Cambridge. He
edited several Latin authors, and, in partnership with
Dr. Combe, published a complete edition of Horace.
Died in 1791.

Ho'mer, (WlNSLOW,) an American painter, born in
Boston, Massachusetts, February 24, 1831. He learned
in youth the business of a lithographer, and afterwards

began to draw on wood for engravers. In 1859 he estab-
lished himself in New York, and was for a time artist
and war-correspondent for a newspaper of that city. His
war-pictures, and especially " Prisoners at the Front,"
(1865,) gave him great fame. He is a member of the
National Academy, and resides at Scarborough, Maine.
Homci<;. See HOMER.

Homeridae, ho-mer'e-dee, (singular, Ho-mgrl-deS,)
or Ho'mer-ids, the name applied to the family of the
poet Homer. (See HOMER, note t.)
Homerus. See HOMER.

Homes or Holmes, homr, (NATHANIEL,) D.D., an
English theologian, ejected for nonconformity in 1662, was
a believer in the fifth monarchy. He wrote the " Resur-
rection Revealed," and other works. Died in 1678.

Homeyer, h6'm!-er, (KARL GUSTAV,) a German
jurist, born at Wolgast, in Pomerania, August 13, 1795.
He studied in Berlin, Gottingen, and Heidelberg; in
1824 was made extraordinary, and in 1827 ordinary, law-
professor in Berlin. His principal works are an edition
of the " Sachsenspiegel," and " Die Haus- und Hof-
marken," (1870.) Died October 20, 1874.

Homeyer, von, fon ho'mi er, (ALEXANDER,) a Ger-
man soldier and naturalist, born at Vorland, in Pome-
rania, January 19, 1834. In 1874 he led an expedition
into Central Africa. He is noted as an ornithologist and

Homeyer, von, (EuGEN FERDINAND,) a German
ornithologist, born at Herdin, November 11, 1809. His
best-known work is "The Migration of Birds," (iSb'i,)
and he is the owner of the largest collection ever made
of European birds.

Ho-mil'J-us, jGer. pron. ho-mee'le-as,J (GOTTFRIED
AUGUST,) an eminent German organist and composer of
church music, born at Rosenthal, in Bohemia, in 1714.
Among his best works are a cantata for Christmas, and
a number of motets. He was organist and director of
music at Dresden. Died in 1785.

Hommaire de Hell, X;o'm5R' deh /;el, (!GNACH
XAVIER MORAND,) a French geologist, born at Altkirch
in 1812, explored the regions which border on the Black
and Caspian Seas, and left an account of his travels, in
3 vols. Died at Ispahan in 1848.

Hommel, hom'me.1, [Lat. HOMME'LIUS,] (KARL FER-
DINAND,) a learned jurist and ingenious writer, born at
Leipsic in 1722. He became professor of feudal law at
Leipsic in 1752, and of civil institutes in 1756. Among

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 9 of 425)